PHRASEA group of two or more grammatically linked wordsthat do not have subject and predicate is a phrase.Example : Excellent idea. Great job.
There are eight different kinds of phrases:1. Noun phrase.Example : My sister’s room is full of dolls. (NP)2.Verb phrase.Example :Mom is making cakes. (VP)3. Prepositional phraseExample :Rose threw Tom’s golf clubs through the window and ontothe lawn.
4. Infinitive phraseExample : The officer returned to help the inspectors.5. Participial phraseExample : Stumbling over the junk, I decided to clean up thegarage.6. Appositive phraseExample : Diana’s mother, owner of a rattlesnake ranch inArizona, told Sue to change the locks on the door.
7. Absolute phraseExample : His fiction-writing skill at last perfected to hissatisfaction, Tom knew his next novel would be abestseller.
CLAUSEA group of words that contains a subject anda predicate.Example : The girl is nice. He washes the car.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSEIndependent clause is a clause that can stand by itself.independent clauses can be joined by using asemicolon or a comma plus a coordinating conjunction(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).• And : Women follow more healthful diets, and theygo to doctors more often.• But : Ram likes tea, but Anthony likes coffee.• So : I want to work as an interpreter in thefuture, so I am studying Russian at university.
For : He didn’t come to school for yesterday wasraining. Nor : The president will not come to the worldclimate changing meeting, nor will he come toanother meeting. Yet : It was sunny, yet people were indoor.
DEPENDENT CLAUSEDependent Clause is clause that can’t stand alone. It used beconnected to an independent clause. There are 3 types ofdependent clause :1.Adjective clause : is a dependent clause that modifies anoun. It is possible to combine the following two sentencesto form one sentence containing an adjective clauseExample :Last year we traveled to San Francisco, which is famousfor its architecture.
2. Adverbial clause : is a clause that functions asan adverb. In other words, it contains subjectand predicate, and it modifies a verb.Example : When he won the money, he decided to buy a car.3. Noun clause : Dependent clause that function as noun.Example : We dont know who will be coming from theemployment agency.
SENTENCESentence is a grammatically complete series of words atleast consist of a subject and predicate.There are 4 types of sentences :1. Simple sentence, is a sentence structure thatcontains one independent clause and no dependentclauses.example : The baby cried.
2. Compound sentence, is composed of at leasttwo independent clauses. The clauses are joined bya coordinating conjunction.Example : Mom went to the store, and my sister went to theoffice.3. Complex sentence, is a sentence with oneindependent clause and at least one dependentclause.Example : Thats the man who bought our house.
4. Complex-Compound sentence contains at leastone dependent clause and more than oneindependent clause. The clauses are connected byboth conjunctions.Example : The town where I grew up is in the United States.