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Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
Syntactic devices
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Syntactic devices

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Syntax studies.

Syntax studies.

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  • 1. EmphasisEmphasisBy Lauren Benson, David Donohue,By Lauren Benson, David Donohue,Lakinya Francis, and Corey ReevesLakinya Francis, and Corey Reeves
  • 2. Understanding How Sentences EndUnderstanding How Sentences End By writing sentences correctly writers are able to increaseBy writing sentences correctly writers are able to increasecomprehension, clarity, and reading easy.comprehension, clarity, and reading easy. Readers prefer that a sentence is ended when difficult ideas areReaders prefer that a sentence is ended when difficult ideas arepresented.presented. Difficult ideas include long and complex phrases and clauses,Difficult ideas include long and complex phrases and clauses,as well as new information or unfamiliar information.as well as new information or unfamiliar information. It is important to be familiar with your audience and have anIt is important to be familiar with your audience and have anidea of their background knowledge.idea of their background knowledge. One needs to ask themselves which of the words are commonOne needs to ask themselves which of the words are commonand what are the words that will need explaining.and what are the words that will need explaining.
  • 3. Clarity in EmphasisClarity in Emphasis Clarity and reading easy improve whenClarity and reading easy improve whensentences begin with simple terms.sentences begin with simple terms. This allows the writer to build up momentumThis allows the writer to build up momentumso that the more complicated material canso that the more complicated material canfollow.follow. Complex grammar should be placed at the endComplex grammar should be placed at the endof the sentence to increase comprehension.of the sentence to increase comprehension. For example, compare the following.For example, compare the following.
  • 4. Examples of ClarityExamples of Clarity A sociometric and actuarial analysis of SocialA sociometric and actuarial analysis of SocialSecurity revenues and disbursements for the last sixSecurity revenues and disbursements for the last sixdecades to determine changes in projecting deficits isdecades to determine changes in projecting deficits isthe subject of this study.the subject of this study. In the study, we analyze Social Security’s revenuesIn the study, we analyze Social Security’s revenuesand disbursements for the last six decades, usingand disbursements for the last six decades, usingsociometric and actuarial criteria to determinesociometric and actuarial criteria to determinechanges in projecting deficits.changes in projecting deficits.
  • 5. Which One is More Clear?Which One is More Clear? Even though both sentences have the sameEven though both sentences have the samemeaning and word choice, the second sentencemeaning and word choice, the second sentenceis much easier to understand.is much easier to understand. This is because the complex grammar is foundThis is because the complex grammar is foundat the end of the sentence.at the end of the sentence. Complex grammar is only one of theComplex grammar is only one of thecomplexities that should be placed at the endcomplexities that should be placed at the endof the sentence.of the sentence.
  • 6. Complex TermsComplex Terms Complex terms are the second kind ofComplex terms are the second kind ofcomplexity writers must be concerned with.complexity writers must be concerned with. Similar to complex grammar, complex termsSimilar to complex grammar, complex termsshould be placed at the end of the sentenceshould be placed at the end of the sentence Consider the following.Consider the following.
  • 7. Examples of ClarityExamples of Clarity ……and troponin make up the sacromere, theand troponin make up the sacromere, thebasic unit of muscle contraction. Its thickbasic unit of muscle contraction. Its thickfilament is made up of..filament is made up of.. The basic unit of muscle contraction is theThe basic unit of muscle contraction is thesarcomere, which is made of troponin. It hassarcomere, which is made of troponin. It hastwo filaments, one thick and one thin.two filaments, one thick and one thin. The second sentence is much easier to readThe second sentence is much easier to readdue to the complex terms being found at thedue to the complex terms being found at theend of the sentence.end of the sentence.
  • 8. The Nuances of Emphasis and StressThe Nuances of Emphasis and Stress When reading we assign stress to certain words similar to theWhen reading we assign stress to certain words similar to theway we hear a speaker add stress to the words that he or sheway we hear a speaker add stress to the words that he or shehopes to emphasize.hopes to emphasize. By effectively managing words writers are able to positionBy effectively managing words writers are able to positionstresses so that they are allowed to establish a tone throughoutstresses so that they are allowed to establish a tone throughoutthe writing.the writing. Stresses are often found at the end of sentences.Stresses are often found at the end of sentences. For this reason, ideas that are considered to be significant areFor this reason, ideas that are considered to be significant areplaced at the end of the sentence.placed at the end of the sentence. These ideas then are the climax of the sentence and draw inThese ideas then are the climax of the sentence and draw inthe most attention.the most attention.
  • 9. Six Syntactic Devices toSix Syntactic Devices toEmphasize the RightEmphasize the RightWordsWords
  • 10. 1. Passiveness1. Passiveness A passive verb lets you flip a subject and object.A passive verb lets you flip a subject and object.For example:For example:Active:Active: “Some sociobiologists claim that our genes“Some sociobiologists claim that our genesinfluenceinfluence aspects of our behavior…”aspects of our behavior…”vs.vs.Passive:Passive: “Some sociobiologists claim that aspects of“Some sociobiologists claim that aspects ofbehavior that we think are learned are in factbehavior that we think are learned are in factinfluencedinfluenced by our genes.”by our genes.”
  • 11. 2. There2. There There is/ there are constructions let you shift aThere is/ there are constructions let you shift aphrase toward the end of a sentence.phrase toward the end of a sentence. The use of “there is/are adds a delay and thusThe use of “there is/are adds a delay and thusemphasis to what follows in the sentence.emphasis to what follows in the sentence.““English teachers stress grammar in their introductory classes.”English teachers stress grammar in their introductory classes.”vs.vs.““There areThere are English teachers that stress grammar in theirEnglish teachers that stress grammar in theirintroductory classes.”introductory classes.”
  • 12. 3. & 4. What-shifts and It-3. & 4. What-shifts and It-shiftsshifts The what-shift is a device that shifts part of theThe what-shift is a device that shifts part of thesentence to the right.sentence to the right.““We need extra time in order to properly write this essay.”We need extra time in order to properly write this essay.”vs.vs.““WhatWhat we need is extra time in order to properly write this essay.”we need is extra time in order to properly write this essay.” The It-shift is used when you have a long nounThe It-shift is used when you have a long nounclause. You can move the clause to the end of theclause. You can move the clause to the end of thesentence and start with ansentence and start with an itit..““To fight a war with no specific enemy once seemed impossible.”To fight a war with no specific enemy once seemed impossible.”vs.vs.““ItIt once seemed impossible to fight a war with no specific enemy.”once seemed impossible to fight a war with no specific enemy.”
  • 13. 5. Not only X, but Y (also)5. Not only X, but Y (also) Used to add emphasis to the whole sentence byUsed to add emphasis to the whole sentence byimplying that X clause would be assumed sufficientimplying that X clause would be assumed sufficientbut we’ve added a Y clause as well.but we’ve added a Y clause as well.““We must read this chapter and paraphrase it for ourWe must read this chapter and paraphrase it for ourproject.”project.”vs.vs.““ We mustWe must not onlynot only read this chapter,read this chapter, but alsobut alsoparaphrase it for our project.”paraphrase it for our project.”
  • 14. 6. Repeated Words and Pronoun6. Repeated Words and PronounSubstitutionSubstitution This is important: To avoid sounding flat at the endThis is important: To avoid sounding flat at the endof a sentence, do not use the same word you usedof a sentence, do not use the same word you usedearlier. Instead rewrite the sentence or use a pronounearlier. Instead rewrite the sentence or use a pronounat the end of the sentence.at the end of the sentence.““I startedI started my papermy paper late because that was thelate because that was theonly time I could fit in startingonly time I could fit in starting my papermy paper.”.”vs.vs.““I startedI started my papermy paper late because that was thelate because that was theonly time I could fitonly time I could fit itit in.in.
  • 15. Diagnosis And RevisionDiagnosis And RevisionThree Three RevisionThree Three Revision
  • 16. Trim the endTrim the end Sociobiologists claim that our genes controlSociobiologists claim that our genes controlour social behaviorour social behavior in the way we act inin the way we act insituations we are in every day.situations we are in every day. SinceSince social behaviorsocial behavior meansmeans the way we act inthe way we act insituations,situations, we drop everything after behavior.we drop everything after behavior. Sociobiologists claim that our genesSociobiologists claim that our genes controlcontrolour social behaviorour social behavior..
  • 17. Shift peripheral ideas to the leftShift peripheral ideas to the left The data offered to prove ESP are too weakThe data offered to prove ESP are too weakfor the most partfor the most part.. For the most partFor the most part, the offered to offered to, the offered to offered toprove ESP areprove ESP are too weaktoo weak..
  • 18. Avoid ending with anticlimacticAvoid ending with anticlimacticmetadiscoursemetadiscourseJob opportunities inJob opportunities incomputer programmingcomputer programmingare getting scarcer,are getting scarcer, ititmust be rememberedmust be remembered.. It must beIt must berememberedremembered that jobthat jobopportunities inopportunities incomputer programmingcomputer programmingare getting scarcer.are getting scarcer.
  • 19. Shift new information to theShift new information to therightright A more common way to manage stress is byA more common way to manage stress is bymoving new information to the end of amoving new information to the end of asentence.sentence.
  • 20. ExampleExample Questions about theQuestions about theethics of withdrawingethics of withdrawingintravenous feedingintravenous feedingareare more difficultmore difficult..[[than something justthan something justmentioned].mentioned]. More difficultMore difficult [[thanthanjust saying something]just saying something]areare questions about thequestions about theethics of withdrawingethics of withdrawingintravenous feedingintravenous feeding..
  • 21. Emphasis Used to DevelopEmphasis Used to DevelopTopics, Themes, andTopics, Themes, andCoherenceCoherence
  • 22. ThemesThemesTheme developmentTheme development The topic of the paper should be stated in the first sentence.The topic of the paper should be stated in the first sentence.-Specifically near the end of the opening sentence; the words-Specifically near the end of the opening sentence; the wordsleading to the statement of the theme create a micro-leading to the statement of the theme create a micro-introduction.introduction. Subsequent sentences should emphasize topics that reflect theSubsequent sentences should emphasize topics that reflect thetheme.theme. This is achieved by using these topics either as subjects orThis is achieved by using these topics either as subjects ornouns in the supporting sentences of a paragraph.nouns in the supporting sentences of a paragraph. A combination of the two clearly emphasizes the theme of theA combination of the two clearly emphasizes the theme of thepassage.passage.
  • 23. Theme Development ExamplesTheme Development Examples Page 101, example paragraph 1a.Page 101, example paragraph 1a.IncorrectIncorrect ““Great strides in the early and accurate diagnosis ofGreat strides in the early and accurate diagnosis ofAlzheimer’s disease have been made in recent years.”Alzheimer’s disease have been made in recent years.”-Alzheimer’s disease is emphasized by its position at-Alzheimer’s disease is emphasized by its position atthe end of the opening sentence, however, the themethe end of the opening sentence, however, the themeof the passage is not Alzheimer’s disease.of the passage is not Alzheimer’s disease.
  • 24. Theme Development ExamplesTheme Development Examples Page 102, mid-page example sentence.Page 102, mid-page example sentence.CorrectCorrect ““In recent years, though researchers have made greatIn recent years, though researchers have made greatstrides in the early and accurate diagnosis ofstrides in the early and accurate diagnosis ofAlzheimer’s disease, those diagnoses have raised aAlzheimer’s disease, those diagnoses have raised anew problem about informing those most at risknew problem about informing those most at riskbefore they show symptoms of it.”before they show symptoms of it.”-As you can see, this sentence emphasizes the risk of an-As you can see, this sentence emphasizes the risk of anearly diagnosis, which is the theme of the passage.early diagnosis, which is the theme of the passage.
  • 25. CoherenceCoherenceDeveloping CoherenceDeveloping Coherence--Begin with bluntly stated topicBegin with bluntly stated topic-Use following sentences to develop and clarify various themes-Use following sentences to develop and clarify various themesand ideas.and ideas.-Some writers have a tendency to add “fluff” to their writing in-Some writers have a tendency to add “fluff” to their writing inorder to make it appear more advanced, however, such writingorder to make it appear more advanced, however, such writinghas a tendency to eliminate emphasis, and thus cause thehas a tendency to eliminate emphasis, and thus cause thetheme of the passage to become unclear.theme of the passage to become unclear.-Using a, “This is how it is, now let me tell you why,” approach-Using a, “This is how it is, now let me tell you why,” approachcreates a very coherent paper because it eliminates anycreates a very coherent paper because it eliminates anyambiguity as to the meaning of the passage.ambiguity as to the meaning of the passage.
  • 26. Coherence ExamplesCoherence Examples Page 101, example paragraph 1a.Page 101, example paragraph 1a.IncorrectIncorrect-This passage is incoherent because the evidence is-This passage is incoherent because the evidence ispresented before the assertion.presented before the assertion.-The reader is unclear as to the theme of the passage-The reader is unclear as to the theme of the passagebecause it is stated later on.because it is stated later on.-Providing evidence without having made an assertion-Providing evidence without having made an assertionis the same thing as arguing for nothing, this makesis the same thing as arguing for nothing, this makesany evidence presented by the writer useless to theany evidence presented by the writer useless to thereader.reader.
  • 27. Coherence ExamplesCoherence Examples Page 102, example paragraph 1b.Page 102, example paragraph 1b.CorrectCorrect-This passage begins with a bluntly stated topic, and is-This passage begins with a bluntly stated topic, and isfollowed by sentences that emphasize words thatfollowed by sentences that emphasize words thatreflect the theme of the passage.reflect the theme of the passage.-This allows the reader to focus on the theme of the-This allows the reader to focus on the theme of thepassage while the assertion is explained.passage while the assertion is explained.-Subsequent sentences also provide evidence to support-Subsequent sentences also provide evidence to supportthe initial assertion, thus creating a coherentthe initial assertion, thus creating a coherentparagraph.paragraph.
  • 28. Topics, Themes, and CoherenceTopics, Themes, and Coherence In order for an assertion to be well argued, itIn order for an assertion to be well argued, itmust contain all of these constituents.must contain all of these constituents. Topics of sentences are used to developTopics of sentences are used to developthemes, and themes are developed through thethemes, and themes are developed through thepresentation of logical evidence.presentation of logical evidence. If both topics and themes are developedIf both topics and themes are developedproperly using emphasis, the paper will beproperly using emphasis, the paper will becoherent.coherent.
  • 29. Ideas Regarding EmphasisIdeas Regarding Emphasis Beginning and end shake hands with eachBeginning and end shake hands with eachother.- German Proverbother.- German Proverb All’s that well ends well.- ShakespeareAll’s that well ends well.- Shakespeare In the end is my beginning.- T.S. EliotIn the end is my beginning.- T.S. Eliot

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