Office of the Children's Registry Statistical Report 2007 2011
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2007 - 2011 statistics of child abuse reports by the Office of the Children's Registry, Jamaica

2007 - 2011 statistics of child abuse reports by the Office of the Children's Registry, Jamaica

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Office of the Children's Registry Statistical Report 2007 2011 Document Transcript

  • 1. Statistical ReportOFFICE OF THE CHILDREN’S REGISTRY Period: 2007-2011 Released: May 2012 12 Carlton Crescent, Kingston 10 Tel: (876) 908-1690 Fax :(876) 908-0246 Email: info@ocr.gov.jm
  • 2. OCRs MandateThe main role of the Office of the Childrens Registry is to receive reports of children who have been, are being or arelikely to be abandoned, neglected, physically or sexually ill-treated, or are otherwise in need of care and protection.After receiving these reports, the Childrens Registry records, assesses and then refers the reports to the ChildDevelopment Agency (CDA) and the Office of the Childrens Advocate (OCA) for their investigation and action. TheChildrens Registry also serves as a repository where statistics on incidences of child abuse in Jamaica may be found andused to inform operational and child friendly policies and guidelines. In addition, through regular monitoring of thetrends, the Registrar will be able to indicate which types of services are needed and where they are needed.Since its inception, the Registry has been playing an integral role in capturing incidences of child abuse. By providing asingle, centralized point to which reports should be made the Childrens Registry facilitates the following:  Improved confidentiality and a reduced risk of information leakage  Quicker response times to children in need of care and protection  Increased reporting of child abuse and maltreatment  A centralized source of information and statistics on child abuse and related issues. OCRs MissionThe Office of the Childrens Registry provides a confidential central system to receive, record, assess and refer reportsfor investigation and maintains a register of child abuse reports. OCRs VisionThe Office of the Childrens Registry will be the premier organization to receive reports of known or suspected childabuse, as it will create an atmosphere of confidence for the Jamaican people. It will also act as a catalyst for theestablishment of other Childrens Registries in the Caribbean. Page 2 of 43
  • 3. Table of ContentsAcronyms ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5List of Tables ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6List of Figures .......................................................................................................................................................................... 71. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 82. Administrative Statistics................................................................................................................................................ 10 2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 10 2.2 Caseload ................................................................................................................................................................ 10 2.3 Source of reports .................................................................................................................................................. 11 2.4 Mode of reports .................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.5 Reporters............................................................................................................................................................... 133. Typology of Reports ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 14 3.2 Types of reports made to the OCR........................................................................................................................ 144. Child Abuse Statistics ........................................................................................................................................................ 17 4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 17 4.2 Classification of Incidents Reported to the OCR ................................................................................................... 17 4.3 Characteristics of Alleged Victims of Child Abuse................................................................................................. 19 4.3.1 Child abuse and gender................................................................................................................................. 19 4.3.2 Child abuse and age-group ........................................................................................................................... 20 4.3.3 Child abuse and parish of residence ............................................................................................................. 23 4.4 Physical Abuse in Children .................................................................................................................................... 24 4.4.1 Physical abuse and gender ............................................................................................................................ 24 4.4.2 Physical abuse and age-group....................................................................................................................... 24 4.4.3 Physical abuse and parish of residence ........................................................................................................ 25 4.5 Sexual Abuse in Children....................................................................................................................................... 27 4.5.1 Sexual abuse and gender .............................................................................................................................. 27 4.5.2 Sexual abuse and age-group ......................................................................................................................... 27 4.5.3 Sexual abuse and parish of residence ........................................................................................................... 28 4.6 Emotional Abuse in Children ................................................................................................................................. 32 4.6.1 Emotional abuse and gender ........................................................................................................................ 32 4.6.2 Emotional abuse and age-group ................................................................................................................... 32 4.6.3 Emotional abuse and parish of residence ..................................................................................................... 33 Page 3 of 43
  • 4. 4.7 Neglect in Children ................................................................................................................................................ 34 4.7.1 Neglect and gender ....................................................................................................................................... 34 4.7.2 Neglect and age-group .................................................................................................................................. 35 4.7.3 Neglect and parish of residence.................................................................................................................... 35 4.7.4 Neglect and type of neglect .......................................................................................................................... 36 4.8 Trafficking in Children ........................................................................................................................................... 37 4.9 Child Labour .......................................................................................................................................................... 38Other Statistical Tables ......................................................................................................................................................... 40Appendix I – Limitations........................................................................................................................................................ 42References ............................................................................................................................................................................ 43 Page 4 of 43
  • 5. AcronymsCCPA Child Care and Protection ActCDA Child Development AgencyCISOCA Centre for the Investigation of Sexual Offences and Child AbuseMOH Ministry of HealthOCA Office of the Children’s AdvocateOCR Office of the Children’s RegistryPIOJ Planning Institute of JamaicaRC Registration CentreSTATIN Statistical Institute of JamaicaUNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund Page 5 of 43
  • 6. List of TablesTABLE 1 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY TYPE OF REPORT AND YEAR, 2007 - 2011 .................................................................. 18TABLE 2 - MEAN AGE OF CHILDREN REPORTED TO THE OCR BY GENDER, 2007-2011 ................................................................................................ 21TABLE 3 - MEAN AGE OF CHILDREN (YEARS) REPORTED TO THE OCR BY MAIN TYPE OF ABUSE AND YEAR ........................................................................ 22TABLE 4 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE GROUP, GENDER AND YEAR ................................................................................ 22TABLE 5 - TOTAL NUMBER OF PHYSICAL ABUSE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE GROUP AND YEAR ...................................................................... 25TABLE 6 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS OF PHYSICAL ABUSE RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY PARISH OF RESIDENCE AND YEAR ..................................................... 25TABLE 7 - TOTAL NUMBER OF SEXUAL ABUSE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE GROUP AND YEAR......................................................................... 28TABLE 8 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS OF SEXUAL ABUSE RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY PARISH OF RESIDENCE AND YEAR ....................................................... 30TABLE 9 - TOTAL NUMBER OF SEXUAL ABUSE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY TYPE OF SEXUAL ABUSE........................................................................ 31TABLE 10 - TOTAL NUMBER OF EMOTIONAL ABUSE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE GROUP AND YEAR ................................................................ 32TABLE 11 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS OF EMOTIONAL ABUSE RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY PARISH OF RESIDENCE AND YEAR ............................................... 33TABLE 12 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF NEGLECT RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR ....................................................................................... 34TABLE 13 - TOTAL NUMBER OF NEGLECT REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE GROUP AND YEAR .............................................................................. 35TABLE 14 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS OF NEGLECT RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY PARISH OF RESIDENCE AND YEAR............................................................. 35TABLE 15 - BREAKDOWN OF REPORTS OF NEGLECT RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR AND GENDER .................................................................................. 36TABLE 16 - TOTAL NUMBER OF TRAFFICKING REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE GROUP AND YEAR ......................................................................... 37TABLE 17 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS OF TRAFFICKING RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY PARISH OF RESIDENCE AND YEAR ....................................................... 37TABLE 18 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF CHILD LABOUR RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR ................................................................................ 38TABLE 19 - TOTAL NUMBER OF CHILD LABOUR REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE GROUP AND YEAR ...................................................................... 39TABLE 20 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS OF CHILD LABOUR RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY PARISH OF RESIDENCE AND YEAR ..................................................... 39TABLE 21 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR ................................................................................................................. 40TABLE 22 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY MONTH AND YEAR ................................................................................................ 40TABLE 23 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY REPORT TYPE ....................................................................................................... 40TABLE 24 - TOTAL NUMBER OF ABUSED CHILDREN REPORTED TO THE OCR BY MONTH AND AGE GROUP, 2011 ............................................................... 40TABLE 25 - NUMBER OF CHILDREN REPORTED TO THE OCR BY PARISH AND GENDER, 2011 ........................................................................................ 41 Page 6 of 43
  • 7. List of FiguresFIGURE 1- TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR, 2007 - 2011 .............................................................................................. 10FIGURE 2 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY MONTH AND YEAR ................................................................................................ 11FIGURE 3 - PROPORTION OF REPORTS MADE TO THE OCR BY MODE OF REPORT, 2011 ............................................................................................... 12FIGURE 4 - DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED AND THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN REPORTED TO THE OCR ....................................... 14FIGURE 5 - TOTAL NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY TYPE OF REPORT, 2011 ................................................................. 15FIGURE 6 - PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF REPORTS MADE TO THE OCR BY TYPE OF REPORT AND YEAR, 2007 – 2011 .......................................................... 15FIGURE 7- DISTINCTION BETWEEN CHILDREN WHO WERE REPORTEDLY ABUSED AND CHILDREN WHO HAVE BEEN OTHERWISE CLASSIFIED............................... 17FIGURE 8 - PERCENTAGE OF REPORTS BY TYPE AND YEAR ....................................................................................................................................... 18FIGURE 9 - PERCENT SHARE OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR................................................................................................ 19FIGURE 10 - NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY INCIDENCE AND DISAGGREGATED BY GENDER, 2011 .......................................................... 20FIGURE 11 - TOTAL NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY AGE AND YEAR ................................................................................................... 21FIGURE 13 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF PHYSICAL ABUSE RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR ............................................................................ 24FIGURE 12 - NUMBER OF PHYSICAL ABUSE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR .................................................................................................. 24FIGURE 15 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF SEXUAL ABUSE RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR .............................................................................. 27FIGURE 14 - NUMBER OF SEXUAL ABUSE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR ..................................................................................................... 27FIGURE 16 - DISTRIBUTION OF SEXUALLY ABUSED CHILDREN REPORTED TO THE OCR BY AGE-GROUP AND YEAR, 2007 – 2011 .......................................... 28FIGURE 18 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF EMOTIONAL ABUSE RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR ........................................................................ 32FIGURE 17 - NUMBER OF EMOTIONAL ABUSE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR............................................................................................... 32FIGURE 20 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF NEGLECT RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR ...................................................................................... 34FIGURE 19 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF NEGLECT RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR ........................................................................................................ 34FIGURE 21 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF TRAFFICKING RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR................................................................................. 37FIGURE 23 - NUMBER OF REPORTS OF CHILD LABOUR RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY GENDER AND YEAR .............................................................................. 38FIGURE 22- NUMBER OF REPORTS OF CHILD LABOUR RECEIVED BY THE OCR BY YEAR ................................................................................................. 38 Page 7 of 43
  • 8. 1. IntroductionThe Office of the Children’s Registry (OCR) was established as a provision of the Child Care and Protection Act 2004(CCPA) on January 1, 2007. The Registry was instituted as a statutory body under the Ministry of Health (MOH), tofunction as a central repository to receive, record, assess and refer reports made by persons who know or suspect that achild1 is being or is at risk of being abused, neglected or otherwise in need of care and protection. The OCR nowoperates under the Ministry of Youth and Culture (MYC). The information from these reports forms the basis of thestatistics that are presented by the OCR.Undoubtedly, the availability of statistics on child abuse in Jamaica is important for guiding decisions pertaining to theprotection of the nation’s children. Hence the current document, the first of its kind in Jamaica, seeks to provide asynopsis of child abuse in Jamaica, as garnered from reports that weresubmitted to the OCR2. A basic overview of the core operations of theRegistry since it came into being is provided. Next, a typology ofreports that are received by the Registry is presented, followed by aprofile of the reports of children who were known or suspected to beabused. The characteristics of abused children reported to theRegistry are presented, followed by a profile of children who werevictims of each type of abuse.The OCR regards as crucial, the provision of data that is relevant, aswell as current. To this end, the statistics presented in the currentdocument are based on reports submitted to the OCR between 2007and 2011. Where it is deemed relevant, special emphasis is placed oninformation from reports that were submitted in 2011. Please notethat data presented for 2011 are preliminary.Despite the importance of data on child abuse, several issues that are associated with the monitoring of child protectionviolations remain. Included among them are the various challenges that, according to UNICEF (2009) are linked to theclassification, gathering and analysis of relevant indicators to measure the violations. These challenges are no lessapplicable to the gathering of child abuse statistics in Jamaica, for which the OCR has prime responsibility. In fact, thereare several limitations to the collection and generation of statistical data from reports submitted to the OCR. Whilesome of these limitations are not altogether avoidable, an acknowledgement of them is useful to inform the degree towhich various conclusions can be drawn. These are noted in Appendix 1.1 A person aged 17 years or less2 The OCR also gathers data from report updates from its referral agencies; however statistics on report updates are currentlyoutside the scope of this report, which focuses on reports submitted to the OCR. Page 8 of 43
  • 9. Administrative Statistics Page 9 of 43
  • 10. 2. Administrative Statistics2.1 IntroductionSince its inception in 2007, the OCR has recorded significant gains in the efficiency and quality of its outputs. Includedamong them is the addition of key staff, particularly in the Registration Centre (RC)3, the development of its informationtechnology (IT) infrastructure, the establishment of alternative means through which a report can be made and theintroduction of a new system for the capture and processing of statistical data. This section of the report outlines keyindicators that would serve to aid in the monitoring of the OCR’s internal operations, as well as to inform the publiceducation efforts of the Registry.2.2 CaseloadA total of 25023 reports were submitted to the OCR between 2007 and 2011, yielding an average of 5004 reports peryear. Figure 1 displays the total number of reports that were submitted to the OCR in each year of its operation. Despitea slight decline in the number of reports submitted in 2010 compared to the previous year, the figures show an overallincrease in the number of reports received by the Registry over the period.Figure 1- Total number of reports received by the OCR by year, 2007 - 2011 9000 7826 8000 7000 6439 6330 Number of reports 6000 5000 3973 4000 3000 2000 1000 455 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearThere is an overall increase in the number of reports received monthly in 2011 when compared to reports received for2010. A significant number of reports were received by the OCR during the month of March for both years. See Figure 2- Total number of reports received by the OCR by month and year below.3 The Registration Centre (RC) is the Unit within the OCR that is responsible for the receipt, recording, assessment and referral ofreports for investigation. Page 10 of 43
  • 11. Figure 2 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by month and year 1000 900 800 700 Number of reports 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 January February March April May June July August September October November December 2010 428 490 802 535 431 629 529 465 495 605 546 375 2011 602 612 869 549 715 692 554 644 679 688 635 587 Month 2010 20112.3 Source of reportsAs stipulated in the Child Care and Protection Act 2004 (CCPA), a report should be made to the Registry by any personwho has information which causes that person to suspect that a child has been, is being or is likely to be, abandoned,neglected, physically or sexually ill-treated, or is otherwise in need of care and protection. Reports that were received bythe OCR are made directly to the OCR as well as indirectly through other partner agencies.Data on the number of reports received by the OCR throughout its operations, disaggregated by the source of the reportshows that at least 9483 reports or 37.9 per cent of all reports received either originated from or were routed throughthe Child Development Agency (CDA), while at least 1.6 per cent (392) was received from the Office of the Children’sAdvocate (OCA) and 3.6 per cent was received from the Center for the Investigation of Sexual Offences and Child Abuse(CISOCA) and other police stations4 (681 and 234 respectively). Other reports received by the OCR were either notrouted through any of the afore-mentioned agencies, or the source of the report was not specified.4 Figures shown on the source of the report are based on information gathered from reports which give a clear indication that thereport came from a relevant employee of the specified agency. Page 11 of 43
  • 12. 2.4 Mode of reportsVarious avenues have been established to facilitate the submission of reports to the OCR. A person may make a reportto the relevant officer at the OCR via telephone to a landline or cellular number, or in person (walk-in). Alternatively, areporting form may be completed and sent to the OCR via facsimile, electronic mail (e-mail), or mail. Figure 3 presentsthe proportion of reports received by the OCR in 2011 by the mode of the report. The majority of reports which weremade to the OCR during the twelve-month period were received either by phone (42 per cent) or by mail, i.e. mainlythrough a bearer (35 per cent). Seven (7) per cent of all reports received during the year were first sent by fax, whilewalk-ins and all other modes of reporting together constituted approximately 7 per cent of the total number of reportsmade to the Registry.Figure 3 - Proportion of reports made to the OCR by mode of report, 2011 Fax, 530, 7% Mail, 2769, 35% Walk-in, 434, 6% E-mail, 735, 9% Other, 527, 7% Other, 11, 0% Call, 3263, 42% Unknown, 82, 1%Source: Office of the Children’s RegistryThe aforementioned statistics on reporting practices would suggest that the preferred mode of reporting to the OCR isby telephone or mail. Notably, contact by both telephone and mail are non-direct means of making a report and thefigures may appear to uphold the view by some that Jamaicans are averse to reporting for fear of being labeled as an‘informer’. However, an examination of the operational structure of the OCR may indicate that the comparatively lowproportion of reports received via direct means of contact such as walk-ins, may not necessarily be attributed to a fearof being recognized. Rather, by virtue of the centralized operations of the OCR in St. Andrew, persons living in otherparishes would more readily explore convenient and less costly options for making a report, than to go directly to theOCR. It may be noted that reporters who make initial contact with the OCA, CDA, the family courts and to a lesser extentthe police, are also advised to submit their reports to the OCR via telephone. This impacts both reports received by mailand telephone.With a presence in each parish, the Child Development Agency (CDA) is the first point of contact for many personsdesirous of making a report of child abuse. Thus, in many instances members of the public would ‘walk in’ to a CDAparish office to submit a report. As mandatory reporters, staff at the CDA parish offices would accept and subsequentlylodge the reports with the OCR, usually via fax or mail (through a bearer). Thus, despite initial appearances, the figuresmay merely point to a possible relationship between the reporting practices and the degree of availability of the various Page 12 of 43
  • 13. means of reporting to the OCR. The OCA also submits completed reporting forms to the OCR. Some members of thepublic believe that the receipt of reports by the OCA is a part that agency’s mandate. This perception may be influencedby the OCA’s presence in the media regarding child abuse matters.2.5 ReportersAny person may make a report to the OCR through any available means. However, the CCPA 2004 outlines the variouscategories of persons who, by virtue of their employment or occupation, have a responsibility to discharge a duty of caretowards a child. Such persons are referred to as prescribed persons; should the need arise, they are mandated to make areport to the OCR as soon as is reasonably possible and in the prescribed form.The occupation of the reporter is used to determine whether or not he or she is a prescribed person. Approximately 61per cent of all reports made to the OCR over the five year period were submitted by persons who were confirmed asprescribed persons, all from various sectors including the health, education and social service sectors. On the otherhand, 26 per cent were confirmed as non-prescribed persons, while the prescribed status of 6.1 per cent wasunconfirmed.A breakdown of prescribed persons by occupational category shows that the category which had the highest proportion(61.3 per cent) of prescribed persons making a report to the OCR was the social worker or other social serviceprofessional. Apart from the main categories of prescribed persons, those, who by virtue of his/her employment has aresponsibility to discharge a duty of care towards a child accounted for 16.8 per cent of the reports made by prescribedpersons, followed by guidance counselors (10.7 per cent), health professionals (6.5 per cent), those in the teachingprofession (3.2 per cent), employees of a child care centre or institution (1.1 per cent) and administrators of a hospitalfacility (0.4 per cent).When making a report to the OCR, a reporter may opt not to provide his or her personal information on the reportingform or may decline to leave such information with the officer at the OCR taking the report. The data reveals that nearly9 in every 10 persons (87.7 per cent) who made a report to the Registry submitted their name.Participation has been encouraged as part of the strategy for the protection of children (Inter American Children’sInstitute, 2010). Where children are encouraged to break the silence surrounding child abuse with the assurance thattheir voices will be heard, efforts to protect them can be strengthened. Children who have been victimized and who aremost intimate with abuses may be deemed most able, allowing for age and developmental stage, to make a report tothe OCR. However, the data shows that only 0.5 per cent of all the reports received by the OCR were confirmed to beself-reports, i.e. the reports were submitted by the children who were themselves the subject of the report5. Severalreasons may be proffered to account for the low levels of reporting by children who are themselves victims of abuse.Yet, whatever the reason, the marginal proportion of children who made a self-report is suggestive of a need to take amore targeted approach in the public education efforts of the Registry.5 Reports mentioned here include those for which children were deemed to be ‘otherwise in need of care and protection’ and whoexhibited behavioural problems, in addition to children who were abused. Page 13 of 43
  • 14. 3. Typology of Reports3.1 IntroductionMultiple reports may exist at the OCR for any given child. Several reports may be submitted by different reporters, aswell as in relation to different incidents of abuse. In presenting statistics on child abuse, it is thus useful to make adistinction between the total reports received by the OCR and the total number of children about whom reports werereceived. In this chapter, and with the use of data from reports submitted to the Registry, the distinction between thetwo is outlined, thus setting the stage for statistics which focus on the number of children reported to the OCR whowere known or suspected to be victims of child abuse.3.2 Types of reports made to the OCRA report that is made to the OCR is classified as an original report if the report is being made about a child for whom noprevious record exists. However, if a report is subsequently made to the OCR regarding the same child in relation to thesame or another incident, the report is classified as a non-original report. The classification of a report as a non-originalreport is determined by the prior existence of a report about a particular child. A special type of non-original report isthe supplemental. A supplemental report is created if information regarding a previously reported case is being addedor corrected. A supplemental report can be only be made by the same person who made the previous report.Original reports therefore pertain to the number of children reported to the OCR. Figure 4 provides a distinctionbetween the number of reports received and the number of children reported to the OCR. As illustrated, the number ofchildren reported to the OCR is a subset of the number of reports received by the OCR.Figure 4 - Distinction between the number of reports received and the number of children reported to the OCR Reports received by the OCR (Original & non-original reports) Children reported to the OCR for the first time (Original Reports)The majority of the reports that are made to the OCR are first-time or original reports. As shown in Figure 5, 85 per centof the 7826 reports that were made to the OCR in 2011 were original reports, while 14 per cent were non-originalreports. Page 14 of 43
  • 15. Figure 5 - Total number and percentage of reports received by the OCR by type of report, 2011 38, 1% 1113, 14% Original reports Non-original reports Supplemental reports 6675, 85%Source: Office of the Children’s RegistryFor the period 2007-2011, 91 per cent of all reports received by the OCR (or 22737) were original reports and wouldtherefore represent the number of children about whom reports were made.With each new addition of a child to the register, there is an increased likelihood that a non-original report is made tothe OCR at a subsequent date. This is apparent from the figures which show that with the decrease in the proportion oforiginal reports received by the OCR over the five-year period, there was a corresponding increase in the proportion ofnon-original reports. Though inconclusive, the increase in the percentage of non-original reports received from 2007 to2011 may point to repeated or continued occurrences of incidents among children who were already reported, as wellas they may point to the multiple reporting of an incident that occurred at a given point in time and which was alreadyreported to the Registry.Figure 6 - Percent distribution of reports made to the OCR by type of report and year, 2007 – 2011 100% 95% Percent (%) 90% Supplemental Report 85% Non-original report 80% Original Report 75% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Supplemental Report 0 9 48 36 38 Non-original report 4 60 357 621 1113 Original Report 451 3904 6034 5673 6675Source: Office of the Children’s Registry Page 15 of 43
  • 16. Child Abuse Statistics Page 16 of 43
  • 17. 4. Child Abuse Statistics4.1 IntroductionThis chapter focuses on abuses against children in Jamaica, as gathered from reports submitted to the OCR. However, inaddition to reports of child abuse, the OCR has received reports of children who exhibit behavioural problems as well asthose who, as outlined in the CCPA 2004, are found to be ‘otherwise in need of care and protection’. Thus an effort isfirst made to juxtapose the statistics on children who have been abused with statistics on children reported to the OCRwho have not been abused, but to whom another type of classification was assigned. We then examine thecharacteristics of children who were known or suspected to be victims of child abuse and direct our attention to the sixmajor forms of abuse reported to the OCR.4.2 Classification of Incidents Reported to the OCRStatistics on abused children reported to the OCR do not include children who exhibited behavioural problems or whowere otherwise in need of care and protection. Figure 7 distinguishes between children who have been abused andthose who have been otherwise classified. As illustrated, the categories are not mutually exclusive. Rather there arechildren who, though abused, may have also been reported to be “otherwise in need of care and protection” and/orexhibit behavioural problems.Figure 7- Distinction between children who were reportedly abused and children who have been otherwise classified Children who exhibit Children who are abused behavioural problems and and exhibit behavioural Children who exhibit are otherwise in need of behavioural problems problems care & protection Children who are abused Children who are and exhibit behavioural otherwise in need Abused children problems and are of care and protection otherwise in need of care & protection Children who are abused and otherwise in need of care & protectionReports that are received by the OCR are classified into any of eight major categories, namely physical abuse, sexualabuse, emotional abuse, neglect, trafficking, child labour, otherwise in need of care and protection and behaviouralproblems. Table 1 presents the number of children reported to the OCR by major incident and year. Despite slightfluctuations in some of the incidents reported, there was a general increase in the numbers of children reported to theOCR for the various incidents listed. Page 17 of 43
  • 18. Table 1 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by type of report and year, 2007 - 2011 Year Type of report 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Physical abuse 142 1099 1660 1592 1783 6276 Sexual abuse 121 1171 1708 1574 2671 7245 Emotional abuse 51 341 792 547 839 2570 Neglect 193 1705 3089 3050 3562 11599 Trafficking 0 2 5 2 1 10 Child labour 2 17 22 52 78 171 In need of care and protection 195 1726 3267 2617 2629 10434 Exhibiting behavioral problems 66 734 1554 1619 2061 6034 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: (I) Preliminary Data for 2011 (II) A feature of many of the reports made to the OCR is the occurrence of two or more forms of abuse against children. Thus, figures shown above reflect the incidence of each category listed and do not add to the total number of reports received by the Registry.Figure 8 - Percentage of reports by type and year 60 51 50 48 48 Percent (%) share of total reports 46 42 43 43 43 41 40 34 34 31 29 30 28 27 27 26 25 25 26 26 24 23 18 20 15 11 12 11 9 9 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Physical abuse Sexual abuse Emotional Neglect Trafficking Child labour In need of Exhibiting abuse care and behavioral protection problems Type of report 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: Office of the Children’s RegistryNote: (i) Statistics shown in the figure above reflect the total number of reports which were classified by the various types of incidents, expressedas a percentage of the total number of reports received by the OCR within the reference year. 6 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011(ii) N = 455; N = 3973; N = 6439; N = 6330; N = 7826(iii) A feature of many of the reports made to the OCR is the occurrence of two or more types of incidents. Hence percentages shown above do not add to 100%.(iv) Percentages shown are rounded to the nearest whole number.6 x N refers to the total number of children reported to the OCR in year x, where x is 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Page 18 of 43
  • 19. 4.3 Characteristics of Alleged Victims of Child AbuseEvery child, regardless of gender, age, location and status is at risk of being abused. While children account for one-thirdof the total population of Jamaica (STATIN, 2010), their age and reliance on adults and societal structures (Pinheiro citedin Larraίn and Bascuñán, 2009) render them a vulnerable group within society, for which care and protection must beensured. Left unchecked, the risks to which our children are exposed pose a threat to a Jamaica that is envisioned as“the place of choice to live, work, raise families and do business” (PIOJ, 2009). Thus, measures are needed to helpmitigate the effects of any threat to the future of Jamaica’s children and the fulfillment of its vision. One such measure isthe implementation of targeted programmes that are tailored to increase awareness within this vulnerable group andamongst those who could help to protect them. An understanding of the profile of victims of child abuse is crucial to thisprocess.4.3.1 Child abuse and genderBetween 2007 and 2011, the OCR received 25023 reports. Of that number, 14465 (57.8 per cent) were about girls and9663 (38.6 per cent) were boys. The gender of the remaining 3.6 per cent was unspecified or unknown by the individualwho submitted the report. H3-2 Approximately 6 in every A similar pattern is revealed when the data is further disaggregated by year. Figure 9 10 reports were about girls illustrates the total number of reports received by the OCR by gender and year, 2007 – 2011. While there was an overall increase in the numbers of abused boys and girls who were reported to the OCR over the period, the statistics show that in each of thefive years, girls accounted for between 55 and 62 per cent of all reports.Figure 9 - Percent share of reports received by the OCR by gender and year 70% 62% 56% 57% 55% 56% Percent (%) of total reports 60% 50% 40% Male 30% Female 20% Unknown 10% 0% 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s RegistryWhen disaggregated by type of incidence, the data shows that there are more reports of abuse against girls than thereare reports against boys. Please see Figure 10 which shows the breakdown of incidents by gender for 2011. Furthergender analysis for other years is shown in subsequent chapters of this report. Page 19 of 43
  • 20. Figure 10 - Number of reports received by the OCR by incidence and disaggregated by gender, 2011 4000 3500 3000 Number of children 119 1607 2500 2000 1177 Unknown 1500 1047 Male 832 2551 Female 1000 1844 351 1383 500 930 1000 474 0 Physical Sexual Emotional Neglect Trafficking Child labour In need of Exhibiting abuse abuse abuse care and behavioral protection problems IncidenceSource: Office of the Children’s Registry4.3.2 Child abuse and age-groupThe number of alleged victims of child abuse reported to the OCR by age and year during the period 2007 – 2011 ishighlighted in Figure 11. Notwithstanding slight fluctuations, the figures show that in general, the number of allegedvictims reported to the OCR increased as the age of the child increased. For each of the five years under review, abusedchildren aged 14 or 15 years were most frequently reported to the OCR. At a cursory glance, this finding would suggestthat children in the mid-teens are more susceptible to abuse than children at any other age. Indeed, it would beconsistent with UNICEF’s (2011) observation that children are most at risk of abuse during their adolescent years.However before such a conclusion is drawn, it would be useful to consider some of the complexities which areassociated with child abuse and its reporting. Page 20 of 43
  • 21. Figure 11 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by age and year 1400 1200 1000 Number of reports 800 2007 2008 600 2009 400 2010 2011 200 0 Age in yearsSource: Office of the Children’s RegistryAs acknowledged by UNICEF (2009), the disgrace and fear connected with child abuse often contribute to a failure toreport the abuse. Hence, the comparatively low numbers of younger victims reported to the OCR is by no means a clearindication that abuse is less prevalent in younger children than in their older counterparts. Rather, the data may point tounderlying differences in the coping mechanisms employed by older versus younger victims of child abuse. Indeed, olderchildren may feel more empowered than younger children, to share their knowledge of the abuse, thus resulting inhigher levels of reporting for victims at the older ages. Also, disaggregation by type of abuse may reveal that the highernumbers of child abuse victims in the mid-teens reported to the OCR may be driven by a particular type of abuse that iscommon in children in that age bracket.Table 2 - Mean age of children reported to the OCR by gender, 2007-2011 Gender of child Mean age (years) Male 9.9 Female 11.4 Unknown 6.3 Total 10.8 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Page 21 of 43
  • 22. Table 3 - Mean age of children (years) reported to the OCR by main type of abuse and year Year Type of report 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Physical abuse 9.91 9.52 10.02 9.9 10.37 10 Sexual abuse 10.97 12.51 12.64 12.73 12.92 12.72 Emotional abuse 9.65 10.69 10.64 10.52 11.05 10.74 Neglect 9.21 9.21 9.45 9.31 9.48 9.37Source: Office of the Children’s RegistryTable 4 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by age group, gender and year Gender of child Year Age group Male Female Unknown Total 6 years or less 30 54 7 91 7 - 12 years 72 84 3 159 2007 13 - 17 years 44 92 1 137 Age unknown 27 27 14 68 Total 173 257 25 455 6 years or less 339 381 27 747 7 - 12 years 542 605 10 1157 2008 13 - 17 years 432 1036 12 1480 Age unknown 174 244 171 589 Total 1487 2266 220 3973 6 years or less 539 545 58 1142 7 - 12 years 835 911 33 1779 2009 13 - 17 years 818 1706 18 2542 Age unknown 354 393 229 976 Total 2546 3555 338 6439 6 years or less 565 623 20 1208 7 - 12 years 977 948 14 1939 2010 13 - 17 years 907 1844 5 2756 Age unknown 149 143 135 427 Total 2598 3558 174 6330 6 years or less 667 662 35 1364 7 - 12 years 1040 1183 9 2232 2011 13 - 17 years 958 2777 2 3737 Age unknown 194 207 92 493 Total 2859 4829 138 7826 6 years or less 2140 2265 147 4552 7 - 12 years 3466 3731 69 7266 Total 13 - 17 years 3159 7455 38 10652 Age unknown 898 1014 641 2553 Total 9663 14465 895 25023 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011 Page 22 of 43
  • 23. 4.3.3 Child abuse and parish of residenceData from reports submitted to the OCR between 2007 and 2011 reveal that children from parts of the South-East7 andSouthern8 and North-East9 Regions were consistently featured amongst the alleged victims of abuse who were mostfrequently reported to the OCR. In 2011 in particular, alleged child abuse victims who resided in various sections of theSouth-East and Southern regions of Jamaica were most frequently reported to the OCR when compared to victims whoresided in other regions. Map 1 provides a geographical representation of the total number of abused children reportedto the OCR in 2011 by parish of residence. As displayed, the parishes in which the highest numbers of alleged child abusevictims resided were Kingston and St. Andrew (2701), St. Catherine (1147), St. James (743) and Manchester (563).Map 1 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by parish of residence, Jamaica, 2011Source: Office of the Children’s RegistryNote: Figures shown do not include the count of children for whom the parish of residence was not provided in the report submittedto the OCR.Low levels of reporting of child abuse of children in a given parish does not mean that child abuse is not prevalent there,particularly when compared to other parishes; rather, it could very well point to underreporting of child abuse in thatparish. An examination of the child abuse rate by parish would be more useful for a comparison of child abuse amongthe various parishes. The child abuse rate for a given parish takes into account the number of children residing in thatparish, compared to the total number of children abused there. For example, while Portland may have the least numberof reports of abuse, the rate of abuse among in that parish may in fact be higher than the rate in another parish, if thetotal number of children living there were to be taken into account10.7 Parishes in the South-East Region are Kingston & St. Andrew, St. Catherine and St. Thomas8 Parishes in the Southern Region are Clarendon, Manchester and St. Elizabeth9 Parishes in the North-East Region are Portland, St. Ann and St. Mary10 Data from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN) that is required for the calculation of the child abuse rate by parish andgender was unavailable at the time of this report. Page 23 of 43
  • 24. 4.4 Physical Abuse in ChildrenPunishment of children through physical means is a common practice Figure 12 - Number of physical abuse reports received byin many countries (UNICEF, 2009a). In Jamaica, a total of 6276 reports the OCR by yearwere made to the OCR of physical abuse. These reports accounted 2000 1783for just over 25% of all reports received during the period. As with 1660 1592 Number of reportsthe total number of children who were allegedly abused, there was 1500 1099an overall increase in the number of physically abused children 1000reported to the OCR over the period, despite a slight decline 500between 2009 and 2010. See Figure 12. 142 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Year4.4.1 Physical abuse and genderFigure 13 shows the gender differences of alleged victims ofphysical abuse reported to the OCR for 2007 – 2011. As shown, the number of physically abused girls reported to theOCR exceeded the numbers of their male counterparts in each year during the period.Figure 13 - Number of reports of physical abuse received by the OCR by gender and year 1000 930 850 823 832 900 755 738 800 Number of reports 700 600 523 537 Male 500 Female 400 300 Unknown 200 62 74 39 55 100 6 31 21 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s Registry4.4.2 Physical abuse and age-groupThe ages of 528 (8.4%) of the children who were reported to be physically abused between 2007 and 2011 were notspecified. Nonetheless, based on allegations from reports received, physical abuse was most common in children aged 7– 12 years. Page 24 of 43
  • 25. Table 5 - Total number of physical abuse reports received by the OCR by age group and year Year Age group 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total 6 years or less 24 255 354 369 360 1362 7 - 12 years 65 410 602 624 629 2330 13 - 17 years 39 298 512 526 681 2056 Age unknown 14 136 192 73 113 528 Total 142 1099 1660 1592 1783 6276 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 20114.4.3 Physical abuse and parish of residencePhysical abuse of children in Jamaica was most prevalent in children who resided in the parishes of Kingston & St.Andrew, St. Catherine, Clarendon and Manchester. Reports from these parishes account for 2/3 of all reports receivedby the OCR. See Table 6.Table 6 - Total number of reports of physical abuse received by the OCR by parish of residence and year Year Parish of residence 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Kingston & St. Andrew 76 374 504 552 564 2070 St. Catherine 28 177 357 274 266 1102 Clarendon 7 131 139 110 136 523 Manchester 5 101 124 116 119 465 St. Elizabeth 2 49 67 68 88 274 Westmoreland 0 19 56 66 96 237 Hanover 0 17 40 48 38 143 St. James 6 53 87 94 202 442 Trelawny 1 4 36 61 26 128 St. Ann 6 80 124 116 104 430 St. Mary 2 51 58 38 61 210 Portland 5 23 37 28 35 128 St. Thomas 4 19 26 13 31 93 Unknown 0 1 5 8 17 31 Total 142 1099 1660 1592 1783 6276 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011 Page 25 of 43
  • 26. Map 2 - Number of reports of physical abuse received by the OCR by parish of residence, 2011Source: Office of the Children’s Registry Page 26 of 43
  • 27. 4.5 Sexual Abuse in ChildrenBetween 2007 and 2011, a total of 7245 reports were received by Figure 14 - Number of sexual abuse reports received by the OCR by yearthe OCR of children being, or at risk of being, sexually abused.Accounting for 29 per cent of all the cases reported to the OCR 3000 2671 Number of reportsfrom 2007 to 2011, sexual abuse was the second most frequently 2500reported form of abuse 2000 1708 1574 1500 11714.5.1 Sexual abuse and gender 1000When the data was disaggregated by gender, notable disparities 500 121among sexually abused children were evident. More than nine in 0every ten children (93.7 per cent) reported to the OCR between 2007 2008 2009 2010 20112007 and 2011 who were sexually abused were girls; 5.9 per cent Yearwere boys and the gender of 0.4 per cent of sexually abusedchildren was not provided to the Registry. The number of sexually abused children reported to the OCR by gender andyear, 2007 -2011 is displayed in Figure 15. As illustrated, the gender disparity was smallest in 2007 and largest in 2011;the number of reports of sexually abused girls in 2007 was 8.8 times the number of reports of sexually abused boys,while the number of sexually abused girls reported in 2011 was as much as 21.4 times the number of their malecounterparts.Figure 15 - Number of reports of sexual abuse received by the OCR by gender and year 3000 2551 2500 Number of report 2000 1577 1470 Male 1500 1085 Female 1000 Unknown 500 125 119 12 106 3 74 12 6 99 5 1 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s Registry4.5.2 Sexual abuse and age-groupThe majority of the children reported to the OCR between 2007 and 2011 who were known or suspected to be victims ofsexual abuse were adolescents. Over the period, approximately two thirds of alleged victims of child sexual abuse wereaged 13 – 17 years, 20.5 per cent were aged 7 – 12 years and 7.9 per cent were six years old or less. Hence, the datareveals that the number of sexually abused children reported to the Registry increased with age. This trend remainedwhen the data was further examined by year as highlighted in Figure 16. Page 27 of 43
  • 28. Table 7 - Total number of sexual abuse reports received by the OCR by age group and year Year Age group 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total 6 years or less 22 105 135 127 181 570 7 - 12 years 35 256 359 316 519 1485 13 - 17 years 57 706 1050 1087 1899 4799 Age unknown 7 104 164 44 72 391 Total 121 1171 1708 1574 2671 7245 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011Figure 16 - Distribution of sexually abused children reported to the OCR by age-group and year, 2007 – 2011 2000 1800 1600 Number of reports 1400 1200 6 years or less 1000 7 - 12 years 800 13 - 17 years 600 400 Age unknown 200 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s Registry4.5.3 Sexual abuse and parish of residenceSexual abuse of children in Jamaica was most prevalent in children who resided in the parishes of Kingston & St. Andrew,St. Catherine, St. James and St. Ann. Children from these parishes accounted for 63 per cent of all the reported victims ofchild sexual abuse throughout the period. See Page 28 of 43
  • 29. Table 8 and Map 3 - Number of reports of sexual abuse received by the OCR by parish of residence, 2011. Page 29 of 43
  • 30. Table 8 - Total number of reports of sexual abuse received by the OCR by parish of residence and year YearParish of residence 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 TotalKingston & St. Andrew 62 349 492 424 1083 2410St. Catherine 23 181 262 245 345 1056Clarendon 9 99 140 86 138 472Manchester 3 94 88 87 140 412St. Elizabeth 6 38 67 92 95 298Westmoreland 0 24 123 107 136 390Hanover 0 25 30 65 82 202St. James 2 60 79 102 249 492Trelawny 1 27 51 42 65 186St. Ann 3 133 193 168 135 632St. Mary 2 56 98 81 103 340Portland 2 38 55 30 43 168St. Thomas 6 45 25 28 38 142Abroad 0 0 0 0 1 1Unknown 2 2 5 17 18 44Total 121 1171 1708 1574 2671 7245Source: Office of the Childrens RegistryNotes: Preliminary Data for 2011Map 3 - Number of reports of sexual abuse received by the OCR by parish of residence, 2011 Page 30 of 43
  • 31. Table 9 - Total number of sexual abuse reports received by the OCR by type of sexual abuse Year Type of sexual abuse Gender 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Oral Sex Male 2 3 11 5 15 36 Female 1 17 1623 57 114 Total 3 20 2728 72 150 Incest Male 2 7 15 3 4 31 Female 15 115 205 123 93 551 Unknown 0 0 2 0 0 2 Total 17 122 222 126 97 584 Exhibitionism Male 0 2 1 2 1 6 Female 0 2 4 6 9 21 Total 0 4 5 8 10 27 Buggery Male 2 23 3642 40 143 Female 0 4 3 6 18 31 Total 2 27 3948 58 174 Fondling Male 1 9 8 8 14 40 Female 13 65 149 138 277 642 Unknown 0 4 1 1 0 6 Total 14 78 158 147 291 688 Rape Male 0 0 0 0 1 1 Female 5 73 154 95 220 547 Total 5 73 154 95 221 548 Unspecified Male 4 33 4126 25 129 Female 16 137 110 190 321 774 Unknown 1 6 4 4 0 15 Total 21 176 155 220 346 918 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: (I) Preliminary Data for 2011 (II) A feature of many of the reports received by the OCR is the occurrence of two or more forms of abuse against children. Thus, the figures shown above reflect the incidence of each category of sexual abuse and may not add to the total number of sexual abuse reports. Page 31 of 43
  • 32. 4.6 Emotional Abuse in Children Figure 17 - Number of emotional abuse reports received by the OCR by yearEmotional abuse was among the least common forms of abusereported to the Registry, accounting for only 9 to 12 per cent of 1000 839reports received in any given year. Nevertheless, the number of 792 Number of reports 800reports received by the Registry is on a general increase, with the 547exception of 2010 where there was a decline of 31 per cent over 600 400 341the previous year. 200 51 04.6.1 Emotional abuse and gender 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Like other forms of abuse, the OCR receives more reports of Yearemotionally abuse girls than of emotionally abused boys. This hasbeen a constant characteristic of emotional abuse reports received by the Registry since 2007.Figure 18 - Number of reports of emotional abuse received by the OCR by gender and year 500 450 400 Number of reports 350 300 Male 250 200 Female 150 Unknown 100 50 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s Registry4.6.2 Emotional abuse and age-groupThe reports suggest that emotional abuse is most prevalent among children 13 to 17 years, accounting for 39 per cent ofall reports received by the Registry. Of the 2570 reports received by the Registry over the period, the age of the childwas unknown for 225 of these reports.Table 10 - Total number of emotional abuse reports received by the OCR by age group and year YearAge group 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total6 years or less 11 59 156 100 126 4527 - 12 years 20 112 264 213 278 88713 - 17 years 15 133 303 190 365 1006Age unknown 5 37 69 44 70 225Total 51 341 792 547 839 2570Source: Office of the Children’s Registry Page 32 of 43
  • 33. 4.6.3 Emotional abuse and parish of residenceLike other forms of abuse reported to the OCR, reports of emotional abuse were more prevalent for children living inKingston & St. Andrew, St. Catherine and Clarendon, accounting for 63% of all reports. See Table 11.Table 11 - Total number of reports of emotional abuse received by the OCR by parish of residence and year Year Parish of residence 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Kingston & St. Andrew 21 84 272 200 272 849 St. Catherine 10 87 218 117 139 571 Clarendon 3 36 67 47 64 217 Manchester 1 29 55 29 62 176 St. Elizabeth 1 14 17 29 36 97 Westmoreland 0 4 14 13 35 66 Hanover 0 4 5 14 13 36 St. James 5 26 31 37 94 193 Trelawny 0 2 10 15 20 47 St. Ann 4 18 41 19 39 121 St. Mary 2 18 35 14 38 107 Portland 1 15 18 5 13 52 St. Thomas 3 3 9 6 8 29 Unknown 0 1 0 2 6 9 Total 51 341 792 547 839 2570 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011 Page 33 of 43
  • 34. 4.7 Neglect in Children Figure 19 - Number of reports of neglect received by theThroughout the period, the OCR received 11599 reports of neglect in OCR by yearchildren. The number of reports of neglect has increased steadilyover the years with the exception of 2010 in which the number of 4000 3562 Number of reports 3089 3050reports declined by 1 per cent over the previous year. 3000Neglect is the most common form of abuse reported to the OCR 2000 1705accounting for between 42 and 48 per cent of all reports received in 1000any given year. 193 04.7.1 Neglect and gender 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011The OCR receives more reports each year of female victims of Yearneglect than male victims. Of the 11599 reports received by theOCR, 49 per cent (5702) were of female victims while 45 per cent were of male victims. The gender of the child for 6 percent of reports of neglect was unknown. See Table 12 and Figure 20 - Number of reports of neglect received by the OCRby gender and yearFigure 20.Table 12 - Number of reports of neglect received by the OCR by gender and year Year Gender 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Male 89 754 1348 1398 1607 5196 Female 90 788 1471 1509 1844 5702 Unknown 14 163 270 143 111 701 Total 193 1705 3089 3050 3562 11599Source: Office of the Children’s RegistryFigure 20 - Number of reports of neglect received by the OCR by gender and year 2000 1844 1800 1607 1471 1509 1600 1348 1398 Number of reports 1400 1200 Male 1000 754 788 800 Female 600 Unknown 400 270 163 143 111 89 90 200 14 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s Registry Page 34 of 43
  • 35. 4.7.2 Neglect and age-groupNeglect was most common among children aged 7 – 12 years accounting for 33 per cent (2966) of all reports received bythe OCR, followed by children aged 13 – 17 years with 29 per cent of all reports.Table 13 - Total number of neglect reports received by the OCR by age group and year Year Age group 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total 6 years or less 42 410 748 821 945 2966 7 - 12 years 66 515 971 1066 1171 3789 13 - 17 years 43 436 835 881 1117 3312 Age unknown 42 344 535 282 329 1532 Total 193 1705 3089 3050 3562 11599 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 20114.7.3 Neglect and parish of residenceLike other forms of abuse, the OCR received more reports of children being neglected in the parishes of Kingston and St.Catherine, Clarendon and Manchester, together accounting for nearly 60 per cent of all reports.Table 14 - Total number of reports of neglect received by the OCR by parish of residence and year Year Parish of residence 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Kingston & St. Andrew 98 560 939 945 909 3451 St. Catherine 46 255 652 623 640 2216 Clarendon 12 255 359 242 317 1185 Manchester 9 183 249 249 316 1006 St. Elizabeth 1 77 139 183 193 593 Westmoreland 0 37 125 115 170 447 Hanover 2 13 44 89 97 245 St. James 7 69 123 137 340 676 Trelawny 1 15 68 108 105 297 St. Ann 2 67 195 152 169 585 St. Mary 6 46 108 104 151 415 Portland 4 67 46 39 56 212 St. Thomas 4 60 38 37 68 207 Abroad 0 0 0 0 3 3 Unknown 1 1 4 27 28 61 Total 193 1705 3089 3050 3562 11599 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011 Page 35 of 43
  • 36. 4.7.4 Neglect and type of neglectWhen the data is disaggregated by the type of neglect, the most common form identified is ‘Inadequate supervision’,accounting for 39 per cent of all reports of neglect. The second most common form was identified as ‘Inadequate food,clothing or lodging’ which accounted for 32 per cent (3749) of all reports of neglect. See Table 15 below.Table 15 - Breakdown of reports of neglect received by the OCR by year and gender Year Type of neglect Gender 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Inadequate food, clothing Male 30 285 528 429 508 1780 or lodging Female 18 241 558 406 506 1729 Unknown 4 71 94 44 27 240 Total 52 597 1180 879 1041 3749 Inadequate medical care Male 3 48 85 113 121 370 Female 6 48 105 115 139 413 Unknown 0 5 11 11 15 42 Total 9 101 201 239 275 825 Inadequate supervision Male 34 287 511 628 628 2088 Female 22 317 564 584 664 2151 Unknown 5 104 109 53 47 318 Total 61 708 1184 1265 1339 4557 Abandonment Male 9 68 146 77 96 396 Female 14 66 149 59 76 364 Unknown 0 9 18 3 1 31 Total 23 143 313 139 173 791 Other neglect Male 10 33 60 93 298 494 Female 11 55 101 143 457 767 Unknown 0 8 27 8 13 56 Total 21 96 188 244 768 1317 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011 Page 36 of 43
  • 37. 4.8 Trafficking in ChildrenTrafficking is the least reported form of abuse received by the Registry with only 10 reports received throughout theperiod. Nine of these reports were of girls. Seven of the ten reports were of children of age 13 – 17 years (Table 16) andwas most common in Kingston and St. Andrew and St. Catherine (Table 17).Figure 21 - Number of reports of trafficking received by the OCR by gender and year 6 5 1 Number of reports 4 3 Male 2 0 4 0 Female 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s RegistryTable 16 - Total number of trafficking reports received by the OCR by age group and year YearAge group 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total6 years or less 0 0 1 0 17 - 12 years 0 1 0 0 113 - 17 years 1 4 1 1 7Age unknown 1 0 0 0 1Total 2 5 2 1 10Source: Office of the Childrens RegistryTable 17 - Total number of reports of trafficking received by the OCR by parish of residence and year YearParish of residence 2008 2009 2010 2011 TotalKingston & St. Andrew 2 0 1 0 3St. Catherine 0 2 0 0 2Manchester 0 1 0 0 1St. Elizabeth 0 1 0 0 1St. Mary 0 0 1 0 1Portland 0 1 0 0 1St. Thomas 0 0 0 1 1Total 2 5 2 1 10 Page 37 of 43
  • 38. 4.9 Child LabourThroughout the period under review, the OCR has received a total of Figure 22- Number of reports of child labour received by the OCR by year171 reports of child labour. The OCR has seen a steady increase inreports over the period as illustrated in Figure 22. 78 80 Number of reportsAs with other form of child abuse, the OCR has received more 52reports of females engaging in child labour (61% of all reports) than 60of males. This is also true when the data is examined annually, with 40 22 17the exception of 2008 in which 9 reports were received of boys 20 2engaging in child labour versus 8 reports of girls. 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearFigure 23 - Number of reports of child labour received by the OCR by gender and year 49 50 45 40 Number of reports 35 31 29 30 25 21 Female 20 14 Male 15 8 9 8 10 2 5 0 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YearSource: Office of the Children’s RegistryTable 18 - Number of reports of child labour received by the OCR by gender and year YearGender 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 TotalFemale 2 8 14 31 49 104Male 0 9 8 21 29 67Total 2 17 22 52 78 171Source: Office of the Childrens RegistryNotes: Preliminary Data for 2011 Page 38 of 43
  • 39. Table 19 - Total number of child labour reports received by the OCR by age group and year Year Age group 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total 6 years or less 0 0 0 3 4 7 7 - 12 years 0 4 4 16 36 60 13 - 17 years 2 13 15 31 35 96 Age unknown 0 0 3 2 3 8 Total 2 17 22 52 78 171 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011Table 20 - Total number of reports of child labour received by the OCR by parish of residence and year Year Parish of residence 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total Kingston & St. Andrew 1 7 7 13 22 50 St. Catherine 0 3 3 6 12 24 Clarendon 1 4 1 6 8 20 Manchester 0 0 2 10 8 20 St. Elizabeth 0 1 2 2 7 12 Westmoreland 0 1 1 4 6 12 Hanover 0 0 0 0 1 1 St. James 0 0 0 3 3 6 Trelawny 0 0 2 2 1 5 St. Ann 0 1 2 3 8 14 St. Mary 0 0 0 1 2 3 Portland 0 0 2 2 0 4 Total 2 17 22 52 78 171 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Notes: Preliminary Data for 2011 Page 39 of 43
  • 40. Other Statistical TablesTable 21 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by year Period Number of reports % change 2011 7826 2010 6330 19.1 Source: Office of the Childrens RegistryTable 22 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by month and year Month Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total 2010 428 490 802 535 431 629 529 465 495 605 546 375 6330 2011 602 612 869 549 715 692 554 644 679 688 635 587 7826 Source: Office of the Childrens RegistryTable 23 - Total number of reports received by the OCR by report type Report type Total number of reports Original reports 6675 Non-original reports 1113 Supplemental reports 38 Total 7826 Source: Office of the Childrens RegistryTable 24 - Total number of abused children reported to the OCR by month and age group, 2011 Month Age Group Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total <1-3 years 54 48 49 46 60 53 55 71 54 44 55 55 644 4-7 105 77 72 72 92 88 63 77 102 81 79 83 991 8-11 121 125 105 106 136 144 96 119 122 123 116 116 1429 12-15 233 290 549 248 317 292 259 282 280 320 263 236 3569 16-17 years 60 52 47 55 72 58 51 61 60 69 55 60 700 Unknown 29 20 47 22 38 57 30 34 61 51 67 37 493 Total 602 612 869 549 715 692 554 644 679 688 635 587 7826 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Page 40 of 43
  • 41. Table 25 - Number of children reported to the OCR by Parish and gender, 2011 Gender Parish Male Female Unknown Total % Kingston & St. Andrew 950 1725 26 2701 34.5 St. Catherine 448 676 23 1147 14.7 Clarendon 223 308 9 540 6.9 Manchester 206 333 24 563 7.2 St. Elizabeth 171 234 9 414 5.3 Westmoreland 112 244 10 366 4.7 Hanover 35 142 2 179 2.3 St. James 294 446 3 743 9.5 Trelawny 58 102 17 177 2.3 St. Ann 129 226 2 357 4.6 St. Mary 104 176 7 287 3.7 Portland 40 76 0 116 1.5 St. Thomas 65 95 0 160 2.0 Abroad 0 3 1 4 0.1 Unknown 24 43 5 72 0.9 Total 2859 4829 138 7826 100.0 Source: Office of the Childrens Registry Page 41 of 43
  • 42. Appendix I – LimitationsThe following are limitations associated with the collection and generation of statistical data from reports that aresubmitted to the OCR: 1. Child abuse statistics that are generated by the OCR are solely dependent on reports submitted by individuals who know or suspect that a child has been, or is at risk of being abused. The decision to report child abuse may be influenced positively or negatively by several factors, including child-rearing practices that are by and large cultural, the shame associated with abuse and the perceived level of risk in reporting child abuse. Very likely, many cases of child abuse go unreported. While there is no real measure of such cases, it is likely that those reports that are made to the OCR only provide a partial picture of child abuse in Jamaica. 2. Reports of incidents are regarded as allegations; investigations by the relevant agencies may either confirm an incident as reported, or indicate otherwise. Hence, the statistics from reports that have been compiled by the OCR are to be regarded as reported incidents that are alleged and not yet substantiated. 3. The CCPA 2004 makes provision for the submission of reports to the OCR about children who are known or suspected to be at risk of being abused. While statistics from such reports are routinely compiled, a distinction is not made in the data between children who are known to be abused and those who are suspected to be at risk of being abused. Thus, statistics on abuse in children include children who, with reasonable suspicion, are deemed to be at risk of being abused and thus, are not limited to children who are known to have been abused. 4. In the earlier years of the OCR’s operations, a child may have been recorded in the register more than once, without being identified as one and the same child. These duplicates exist due to the lack of an appropriate system, at that time, to effectively track reports of children who may have already been reported to the OCR. Where duplicates exist, it results in over-reporting of the count of children who were reported to the Registry. Nevertheless, such occurrences are assumed to be minimal. 5. A child may have been reported to the OCR more than once, but under different names. In such instances, a link is not readily made and more often than not, the child is not captured as one, but as two or more separate additions to the Register. This scenario results in over-reporting in the numbers of abused children reported to the OCR. 6. The OCR makes a distinction between original reports that are submitted about a child for the first time, and subsequent reports regarding that child. The latter type of report may be in relation to the same, or a different incident; however, a distinction is not made in this regard. Hence, it should be understood that any reference to subsequent reports about a child may be in relation to an incident that was already reported, as well as it may also be in relation to a new incident that was never reported to the Registry. 7. The Children’s Registry Regulations 2007 makes provision for the use of a prescribed form which may be completed in the making of a report to the OCR. When a reporting form is independently completed by an individual and sent to the OCR, it is not always possible to control for the quality of data submitted on the form, and by extension, the quality of data outputs. Omissions of key areas on the reporting form, for example, would contribute to item non-response. Page 42 of 43
  • 43. ReferencesAnderson, P. and Ricketts, H. (2009). Parenting in Jamaica: A study conducted on behalf of the planning institute of Jamaica. PIOJ,Kingston.Inter American Children’s Institute (2010). Child participation in the Americas: 20 years after the adoption of the Convention on theRights of the Child. Central Papelera, Uruguay.Pinheiro, Paulo Sergio (2006), World Report on Violence against Children, United Nations Secretary –General’s Report on ViolenceAgainst Children, New York. A United Nations publication.Planning Institute of Jamaica (2009). Vision 2030 Jamaica: National Development Plan. Pear Tree Press, Kingston.Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN). 2010. Demographic Statistics. STATIN, Kingston.Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN). 2009. Demographic Statistics. STATIN, Kingston.Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN). 2008. Demographic Statistics. STATIN, Kingston.Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN). 2007. Demographic Statistics. STATIN, Kingston.UNECLAC (2009). Challenges. Number 9, July 2 2009.United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2009a. Progress for Children: A report card on child protection. Number 8, September2009. UNICEF, New York.United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 2009b.The State of the World’s Children: Special Edition. UNICEF, New York. Page 43 of 43