Americasby Peter Winn Topic #4 The Jewish Experience in Latin America The Missing Chapter???
This PowerPoint Presentation does not correlate to any chapter in Americas or in any other book in the assigned readings. I found one sentence in the chapter about religion about the Jewish experience, along with the Muslim and “other” religions. I thought I would make a short presentation that shared a little bit about the history of the Jewish Experience In Latin America during the formation of the continent’s European conquest.
Current Statistics Argentina: 380,000 -500,000 Jews, primarily in Buenos Aires, the third largest Jewish community in the Americas after the US and Canada. Aruba: There is a population of over 2,600 Jews in Aruba. Barbados: The Jewish population is approximately 970. Bermuda: The Jewish population is unknown. Bolivia: There are about 600 Jews, with synagogues in Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, and La Paz Brazil: There are between 277,000 - 500,000 Jews; The majority of Brazilian Jews live in the state of Sao Paolo but there are also sizeable communities in Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Cerais and Parana. Chile: There are around 75,000 Chilean Jews, most living in Santiago and Valparaiso. Colombia: There are about 5000 Jewish families, or a little over 20,000 Jews, left in Colombia, with decreasing numbers annually. They are concentrated in Bogota. Costa Rica: There is a large Jewish community in the capital, San Jose – with the continent’s only kosher Burger King. The current Jewish population for the country is estimated to be approximately 2,500 to 3000. Cuba: There are approximately 1,500 Jews living in Cuba, about 1000 of those in Havana. This is down from about 15,000 before the Revolution. Curaçao: This is the home of the Americas’ oldest Jewish community. There are approximately 600 out of a total population of about 140,000, with virtually even numbers of Ashkenazim and Sephardim. Dominican Republic: The current population of Jews in the D.R. is around 300, down from it’s peak in 1943 of 1000 non-assimilated Jews. Ecuador: The majority of Jews still in Ecuador are of German origin and reside in Quito and Guayaquil. There is a population of approximately 500 Jews. El Salvador: The current Jewish population is around 60 families.
Current Statistics (cont.) French Guiana: Today, 800 Jews live in French Guiana, predominately in Cayenne. Guatemala: There are approximately 1200 Jews living in Guatemala today. Most are Eastern European and German immigrants from late 19th century and during the Holocaust of WWII. Haiti: As of 2010, the number of known Jews in Haiti is estimated at 25, residing in the relatively affluent suburb of Petionville, outside of Port au Prince. Honduras: Most Jews live in Tegucigalpa. The current population is around 40-50 families who live alongside the Arab immigrants. Jamaica: The Jewish population of the island is around 3000 by current estimates. Mexico: Today, there are more than 50,000 Jews in Mexico, the third largest Jewish community in Latin America. Netherlands Antilles: There are around 200 Jewish people in the N.E. Nicaragua: The Jewish community is very small, about 50 people with no ordained rabbi and no synagogue. Panama: There are a little over 20,000 Jews in Panama today. Paraguay: Today, there are 10,000 Jews mostly living in Paraguay's capital, Asuncion. Most are of German descent and are escapees of Nazi Germany, and their descendents before the war, or Concentration Camp survivors and their descendents after the war. Puerto Rico: This is the home of the largest Jewish community in the Caribbean, with approximately 3000 Jews, mainly living in San Juan. There are four synagogues in Puerto Rico. Peru: There are over 12,500 Jews in Peru today. Suriname: Today, 12,000 Jews live in Suriname. Uruguay: The Jewish population today is around 10,000 families, or a little over 40,000 people. There are 20 synagogues in Uruguay. The majority of Uruguayan Jews are Ashkenazim (75%). Venezuela: There are over 35,000 Jews in Venezuela. All but one of the country’s 15 synagogues are Orthodox.
Christopher Columbus The first Jews to come to the Americas were on the first voyage with Columbus. They left on the same day as the announced forced conversion in Spain began, on August 3, 1492. There were at least seven Jews on the first voyage to the Americas with Columbus. In fact, there is some speculation that Columbus himself may have been a Marrano, or Jewish Convert to Catholicism.
Escaping the Inquisition: In the Coming years Jews from Spain and Portugal settled in the new colonies in El Caribe thinking they would be safe from the Inquisition.
According to the chronicler of the Conquest of “New Spain,” Jews did not escape the inquisition in the Americas. Bernal Diaz Del Castillo describes multiple executions of Hernan Cortes’ soldiers in Mexico because the soldiers were Jewish.
Jewish Community in the Americas By mid-16th Century, there were Jewish communities, fully organized in current-day Brazil, Suriname, Curacao, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Barbados. There were other, secret communities in the areas where the Inquisition was actively pursued – in current-day Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico.
Crypto-Jews and Conversos Judios escondidos in Latin America During the 16th and 17th centuries, some Conversos were able to make it to New Spain and Peru, where it was believed they would avoid persecution. In spite of the Inquisition, Conversos attempted to maintain their Jewish personhood by circumcising theirs sons, lighting candles on Fridays and keeping kosher. There are large communities of Catholic Latin Americans that light candles every Friday night. More and more are discovering their Jewish heritage. Latin America has seen an increase in conversion to Judaism as these roots are discovered.
Argentina Before World War II After the expulsion from Spain in 1492, Conversos came to Argentina. The majority assimilated completely into Catholic life and there were few Jews left in the country by the 1800s. In the mid 19th Century, there was a second wave of Jewish immigration, after the Independence of Argentina, and the abolition of the Inquisition by the first Argentine president, Bernardino Rivadavia. In the 1860s the first minyan met for High Holy Day Services, and eventually became Congregacion Israelita de la Republica. Due to the pogroms of Russia and Eastern Europe, and the open-door immigration policy – the third wave to Argentina began in the late 1800s. These Jews were called “Rusos” and were very successful in the Americas. By 1920, more than 150,000 Jews were living in Argentina, at a rate of increase of 13,000 a year. January 7-13, 1919 Argentina’s first pogrom was initiated against the Jews. They were beaten, and their property burned and looted, due to a general strike. Jews were not allowed to work in the government or the military, and the xenophobia in Argentina increased exponentially. Timeline: Even with the anti-Semitism, Jews in Argentina flourished. A Yiddish press and a Yiddish theatre opened in Buenos Aires. A Jewish hospital and a good number of Jewish charitable organizations, as well as Zionist organizations were active in Argentina pre-WWII.
Argentina After World War II Juan Peron came to power in 1946, worrying many of Argentina’s Jews because of his Nazi sympathies. He did stop Jewish immigration to Argentina. He also instituted Catholic lessons in public schools. But, he in turn, gave support for a Jewish homeland, and established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1949. Since 1949, more than 45,000 Jews have made aliyah to Israel from Argentina. In 1960, after Peron was out of office, Israeli agents found Nazi Adolf Eichmann in a suburb of Buenos Aires. He was tried in Jerusalem in 1961, which led to an increase in anti-Semitism in Argentina. Between 1976 and 1983, the military dictatorship targeted Jews for abduction. 1000 of the 9000 victims of the Junta, were Jews. Timeline Aliyah to Israel!
Jewish Argentina Today Argentina is home to the largest Jewish community in South America The Jewish community is active in all parts of society – politics, film, industry, arts, media, religion, and music. There are many Jewish organizations, a thriving Jewish Federation, sports clubs, schools, and social groups. Although the synagogues are predominately Orthodox, there is a burgeoning Reform and Conservative Jewish presence, with their own synagogues and thriving memberships. Buenos Aires is home to one of the world’s four remaining Yiddish Daily Newspapers. Good Signs: In Buenos Aires, the heart of the Jewish community can be found in Once, the home of the oldest synagogue in the country, many new synagogues, and the Jewish Cultural Center – where Jewish theatre, education, Israeli dance, concerts, and lectures are held. This is also the home of a Jewish Day School that goes through secondary education.
Jewish Argentina Today In 1994, the Jews of Argentina were the targets of TWO terrorist attacks in Buenos Aires. The Israeli Embassy was bombed in 1992, and the Jewish Community Center (AMIA) in Once, which has since been rebuilt in the same spot, was bombed in 1994. 117 people were killed in these attacks, and over 100 more were seriously injured. The Jewish Community Archives were destroyed in the bombing as well – so the physical history of the Argentine Jewish World was lost. It is suspected that Hezbollah, with the help of their benefactor Iran, was responsible for the bombing. But no one has ever been charged for the attack. Jews are still missing from the high ranks in foreign ministry, the judicial government, and the military. Due to the dire economic downfall in recent years, over 10,000 Jews have left Argentina recently, with over 6000 of those emigrating to Israel. Worrisome Trends in Argentina. The AMIA Center in Buenos Aires. The names on the wall are those that died in the attack on the previous center in 1994.
Pre-Independence BrazilThe Jewish Experience Jewish presence in Brazil can be traced back to the year 1500. Gaspar de Gama, a Jew who had been kidnapped and forcibly baptized, accompanied Admiral Pedro Alvares Cabral from Portugal to Brazil. Jews began arriving in Brazil in the early 16th century during the period of Dutch rule, to escape the Inquisition in Portugal. In 1636, the first synagogue was built, the Kahal Zur, in Recife. This was the first synagogue in the Americas. Other Jews fleeing the inquisition left to the Sao Paola area. It had been thought that they assimilated quickly, but recent scholarship has found Brazilian Jungle Tribes who light candles every Friday night and abstain from eating pork. It is now thought that these may be tribes of crypto-Jews. In 1654, with the beginning of a nine-year war culminating with the expulsion of the Dutch by the Portuguese, the Inquisition began to be tried in Brazil. Many Jews fled to Curaçao, New York, back to Europe, but some chose to stay. Many Jews began practicing in secret, as Crypto-Jews, some moved to the interior of Brazil, away from the authorities. In 1655, Portuguese Authorities closed down the Kahal Zur. The Safra Family reopened the synagogue in 2002. In 1773, a Portuguese royal family decreed discrimination of the Jews to be illegal. In 1822, Brazil finally declared Independence, and that was followed by a large emigration of Sephardim to Brazil from Portugal and Morocco, settling in Belem and Manaus.
Brazil Before World War IIThe Jewish Experience – Agricultural Settlements In the 1890s Theodor Herzl and his allies, after the pogroms in Russia, began to consider Brazil a home for their agricultural communities – a precursor to Israeli Zionism. In 1902, the Jewish Colonization Association, bought over 12,000 acres in the Santa Maria area and began the first agricultural settlement of Jews in Brazil. After many failing seasons, in 1926, only 17 of the original 122 families remained on the settlement. The unused land was sold. In 1909, another 94,000 acres was purchased in Quatro Imaos, north of Santa Maria, by the JCA. That settlement met with a similar fate, and in 1935, after multiple families came and went, the Jewish population in the settlement was outnumbered 5 to 1, with only 104 Jewish families remaining, (about 1/3 of the original and subsequent settlers). The Jews that left the agricultural settlements did not all return to Europe. Many remained in Brazil and moved to the urban centers. By WWI, around 7000 Jews lived in Brazil. Due to immigration policies blocking Jews, many Jews were turned away from emigrating right before and during WWII. Another settlement had been established by JCA, but the settlers who were to live there and work the land were denied visas. In Rio Grande de Sul, Jews established schools, synagogue and a Yiddish newspaper. Sao Paulo was home to many Jewish cultural and philanthropic organizations. After WWI, Jews in Rio de Janeiro established an aid committee for victims of the war. Over 20,000 Jews emigrated to Brazil from Eastern-Europe in the 1920s, and by 1929 there were 27 Jewish schools. Despite prejudicial immigration policies, over 17,500 Jews came to Brazil in the 1930s as well.
Brazil AfterWorld War IIThe Jewish Experience Between 1938-1945, Brazil began to enforce a government-sponsored forced assimilation of Jews, closing down Yiddish newspapers, banning Jewish organizations, and promoting, however indirectly, increased anti-Semitism in Brazil. Multiple copies of the Protocols of Zion were distributed and Brazil became more dangerous for Brazilian Jews during WWII. In 1947, Brazil voted for the Partition Plan and the creation of Israel, a Jewish homeland, at the UN General Assembly. In February 1949, Brazil recognized Israel as a sovereign nation. In 1952, the Brazilian embassy was established in Israel. In 1959, Brazil and Israel signed the first of many commerce agreements between them, establishing a cultural and economic partnership. The 1950s saw a wave of North African Jewry to Brazil, bringing over 3,500 Jews by the end of the decade. By 1969, Brazilian Jews were thriving with over 140,000 Jews in Brazil, 6 Jews served in Parliament, many were in the state legislatures and local governments, and 33 Jewish schools in the nation. The 1970s saw some increased anti-Semitism due to the influence of the Catholic organization, Tradicao, Familia, e Propreidade, (Tradition, Family, and Property). They raised “concerns” of the leftist leanings of both Judaism and factions of Catholicism. Brazilian synagogue in Sao Paolo (1940s)
Jewish Life In Brazil Today Culture: Today Brazil’s Jewish culture is alive and thriving. With Jewish history and art in national and local museums, the very popular Jewish Cultural House, several Jewish newspapers and magazines, a Jewish weekly television show, and Jewish studies programs at the universities – as well as famous Jewish artists and authors, Brazil – like the United States and Canada – approaches Jewish culture as Brazilian culture. Jewish and Israeli film festivals are held in multiple parts of the country annually. There are cultural and sporting events designed to attract the Jewish Brazilian held in virtually every area of Brazil. National commemorations of Yom Hatzmaut and Yom HaShoah feature cultural and historical narratives specific to the Brazilian Jew. There are thriving philanthropic organizations, a multitude of cultural and religious organizations, Zionist organizations, Bnai Brith, Hillel, Hadassah, Pioneer International, and World Zionist Federations in Brazil. The impressive Jewish hospital, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein is considered one of the finest hospitals in Latin America. There are four Orthodox schools and four secular Jewish schools in Brazil. Over 3000 students attend the Educacio Hebraico Brasileiro Renscenca at Rua Prates 790. The religious world of Brazil is rich and varied with active Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform movements, as well as a growing Chabad-Lubavitch, and a small Hasidic sect. There are a growing number of schools and synagogues in every part of the country. There are also several kosher supermarkets and many kosher restaurants in the urban areas. Professionally and economically, Jews have fared well in Brazil. Politically, Jews have seen a Jewish Governor, Jewish Senators, Jewish Cabinet Members, and other Jewish political leadership. Following the anti-Semitic bombings in the early nineties in neighboring Argentina, the Jewish community braced itself for an increase in hate crimes in Brazil, but were never faced with anything on the scale of other countries. Brazilian/Israeli relations are very strong In fact, sao paolo and Tel Aviv are “sister cities”. Here Israel’s Prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu And Brazilian president Lula stand together as friends An aerial shot of educacio Hebraico brasiliero renscensa
Pre-Independence MexicoThe Jewish Experience Many Conversos were with Hernan Cortes during his trips to Mexico and during the conquest. Conversos emigrated in very large numbers to “New Spain” and by the middle of the 16th century there were more Crypto-Jews than there were Spanish Catholics. In 1571, Spain opened an Inquisition Office in Mexico City. During the Colonial Period, over 1500 people were burned at the stake for being “Judaizers” meaning they observed the Laws of Moses or were guilty of lighting candles, circumcising their sons, or another example of practicing/preserving Jewish tradition.(There is still a large population of Conversos in Mexico – particularly in Vera Cruz and Puebla.To keep from assimilation, many Conversos throughout the generations would not intermarry.) “The largest auto-da-fé ever held in Spanish colonies in America took place in Mexico City on April 11, 1649. Christians from as far as 50 miles from the city were compelled to attend the event. A total of 108 men and women were accused of secretly practicing Judaism, however 57 died prior to the event while incarcerated by the Inquisition. Their bones were brought to the execution place and burned along with 13 people sentenced to death. Of them Tomas Trevino de Sobremonte alone refused to kiss the cross before being put to death and consequently was burned alive. Reportedly he yelled at his executioners while they set the fire at his feet: “Throw more wood on this fire, you wretched ones, because I am paying for this.” (see source #10) Few Jews emigrated to Mexico after the Inquisition Office was established. The rates were virtually non-existent during the Colonial Period due to the powerful influence of the Catholic Church there. In the prison of the inquisition Torture by the inquisition Dona Marianna de Carvajal being burnt at the stake 1601) Dona Isabel Rodriguez de carvajal’s torture by the rack “History of the Inquisition in Mexico” Beit Hatfutsot – Visual Documentation Center
Mexico Before World War IIThe Jewish Experience In 1865, Maximilian issued an edict of religious tolerance – but there were only 20 Jewish families left in Mexico. In 1882, after the assassination of Alexander II, larger numbers of Jewish immigrants began settling in Mexico. Two years later, the government issued an invitation to Jewish bankers to open branch banks in Mexico. Between 1911-13 and 1920-21, the third and fourth wave of emigration to Mexico occurred, mainly from the Ottoman Empire. The last significant group to move to Mexico were Russian Jews after World War I, escaping from pogroms. Most chose Mexico because of family connections, but due to the immigration caps in the US, Mexico became a more realistic choice for Eastern European Jews. Between the 1920 and 1930, the Jewish population of Mexico was met with little anti-Semitism, and a growing prosperity. In the 1930s, Jews faced the only major anti-Semitic attacks since the Inquisition. Labor Unions, faced with economic depression and wide-spread unemployment, put pressure on the government to limit “Chinese and Jewish” immigration. And, neo-Nazis, financed by Berlin, staged anti-Jewish protests later in the decade. Neither of these campaigns were successful in winning over the majority of Mexicans. No known violence was ever reported against Mexico’s Jews. In the 30s two organizations were formed to battle the growing anti-Semitism, Federacion de Sociedades Judias, and the still active, Comite de Central Israelita de Mexico. The government of Mexico did little to offer help to European Jewry during World War II, but they did look the other way, at the urging of Mexican Jews, when over 200 Jews from Cuba illegally entered Mexico after escaping Nazi terror. Mexico limited official immigration to countries with large Jewish population to 100 per year in 1937. In 1942, Mexico entered World War II as a member of the Allied Forces.
Mexico After World War IIThe Jewish Experience It has been said that Mexican Jews, since the Inquisition, have faced less anti-Semitism than anywhere else in the Western World. That being said, Mexico’s diplomatic relations with Israel, and thus its Jewish citizens, has been strained due to the decision to abstain from voting for the UN Partition Plan of 1947, that granted Israeli statehood, thus ensuring the existence of a Jewish homeland. However, in 1950 diplomatic relations began between Israel and Mexico, when the government of Mexico recognized Israeli statehood. The embassy of Mexico in Tel Aviv was opened along with an honorary consulate in Haifa soon after. Israel opened an embassy in Mexico City, with three honorary consulates in Monterrey, Guadalajara, and Tijuana. In 2000, a Free Trade Agreement was signed between Israel and Mexico. Mexico has sold crude oil to Israel, it has bought arms from Israel, and it is now considered one of Israel’s strongest allies in the Americas. Isaac Artenstein, Justo Sierra School, Tijuana, 1958
Famous Jews of Latin America MoysesChahon, army commander Victor Civita, journalist Gilberto Dimenstein, journalist Alberto Dines, journalist TufiDuek, fashion designer German Efromovich, entrepreneur Benny Feilhaber professional soccer player Fortuna, singer and composer VilémFlusser, philosopher Marcelo Gleiser, physicist and writer José Goldemberg, educator, physicist and minister Mario Haberfeld, racing driver AlexandreHerchcovitch, fashion designer WladimirHerzog, journalist Luciano Huck, TV show host Roberto Justus, advertiser and TV host Isaac Karabtchevsky, musician and conductor IthamaraKoorax, jazz singer Miguel Krigsner, entrepreneur and environmentalist Cesar Lattes, physicist José Lewgoy, actor and director Clarice Lispector, writer Carlos Nuzman, sportsman and president of Olympic Committee Flora Purim, jazz singer Sultana Levy Rosenblatt, writer Ricardo Rosset, Formula One driver Edmond, Joseph, and Moise Safra, bankers Argentina Marcos Aguinis, journalist / writer HéctorBabenco, film director Tania Bíder revolutionary fighter Laszlo Biro, inventor of the ballpoint pen Mauricio Borensztein (better known as Tato Bores), comedian Mario Davidovsky, composer Daniel Filmus Ex Argentinian Education Minister Juan Gelman, poet Max Glücksmann, pioneer of the Argentinian music and film industries Guillermo Israilevich, soccer player of Israeli National Team César Milstein, immunologist, Nobel prize Alicia Partnoy, writer Raquel Partnoy, painter José Pekerman, former soccer player, former national team coach Mariana Seligmann, actress Bernardo Verbitsky, novelist Brazil Clara Ant, political activist and presidential adviser JomTobAzulay, film director LeoncioBasbaum, physician and political activis Abraham Bentes, army commander Claudio BessermanVianna, comedian Joel Birman, writer Eva Altman Blay, sociologist and politician Otto Maria Carpeaux, literary critic
Famous Jews of Latin America Paul Singer, economist, writer, politician, activist. Amir Slama, fashion designer Henry Sobel, Rabbi, community leader Mauricio Waldman, sociologist and politician YaraYavelberg, political activist MayanaZatz, geneticist Benjamin Zymler, auditor-general Chile Marjorie Agosín, human rights activist, professor, and writer Claudio Bunster, scientist Ariel Dorfman, playwright, novelist, human rights activist Roberto Dueñas, famous' manager Daniel Emilfork, actor Tomás Hirsch, politician, businessman Alejandro Jodorowsky, film director Mario Kreutzberger, better known as Don Francisco, TV host NicolásMassú, tennis player SebastiánRozental, football player ShmuelSzteinhendler, rabbi (Regional Director Masorti Latin America) VolodiaTeitelboim, former communist leader Colombia Jorge Isaacs, Poet and novelist Ramon Gomez Portillo, Journalist, Writer, Poet Cuba Ruth Behar, writer Fabio Grobart, Communist Party co-founder Olga Guillot, singer José Miller, leader of the Cuban Jewish community Brett Ratner, film director, Cuban by citizenship Jamie-Lynn Sigler, actress El Salvador Juan Lindo, president (1841) Guatemala Francisco Goldman, author AlcinaLubitch Domecq, author David Unger, author Honduras Juan Lindo, president (1847) Ricardo Maduro, president (2002) Salvador Moncada, pharmacologist Mexico Abraham Zabludovsky, architect Alejandro Zohn, architect Helen KleinbortKrauze, historian Arturo Warman,anthropologist, cabinet member of Salinas and Zedillo Liam Higgins, astrophysicist, UNAM Erick Elias, actor, model, singer Raul Julia-Levy, actor, producer David Ostrosky, actor Sara Paxton, actress Ari Telch, actor Louis C.K., stand-up comedian
Famous Jews of Latin America Alejandro Jodorowsky, film director, comics writer Luis Mandoki, film director Arturo Ripstein, film director Emmanuel Lubezki, cinematographer, winner of three Ariel awards for Best Cinematography (1992, 1993, 1994) and nominated for 4 Oscars in the category (1996, 200, 2006, 2007) UrielWaizel, journalist, radio broadcaster, music critic Rubén Grez, synagogue hazzan, and Jewish musicsinger Zack De La Rocha, lead singer of Rage Against The Machine LudwikMargules, theatre director Arnold Belkin, painter Pedro Friedeberg,painter Mathias Goeritz, painter, sculptor Sergio Berlioz, composer, musicologist, journalist Daniel Catán,composer HenrykSzeryng, violinist Mariana Frenk-Westheim, writer Margo Glantz, writer & critic Moises Salinas author and psychologist Sara Sefchovich, writer IlanStavans, literary critic Vicky Nizri, novelist Carlos Alazraki, prominent old-school publicist, son of Benito Alazraki Isaac Saba Raffoul, owner of the biggest pharmaceutics distribution company in Mexico Grupo Casa Saba, the mini mart chain Jorge CastañedaGutman, Mexican foreign minister from 2000 to 2004 Jose Yves Limantour, Secretary of the Finance of Mexico from 1893 until the fall of the Porfirio Diaz regime Diego de Montemayor, founder of Monterrey José WoldenbergKarakowski, ex-president of Federal Electoral Institute Senya Fleshin, Ukrainian-born anarchist and photographer, companion of Mollie Steimer Mollie Steimer, Russian born anarchist and American anti-war activist and political prisoner of both Russia and the U.S. Adela Micha, news anchor Rodolfo Stavenhagen, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Indigenous peoples Shanik Berman, broadcaster Fernando Schwartz, sports commentator Ilana Berger, tennis player Nicaragua HertyLewites, Nicaraguan politician Sergio Torres, former military commander, judge and now lawyer Panama Eric Arturo Delvalle, president (1987) Ricardo Maduro, Honduran president Peru Manuel Buchwald, famous physicist, expert on Genetics Federico Kauffmann Doig, archeologis Eliane Chantal Karp Fernenbug, former First Lady of Peru Meredith Monk, performance artist David WaismanRjavinsthi, Former Second Vice President of Peru. Member of the congress for AlianzaParlamentaria party. Edward Allan Wagner Tizón, Minister of Defense
Barton Zwiebach, Physics Professor at the MIT. Expert in String Theory. Author of the book "A First Course in String Theory“ David Blaine, magician Sammy Davis, Jr., actor & singer Julio Kaplan, chess player Ari Meyers, actress Geraldo Rivera, journalist Brenda K. Starr, singer Rachel Ticotin, actress SahajTicotin, singer Uruguay Monsieur Chouchani, mysterious scholar Jorge Drexler, singer/songwriter Ricardo Ehrlich, mayor of Montevideo Gabe Saporta, singer/songwriter/bassist of Cobra Starship and Midtown Carlos Sherman, writer Venezuela MoisésNaím, magazine editor Ricardo Hausmann, professor, academic Amador Bendayán, actor, comedian IlanChester, composer Karina, pop singer Manuel Blum, computer scientist, Turing Award Famous Jews of Latin America Moisés Kaufman, screenwriter, director, founder of NY's Tectonic Theater Project Reynaldo Hahn, composer Baruj Benacerraf, immunologist, Nobel prize (1980) TeodoroPetkoff, ex-guerrilla, journalist and economist