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  • 1. WHAT IS A ROOT? A root, as its name suggests, is a word or word part from which other words grow, usually through the addition of prefixes and suffixes. The root of the word vocabulary, for example, is voc, a Latin root meaning "word" or "name." This root also appears in the words advocacy, convocation, evocative, vocal, and vociferous.
  • 2. EXAMPLES: ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES -ast(er)-(G) star asteroid, astronomy -audi- (L) hear audible, audience -auto- (G) self automatic, autopsy -bene- (L) good benefit, benign -bio- (G) life biography, biology -chrono- (G) time chronic, synchronize -dict- (L) say dictate, diction -duc- (L) lead, make deduce, produce -gen- (L) give birth gene, generate
  • 3. MAIN TYPES OF
  • 4. WHAT ARE ? A word element – usually a prefix or suffix--that can be attached to a base, stem, or root to form a new word.
  • 5. WHAT ARE ? Etymology: From the Latin Figere, "fasten"
  • 6. PREFIX A letter or group of letters attached to the beginning of a word that partly indicates its meaning. Common prefixes include anti- (against), co- (with), mis- (wrong, bad), and trans-(across).
  • 7. TYPES OF Derivational prefixes do not normally alter the word class of the base word; that is, a prefix is added to a noun to form a new noun with a different meaning.
  • 8. PREFIX Etymology:  From the Latin Praefixum, "to fasten in front"
  • 9. PREFIX During the 1980s, 'mini-' gave way to 'micro-,' which has yielded to 'nano-.' In the new millennium, companies such as Nanometrics, Nanogen and NanoPierce Technologies have all embraced the prefix, despite complaints their products were hardly nano-scale (a billionth of a meter or smaller). (Alex Boese, "Electrocybertronics," Smithsonian, March 2008)
  • 10. COMMON PREFIXES Prefix Meaning Example a-, an- without amoral ante- before antecedent anti- against anticlimax auto- self autopilot circum- around circumvent co- with copilot com-, con- with companion, contact
  • 11. COMMON PREFIXES contra- against contradict de- off, away from devalue dis- not disappear en- put into enclose ex- out of, former extract, ex- president extra- beyond, more than extracurricular hetero- different heterosexual homo- same homonym
  • 12. COMMON PREFIXES intra- between intravenous macro- large macroeconom ics micro- small microscope mono- one monocle non- not, without nonentity omni- all, every omniscient post- after postmortem pre-, pro- before, forward precede, project
  • 13. COMMON PREFIXES sub- under submarine syn- same time synchronize trans- across transmit tri- three tricycle un- not unfinished uni- one unicorn
  • 14. SUFFIX "Gazebo: The name is an 18th- century joke word combining 'gaze' with the Latin suffix 'ebo,' meaning 'I shall.‘” (Encyclopedia Britannica Online)
  • 15. TYPES OF Derivational suffixes, on the other hand, usually change both the meaning and the word class; that is, a suffix is often added to a verb or adjective to form a new noun with a different meaning.
  • 16. EXAMPLE: adjective: dark / suffixed noun: darkness verb: agree / suffixed noun: agreement noun: friend / suffixed noun: friendship (Douglas Biber, Susan Conrad, and Geoffrey Leech, Longman Student Grammar of Spoken English, Longman, 2002)
  • 17. SUFFIX A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word or stem (i.e., a base form), serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending.
  • 18. SUFFIX Etymology:  From the Latin Suffixum, “to fasten underneath”
  • 19. COMMON NOUN SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning Example -acy state or quality privacy -al act or process of refusal -ance, -ence state or quality of maintenance, eminence -dom place or state of being freedom, kingdom -er, -or one who trainer, protector -ism doctrine, belief communism
  • 20. COMMON NOUN SUFFIXES -ist one who chemist -ity, -ty quality of veracity -ment condition of argument -ness state of being heaviness -ship position held fellowship -sion, -tion state of being concession, transition
  • 21. COMMON VERB SUFFIXES -ate become eradicate -en become enlighten -ify, -fy make or become terrify -ize, -ise become civilize
  • 22. COMMON ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES -able, -ible capable of being edible, presentable -al pertaining to regional -esque reminiscent of picturesque -ful notable for fanciful -ic, -ical pertaining to musical, mythic -ious, -ous characterized by nutritious, portentous -ish having the quality of fiendish -ive having the nature of creative -less without endless -y characterized by sleazy