Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar

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  • 1. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar by Chiara Chiodero June 2012 Research carried out for SPHERE India Madhubani District Disaster Management Plan
  • 2. CONTENTS 1. Major hazards affecting village settlements in Madhubani district - 3 1.1 Floods - 4 1.2 Earthquakes - 5 1.3 Main features of Madhubani village settlements - 6 1.3 a - Villages within river embankments - case study: Gadhgaon (Garhgaon GP, Madhepu block) - 6 1.3 b - Villages away from the embankments - case study: Mailam GP (AndrathadiBlock) - 7 1.3 c- Villages next to the embankments - case study: Thakur Pokhar (Mahasingh Hasauli GP, Madhepur Block) - 8 1.3 d- Villages in low lying areas - case study: Kasiyam ( Baliya GP, Lakhnaur Block) -9 1.4 Socio-economic vulnerabilities and main features of Dalit settlements, case study: Birpur (Mahas ingh Hasauli GP) - 10 2. Built environment: shelter typologies and their vulnerabilities to major hazards - 11 2.1 Kutcha houses - 11 2.1.1 Vulnerabilities to major hazards of kutcha houses - 12 2.2 Semi-pucca houses - 13 2.2.1 Vulnerabilities to major hazards of semi-pucca houses - 13 2.3 Pucca houses - 14 2.3.1 Vulnerabilities to major hazards of pucca houses - 14 2.4 Impact of floods on buildings -15 2.5 Effects of floods on different parts of buildings - 15 2.6 Impact of earthquake on buildings - 17 3. Water and Sanitation: WASH committee and Total Sanitation Campaign - 18 3.1 Water supply - 18 3.2 Drainage facilities, Liquid and Solid Waste management - 18 3.3 Sanitation - 18 3.4 Toilet typology implemented by SAKHI and WASH commitee - 20 3.5 Toilet typology for flood prone areas implemented by Bihar Sewa Samiti, Madhubani - 21 4. Disaster Risk Reduction through appropriate building technologies and design - 22 4.1 Introduction of Building Centers - 22 4.2 Dissemination of appropriate building technologies - 23 4.3 Enhancement of local building technologies and materials - 23 4.3 a - Bamboo building technology - 23 4.3 b – Confined brick masonry - 25 4.4 Introduction of alternate, low cost building technology - 26 4.5 Ban on asbestos - 28 4.6 Introduction of smokeless chulas - 29 4.7 Safe water supply - 29 4.8 Improved sanitation and drainage - 29 4.9 Homestead raising - 30 4.10 Improved bamboo housing - 31 4.11 Vernacular features of bamboo houses and other constructions using bamboo in Madhubani district - 31 5. Draft project of an improved bamboo house for the Kosi River belt (Gadhgaon) - 35 References and acknowledgments - 39 2
  • 3. 1. Major hazards affecting village settlements in Madhubani district Geographical extension of Madhubani district. The Kosi river appears clearly in the map on the esatern boundary of the district. The district is crossed by nearly 18 rivers and their tributaries. Madhubani district lies in a multi-hazard prone region: earthquakes, floods, water logging, drought, fire incidents, heat waves and cold waves, storms and high winds have been recurrent phenomena in Madhubani. The impact of hazards on buildings is severe, due to both lack of knowledge of appropriate building technology and financial asset among the residents. This results into adoption of poor building materials and unskilled workmanship. Due to a combination of natural and man-made factors, within the district we can identify areas that are prone to various hazards with different intensity. Most of the land is low lying, and is crossed by nearly 18 rivers and their tributaries. Majority of the rivers are seasonal and depend on monsoon, while some rivers, like Kosi, are perennial. A large extent of the rivers is embanked or is undergoing embankment works. Various factors, including lack of maintenance of the embankments and siltation, lead to frequent floods. Moreover, during monsoon the water gets collected in the catchment areas along the rivers and its natural flow towards the river bed is hindered by the embankments. This triggers water logging of large areas during and after monsoon. In some areas water logging extends up to 8 months. The settlements located within Madhubani district are divided into 4 categories with respect to flood situation: 1. In between the embankments 2. Away from the embankments 3. Next to embankments 4. Low lying areas Settlements pertaining to categories 1, 3 and 4 are prone to floods and water logging on a regular basis, while settlements away from the embankments may be affected by flood in case of breaches. Generally due to lack of drainage system and the nature of local soil, floods are also followed by long periods of water logging. The settlements showcase diverse building typologies depending on financial asset of the owners, caste system, availability of materials and connectivity to road. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 3
  • 4. 1.1 Floods Most of the villages of Madhubani are located either near the rivers banks or between the embankments and are subject to various level of inundation for several months in a year. They are mostly prone to high intensity floods, which every year cause loss of life and economic asset along with disruption of livelihood activities such as agriculture and cattle breeding In 2007 floods, 831 villages of 331 Panchayats were affected in Madhubani district alone. On 18 august 2008 a major breach (about 2 km in length) in the eastern embankment of the Kosi River occurred in Kusha, near the Indo-Nepal border. Water passed through the breach at an estimated 1,29,800 cusec. The river changed its course and inundated areas that had not experienced floods in many decades. The water took an unexpected path by returning to one of its former courses. Early warning system was absent and the residents were caught completely unprepared. The number of casualties rose to hundreds of people. Thousands of villages were flooded, affecting 50 lakh people and 12 lakh animals in the northern part of Bihar. Huge crop areas were also hampered due to sand deposition, disrupting agricultural production, animal husbandry and livelihood. Map of flood affected areas of Madhubani: Kosi River belt and adjoining areas to the East, Kamla River at the centre and Adwhara group to the Ouest of the district. As shown in the map, the most severely affected blocks are Bisfi, Benipatti and Harlakhi to the Ouest, and Madhepur, Lakhnaur, Ghoghardiha, Phulparas and Janjarpur to the East. Map courtesy of Bihar Sewa Samiti, Madhubani. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 4
  • 5. 1.2 Earthquakes Seismic zoning map of India showing Madhubani in Earthquake zone V Madhubani district lies in Earthquake zone V. During the past hundred years the district has experienced two major earthquakes. 1934 earthquake of magnitude 8.1 is one of the most violent earthquakes experienced in India and Nepal so far. It caused extreme damage in the Sithamari –Madhubani area. At that time about 7000 lives were lost in India and 8500 in Nepal. Due to liquefaction most of buildings situated along the rivers banks and in low lying waterlogged areas next to the river banks (unconsolidated sandy beds) tilted or sank up to one meter into the thick alluvium. Outside this belt the collapse of buildings occurred due to direct shock from seismic waves. In such areas huts made from bamboo plastered with mud suffered less damage than other types of houses (with earthen walls or fired brick walls). 21 August 1988 earthquake of magnitude 6.6 occurred in India-Nepal border region in the early morning, during monsoon season, while the areas of northern Bihar where already under floods. The affected area consists of mainly the Gangetic alluvial plain of Bihar and Nepal, and the hilly regions of eastern Himalaya ranges. The epicenter was in the vicinity of the large Bihar-Nepal earthquakes of 1833 and 1934. According to official sources, 282 people died and 3766 were injured in Bihar and 722 people died in Nepal. As in 1934, large liquefaction of soil took place: ground fissuring and emission of sandy water were observed at many places in Darbhanga and Madhubani districts. There was significant damage to embankments, railways, bridges and buildings: nearly 1,50,000 houses were damaged in Bihar alone. Loss of buildings structures and services, estimated by the various Government Departments, amounted to 108.9 crores for houses and 79.9 crores for government buildings Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 5
  • 6. and facilities. The repeat of 1934 earthquake in future will indeed be catastrophic considered an increased population and their vulnerable assets. Lack of preparedness and current unsuitable building practices would certainly multiply the impact of such an earthquake. 1.3 Main features of Madhubani village settlements Villages in Madhubani district show different features on account of their location, connectivity by road, material availability and social structure. They have been formally divided into four categories depending on their proximity to rivers’ embankements or location in low lying areas. 1.3 a - Villages within river embankments - case study: Gadhgaon (Garhgaon GP, Madhepur Block) Shelters of displaced families built on the river embankments at Gadhgaon Kosi River passes across 8 blocks in Bihar. 13 lakh people are likely to be affected by Kosi River floods in Bihar, of which 1 lakh in Madhubani district alone. In Madhubani district the blocks of Madhepur, Ghoghardiha, Phulparas and Laukahi (all in the proximity of Kosi River) are flood prone. The worst affected areas are Gadhgaon G.P, Basipatti GP, Bhargama GP, Karhara GP, Dwalak GP, Mahapatia GP, Bakua GP and Darah GP, all in Madhepur block. Fefteen km of embankments were built so far to the east and west of Kosi River, in many cases enclosing pre-existing settlements by the river sides. Gadhgaon epitomizes this kind of situation. Originally located along the flood plain, the village is now comprised within the Kosi River embankements. Since the river has been canalized, the exposure to floods of this community is progressively increasing. The village is flooded every year from July to September, and the residents would consider to relocate in a safer area if secure land was allocated to them. In 2011, 485 families in Gadhgaon were affected by floods and had to move to the security dam. The flood occurred with strong current and the houses situated in low lying areas where heavily damaged. Some of them were dislodged and carried away with the current. The flood levels reached 6 to 8 feet in the village. Out of 485 families residing in Gadhgaon, 200 households are located in low lying areas, and are severely affected by floods. 50 houses have been built on the embankments so far, which have become permanent shelter to the displaced families. Some households from low lying areas have migrated to the other side of the river, which is also part of the village, but is nevertheless another vulnerable site. The villagers don’t have any other option since they are not entitled to safer land for relocation. All the houses in the settlement are kutcha (bamboo and timber with thatched roof). Few houses are built on raised platforms, while most of them are directly built at ground level, regardless of their location in low lying areas. In some homesteads the ground was raised to a safer level through collective work. Bananas and other water absorbing plantations around the homestead help protecting the households from floods. There is scarce road connectivity to this village (only kutcha roads), which remains completely isolated during floods. Dispite of this vulnerable situ- Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 6
  • 7. ation, so far the government has provided only six recovery boats for the entire village. Due to scarce road connectivity it is very difficult to purchase heavy building materials in the village, hence all the dewllings in Gadhgaon are made out of bamboo. Sometimes bricks are used for foundations and plinth, Corrugated Iron sheets and unsafe asbestos sheets for roofs. Prefabricated RC posts are gradually replacing bamboo posts, which are considered to be perishable. The local building technology showcases features that could be fostered, like robust roofing systems. Some good examples of such roofs can be seen in neighboring villages along the Kosi River belt. With regards to the widespread use of bamboo for building in villages that are vulnerable to floods like Gadhgaon, bamboo houses are safer than other local shelter typologies with respect to earthquake and they can be strengthened to make them more resilient to floods. 1.3 b - Villages away from the embankments - case study: Mailam GP (Andrathadi Block) Deterioration and failure of houses built in Sijoul under Indira Awaas Yojana scheme. Villages of Mailam GP (Mailam, Sijoul, Tilai) are located 2 to 3 km away from Kamla River embankments. Kamla is a seasonal river that originates from the Mahabharat range in Nepal and enters the Indian territory in Madhubani district. During monsoon the river swells up considerably. A barrage known as the Kamla barrage was constructed by the State Government near Jainagar. It joins the river Kareh at Badlaghat in Khagaria district. The combined stream flows into the nearby Kosi. Villages located away from the embankments (2-3 km) are affected by floods in case of breaches. In Sijoul and Tilai 2004 floods reached 7 to 8 feet due to a breach in the embankments. The average level of floods in this area is 2 to 2,5 feet, followed by long periods of water logging (2-3 months). Since the main road is relatively close and facilitates the transportation of heavy building materials on site, these settlements show mixed house types: kutcha, semi-pucca and pucca houses. Kutcha houses are made of bamboo with thatched walls and roof, semi-pucca houses consist of a mix of brick masonry and bamboo walls, with thatched or asbestos sheet roofing. Pucca houses are built using confined brick masonry with RC slab or asbestos sheet roofing, or more rarely RCC frames and brick filler walls. A few RCC roofs in the village are used as shelter during floods. Some houses, both kutcha and pucca, were built on raised platform after floods. For instance, recent bamboo houses were built on earthen plinths up to 2.5 feet high in this area. In this Panchayat several houses were built under the Indira Awaas Yojana scheme over time. In Sijoul, a group of houses built in 1988 remains in dreadful conditions. The subsidy in 1988 consisted of 13-14,000 INR, and is currently 45,000 INR, which is inadequate to build a sound brick house. These brick houses lie completely dilapidated and unsafe. Due to water seepage, lack of ventilation and smoke from open chulas, the rooms have become dark and unhealthy. Dislodgement of bricks due to floods can be seen at the plinth level and at the columns base. In most cases mud mortar or poor cement mortar was used. Reinforced concrete is deteriorated. Natural light and proper ventilation are absent. Some structures have already failed, while other structures are on the verge of failure. They are not habitable places, being extremely unsafe and unhealthy even in normal conditions and life-threatening in case of hazard. The use of asbestos sheet is widespread in this kind of houses, asbestos being locally the Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 7
  • 8. cheapest option for roofing. There is a generalized lack of awareness of the effects of asbestos on human health among the villagers and even decision makers and NGOs representatives. More recent Indira Awaas Yojana houses, built in the past 5 years according to the same pattern, display a similar range of problems. In most cases the families cannot afford adding to the amount of the subsidy in order to build a safer pucca house, the cost of which would rise above 1,5 lakh, for the same or even a smaller area. 1.3 c - Villages next to embankments - case study: Thakur Pokhar (Mahasingh Hasauli GP, Madhepur Block) Villages located next to the village embankments are severely affected by floods and water logging. Thakur Pokhar is situated in Madhepur Block, Mahasingh Hasauli GP, next to Kamla River eastern embankment. In these areas the water comes from 4 rivers: Gahumer, Sugarway, Supan and Balan. Floods happen due to breaches in the security dam and reach 4 to 5 feet in the village and surrounding areas. There are several sluice gates which were built by the government in 2004 along the security dam for overflow control, but they are not functional as they were rapidly obstructed due to siltation. The area is also prone to water logging during monsoon: due to the presence of the embankments the water gets collected in the catchment area and is stopped from flowing towards the riverbed. Water logging during monsoon reaches up to 4-5 feet, like during floods. 125 families reside in Thakur Pokhar, out of which 30 families are permanently displaced on the security dam. These families started moving on the dam in 1987. The main hamlet is built on an elevated mound, but only 30-40 households are residing on high raised areas and are safe from floods. Most families live on the edge of the settlement and are severely affected by floods and water logging every year. When floods or water logging happen, the dwellers seek refuge on the security dam through self-built boats (5 small boats for the entire village). Up to date, the government did not supply any rescue boat. The displaced families stay on the embankments for 3-4 months: after floods mobility is hampered as roads are destroyed and there is water logging, stretching the distress of people for several months. There are mainly kutcha bamboo houses in the village, while only 2 or 3 brick houses were built under Indira Awaas Yojana. For these houses asShelters built on the Kamla River em- bestos is generally used for roofing. bankments by the displaced families from Thakur Pokhar Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 8
  • 9. 1.3 d - Villages in low lying areas - case study: Kasiyam (Baliya GP, Lakhnaur Block) 1 2 Kasiyam village is located in Lakhanaur Block, Balyia GP. The village is situated in a low lying area, which suffers flooding up to 4-5 feet due to water logging for a very long period of 8 months/year (from July to February). More than 300 families reside in the village, out of which 150 are Dalits. All castes are present in the village, and the features of their houses vary accordingly. The village is connected by road, thus the settlement shows mixed house types: kutcha, semi-pucca and pucca houses. Kutcha houses are made out of bamboo with thatched walls and roofs; semi-pucca houses consist of a mix of brick masonry and bamboo walls, and asbestos sheets for roofing; pucca houses are made using confined brick masonry with RC slab or asbestos sheets roof, or more rarely RCC columns and beam system. All the dwellings are built on elevated platforms, made using either compacted earth (kutcha houses), or brick (pucca and semi-pucca houses). The soil sourced from a local pond allows to obtain a good compaction for the earthen plinth, and no signs of heavy deterioration are seen at the platform level, even in kutcha houses. There is a plan by Mahila Vikas Ashram, a local NGO, to subsidize semipucca houses with brick platform and pillars and bamboo walls infill, unsafely covered with asbestos sheet. It is a minimal housing unit often built in series with a common wall. The house dimensions are 11x15 feet corresponding to a single room. The NGO subsidizes the materials cost (17,000 INR in 2009, about 25,000-30,000 today), while the owners contribute in terms of labor. Up to date 40 of these houses were built in Kasiyam. In the main Dalit pocket most houses are smaller with lack of proper ventilation. Up to date, only a few subsidized semi-pucca houses were built in this pocket with the help of Mahila Vikas Ashram. 3 Housing unit provided by Mahila Vikas Ashram (1) and dwellings of the Dalit community in Kasiyam (2,3). Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 9
  • 10. 1.4 Socio-economic vulnerabilities and main features of Dalit settlements - case study: Birpur (Mahasingh Hasauli GP) Dalit settlemnts are among the most vulnerable to floods and other hazards, aggravated by the fact that due to caste system Dalit communities are not entitled to land property. Hence the possibilities of expanding their villages and building in safer areas are reduced for Dalits, if compared with other communities. Dalit settlements should be regraded as specific cases while adressing hazards on account of the additional vulnerabilities induced by the social stigma these community are bearing. A stigma that in most cases excludes them from disaster risk reduction planning and various other development programs. Birpur is an exemple of this kind of situation. The village is located next to Kamla River eastern embankments and it is home to a Dalit Musahar community. In Bihar there are 16 lakhs Dalit families, who are landless and have no right to land. They are Mushar, Paswan, Safi, Doam, and Halkhor among others. Musahar are mainly landless and agricultural laborers. They lack of education and other skills. There are 45 Dalit families in Birpur, approximately 250 to 300 people. Child malnutrition is a striking problem in this village. Moreover, the village does not have a school facility. The nearest primary school is 1.5 km away: for reaching it the children should cross a river, hence to avoid any risk parents prefer not to send them to school. Seasonal migration of the work force is frequent, leaving the elderly, women and children at the village. The village is situated in a flood prone area, mainly due to the proximity of the Kamla River embankments. Before the embankements were built floods did not use to be as severe and long-lasting as nowadays. Since the Musahar community has no right to land entitlement, they cannot find enough land to expand their village. As a result all the households in the village are extremely tiny, shallow, compressed around small courtyards and they lack proper ventilation both indoor and outdoor. Floods are followed by water logging up to 6-7 feet. During floods the villagers displace to Ram Baj Chowk, a village 1.5 km away located at a higher level. Despite having raised the platforms of their huts by 2-3 feet, the water enters the houses, reaching up to 4 feet. Most of the houses in the village are kutcha. There are some brick houses built under Indira Awaas Yojana scheme and they lie in extremely deteriorated conditions. The average local cost of a kutcha bamboo house (24x12 feet) with an earthen platform is 27,000 INR. The cost goes up to about 48,000 INR if bricks are used for foundations and for building a raised platform. The average cost of a 24x12 feet brick house, without RC bands and covered with Corrugated Iron sheets is estimated to be above 1 lakh INR. If sound RC bands and columns were added to make the house earthquake resistant, and plaster was applied to protect the bricks from rain and water, the price would rise to about 2 lakh INR. These estimate go far beyond the capacities of a Dalit family. In Bihar 16 lakh Dalit families have no right to land, while water logged area is progressively increasing. Precarious living conditions in Birpur Dalit settlement. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 10
  • 11. 2. Built environment: shelter typologies and their vulnerabilities to major hazards The shelters seen in the dwellings of Madhubani have been divided into three broad categories, of Kutcha, Semi-Pucca and Pucca, on account of the materials used: perishable, semi-permanent and permanent as they are commonly categorized by the users. 2.1 Kutcha houses: • Foundations : earthen plinth or brick perimeter and earthen infill plinth, where brick foundation goes about 2-3 feet deep into the ground. • Structure: bamboo and timber posts directly embedded into the ground up to 2-3 feet. Bamboo posts are generally the main support for the wall and a central timber post supports the roof. Sometimes in kutcha houses precast RC posts are used as replacement for bamboo poles, since they are considered to be more durable. It is a local technology especially developed for this purpose. The posts are shaped so that they can easily be joined with horizontal bamboo poles. They are embedded directly in the ground for 3-4 feet. In most cases combined use of RC precast posts and bamboo poles is seen, as the RC poles are used as replacement for damaged bamboo. • Walls: organic materials, mainly bamboo grids filled with locally sourced grass (ikra) or bamboo lath walls using split section of bamboo side by side vertically in a frame. Mud plaster is generally applied on the inner surface of the wall, sometimes on both inner and outer surface. • Roof: bamboo rafters and purlins form the skeleton of the thatched roof, which is supported by timber posts (generally sesame wood). The grass used is either ikra, a weed sourced locally, or paddy also sourced locally. Typical features of a bamboo house of Madhubani. • Joints: Wall and roof members are nailed and then tied together through jute rope lashes. The typical house for a joint family is rectangular in shape and consists of two rooms, a thin veranda alongside the rooms and a small kitchen area that can be either inside one room or in the veranda. All rooms open directly on the veranda, while interior doors are absent. In some cases the kitchen is located outdoor, in a dedicated adjoining open or semi-open space. Sanitation facilities are generally absent. The average size of a bamboo-ikra house is 200 to 300 sqft. Generally adjoining structures are added around a central courtyard as per households’ requirements. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 11
  • 12. 2.1.1 Vulnerabilities to major hazards of kutcha houses • Earthquake: Due to high elasticity and resilience of bamboo, bambootimber framed houses offer good resistance to seismic forces, but weakness of improper joints and lack of good framing of bamboo members often result into permanent deformation of the house, even under normal conditions. The risk of collapse is inferior as compared to pucca or semi-pucca houses, due to the high elasticity of bamboo and the use of seasoned timber poles for supporting the roof. The structural properties of bamboo seem to be underestimated, while great attention is given into supporting the roof through expensive and over-dimensioned timber trunks. Often the vertical bamboo poles are replaced with precast RC posts: the sudden change in stiffness of the structural elements may compromise the performance of the building during earthquake, especially when longer and heavier RCC poles replace timber posts as main support for the roof. Kutcha houses in low lying areas and built without a raised platform are particularly vulnerable to floods The practice of cooking on open chulas sensitively increase the risk of fire hazards for kutcha houses • Floods: When the level of floods increases, the house can be dismantled and rebuilt at a higher level. The bamboo and timber framing tied with ropes easily allows this kind of practice. Mud plaster is eventually washed away and the damaged bamboo post and mats can be replaced. Generally the occupants keep on staying in the house even during floods despite increased water level and long periods of water logging. When the level of flood is high, they seek refuge on the machan, a raised sitting board (about 4’ high). If the flood level is very high, the household moves to a higher and safer area for the duration of flood (that can extend up to 3-4 months). In many cases temporary shelters built during floods becomes permanent, especially in critical areas within river embankments (Kosi River belt, Kamla River belt). • Fire: The material for roof and wall infill being in most cases thatch, kutcha houses are vulnerable to fire (especially if not plastered). While bamboo offers a good resistance to fire since it is rich in silicate acid, the thatch used for wall infill and roof is extremely vulnerable, especially if it is not properly compacted. The local cooking device is an open chula situated inside or outside the building, and branches and dried leaves are used as fuel, which is extremely volatile. All these combined factors sensibly increase the risk and incidence of fire, especially in summer season with the rise of sudden high winds, fire being among the major hazards in Madhubani district. • Cold wave and heat wave: Mud plaster and thatched roof provide good insulation to this type of house both in summer and winter. Bamboo or bamboo-ikra mats and grids as infill materials for walls allow freedom in the positioning of openings for ventilation. Loose thatch for roofs and unplatstered ikra for walls make these shelter vulnerable to fire hazards. • High winds: if the thatched roof is not fixed properly, high winds may lead to weakening of the structure. Once the roof cover is detached, the roof and the entire building are vulnerable to rain and other hazards. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 12
  • 13. 2.2 Semi-pucca houses: • Foundations and structural elements: Country bricks • Walls: Poor country bricks in mud mortar or poor, sandy cement mortar. Sometimes mortar is absent. Mixed country bricks and bamboo-ikra walls. • Roof: Thatch, country tiles, CI sheet with bamboo or timber framing, asbestos corrugated sheet. 1 A semi-pucca house generally recalls the plan and distribution features of a kutcha house. 2.2.1 Vulnerabilities to major hazards of semi-pucca houses • Earthquake: This type of house is non-engineered and built with poor locally available materials. Lack of skilled craftsmanship and unsuitable use of materials having already poor mechanical properties make these dwellings particularly vulnerable to earthquake. 2 • Floods and water logging: Due to the nature of foundation and walls it is difficult to repair this type of house after damage due to floods. Prolonged immersion and exposure to water will weaken the mechanical properties of the country bricks, leading to cracks and failures. • Fire: A certain amount of organic material is used in semi-pucca houses, thus increasing their vulnerability to fire, especially if thatch is used for walls and roofs. 3 Typical semi-pucca houses in the villages of Madhubani (1,2,3) • Cold wave and heat wave: Semi-pucca houses are less resistant to cold wave and heat wave. Inadequate thickness of the brick walls, often only half brick thick, results into scarce insulating performance. Sometimes mud plaster is added on the outer surface of the wall, which can improve insulation only to a minor extent. CI sheets and asbestos sheets are not appropriate for extreme weather conditions. Terracotta tiles provide better insulation. • High winds: if joints are weak and the roof cover is not secured properly, thatch or other roofing materials may be dislodged, leading to weakening of the entire structure. Asbetos corrugated sheet roof covering a recently built semi-pucca house. • Health hazards: the widespread and increasing use of asbestos in the region is a preoccupying factor for the health of the residents, including present and future generations. People are generally unaware of the long and potentially short-term (in case of hazard and sudden rupture) impact of asbestos on human health. Asbestos sheets for roofing have been introduced extensively in the region during the past 10 years. This will lead to widespread and serious health problems within the next decades. Asbestos has been banned in Europe when after decades its effects Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 13
  • 14. on health have been proven, and the public opinion mobilized: prolonged exposure to any type of asbestos can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma and lead to other lung and pleural disorders, including asbestosis. Asbestosis is a serious, progressive, long-term disease of the lungs. Inhaling asbestos fibers that irritate and inflame lung tissues, causing the lung tissues to scar, causes asbestosis. The scarring makes it hard to breathe and difficult for oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through the lungs. Asbestosis generally progresses slowly. The latency period for the onset of asbestosis is typically 10-20 years after the initial exposure. 2.3 Pucca houses: • Foundations and structural elements: Country bricks, cement, RC columns. 1 • Walls: Poor country bricks in mud mortar or poor, sandy cement mortar. Sometimes mortar is absent. Country bricks are plastered with cement. Confined brick masonry is a building technology that local people attempt to implement, but with scarce results due to lack of financial resources and lack of skilled craftsmanship. It consists in casting reinforced concrete bands at various levels within the brick masonry and providing reinforced concrete columns at the main corners within the brick walls previously built. • Roof: RCC slab, country tiles, more rarely mechanized tiles, asbestos sheet. 2 A pucca house layout generally varies according to the household dimension and its economic asset or access to finance. Indira Awaas Yojana houses are present in almost every village and they generally follow the same plan. Regional features are sometimes seen, such as a central patio that distributes various rooms. 2.3.1 Vulnerabilities to major hazards of pucca houses 3 Pucca houses of Madhubani: Indira Awaas scheme (1), water seepage on a RC building (2) and a rare traditional village house in good conditions(3). • Earthquake: like semi-pucca houses, a pucca house is generally non-engineered and is built using poor materials that are available locally. As for semi-pucca houses, lack of skilled craftsmanship and inadequate use of materials with already low mechanical properties make this kind of house particularly vulnerable to hazards. Inadequate reinforcement and weak bonding and mortar make confined brick masonry houses unsafe in case of earthquake. The same can be said in the case of heavy RCC columns and beams with inadequate structural properties. Sudden changes in shape and height of the built volume and dangerous overhangings increase the vulnerability to earthquake of such houses. • Floods and water logging: prolonged immersion and exposure to water will decrease the mechanical properties of the country bricks, leading to cracks and failures. The mortar will be washed away. Concrete and RCC that are not waterproofed will also face deep deterioration. Water will easily reach to the reinforcement rods leading to corrosion and weakening of the entire structure. The action of rain during monsoon will also Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 14
  • 15. contribute to the weakening and decay of the entire structure due to lack or inadequacy of waterproofing and subsequent seepage. • Fire: these houses are relatively less vulnerable to fire than kutcha or semi-pucca houses. Corrosion and dislodgement of bricks ate the base of the wall due to floods • Cold wave and heat wave: Pucca houses with walls made of country bricks plastered with cement, without any additional insulating material, and RCC slab as roofing system are the less appropriate for extreme weather both in summer and winter season. Insulating performance of concrete is very low and these houses tend to trap the heat instead of protecting from it. Some benefit can be gained only through proper ventilation as a mitigation measure. • Health hazards: same as for semi-pucca houses. 2.4 Impact of floods on buildings The impact of floods on buildings depends on several factors, such as: 1. Flood depth, 2. Flood duration, 3. Uplift due to soil saturation 4. Horizontal force created by flood waves and currents In addition, flood hazard may occur simultaneously with other hazards, such as earthquake, heat wave, slope instability, ground settlement. Madhubani district is situated in a multi-hazard prone region, hence the eventuality of several hazards occurring simultaneously has to be considered before starting any new construction. Flood waters can submerge buildings and create various degree of damages, from weakening of walls to collapse of the structure, depending on flood depth, duration and type of building. 2.5 Effects of floods on different parts of buildings a) Foundations and structural elements: • Earthen foundations with bamboo and timber posts: In kutcha houses bamboo and timber posts are embedded directly into the earthen plinth. This type of structure is extremely vulnerable to floods and requires frequent maintenance and replacement of posts. Earthen plinths tend to be washed off and have to be rebuilt. Bamboo and timber in saturated soil get rotten at the base, weakening the entire building and exposing it to damage from other agents (wind, ground settlement). The walls and windows crack, the building loses alignment, sagging of doors and roof may occur. Bamboo posts have to be replaced frequently in flood prone areas. In case of floods combined with currents, vulnerable structures in low lying areas may be dislodged due to scouring and the entire house may be washed away with the floods. • Earthen foundations with semi-pucca wall: While the plinth behave the same way as in kutcha houses, it is more difficult to retrofit damaged country brick wall that might have lost alignment or cracked. This kind of repairing is expensive and labor intensive. • Brick foundations: Although bricks provide major resistance to erosion to the superstructure, if submerged in water for long time they lose mechanical strength. The plinth filled with earth can also face settlement due to saturation; in prolonged floods it can become muddy and the mud may extrude from below the plinth area, Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 15
  • 16. leaving the foundation instable. • Brick and concrete: this foundation is relatively durable, but in high intensity floods accompanied by current shallow foundation is likely to become unstable due to loss of soil cover. Long-term flood can lead to soil settlement, causing cracks and failures in different parts of the building. b) Walls: • Bamboo mat / bamboo and ikra: the life span of grass material is 2-3 years, and that of non treated bamboo mat is 4-5 years. Floods accelerate the decay of such elements, which need to be replaced before they lead to deterioration of the entire wall. Flood with strong current can detach the wall panels, especially if the connections with posts are weak. • Earth: The mud plaster is washed away by floods but can easily be replaced once the wall panels dry up or are replaced. • Brick: mechanical properties of brick decrease if immersed in water for long periods. Peeling of plaster and weakening of mortar can also occur. Cracks might develop if settlement of foundations occurs. • Doors and windows: bamboo or timber frames are vulnerable to floods, especially if timber is not seasoned and treated properly. c) Roof: 1 2 3 Effects of floods on walls of a semipucca house (bricks with mud mortar) (1) and of a kutcha bamboo house plastered with mud (2,3) • Thatched (ikra, puddy straw): duration of a thatch roof is generally 2-3 years. It can be more durable if the thatch is properly compacted (up to 10 years). A thatched roof is obviously affected by floods if it comes directly in contact with water. • Country tiles: this roof is also affected only if in direct contact with floods water and currents, that may dislodge the tiles if not properly fixed. • Mechanical tiles: these tiles provide a higher degree of mechanic resistance in case of hazard. • CI sheets: In contact with water corrugated iron sheets can lead to corrosion and are vulnerable to secondary hazard of heavy rainfall. They are particularly vulnerable to high winds. • Asbestos sheets: asbestos is a highly toxic material. It constantly deteriorates and release particles in the atmosphere and indoor, which are extremely dangerous to human health, and may lead to serious maladieslike cancer or asbestosis. In case of hazards such as floods, earthquake, due to sudden collapse and rupture big quantities of asbestos will be released in the atmosphere, which may affect human health very fast. Asbestos needs to be handled and disposed with maximum precaution and by trained personnel with suitable equipment. It cannot be handled by unskilled persons and without appropriate protection. • Reinforced Concrete: in case of flood, failure of other structural elements (foundation, columns) can lead to failure of reinforced concrete roof. Reinforced concrete is also vulnerable to other hazards, such a s prolonged rainfall, especially if waterproofing is not adequate. This will lead to seepage and infiltration of water into the structural elements, thus leaving the entire structure more vulnerable to major hazards, such as floods and earthquake. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 16
  • 17. 2.6 Impact of earthquake on buildings The impact of earthquake on buildings is multidimensional and cannot be resumed schematically. Nevertheless, some basic aspects could be underlined, especially with regards to shelters in rural areas. • Foundations: ground settlement can trigger serious damage to foundations. If the water table is high (especially along the river beds) liquefaction may occur along with earthquake. The water emerges and is quickly absorbed by the sandy soil, which becomes soft and this can lead to sinking or even dislodgment of the building from the foundation. • Roof: Roof tends to separate from its support and roof cover tend to be dislodged • Walls: Depending on the different forces acting on the building during earthquake, walls tend to tear apart, shear off diagonally or collapse. Additional shear can be due to twisting and warping of unsymmetrical building volumes. Corners are particularly vulnerable and fail in absence of appropriate bonding or reinforcement. Walls usually fall outwards because they lack a closed ring beam, sufficient bonding and shear strength. Too large and unsuitably located door and windows openings also weaken the wall structure. • Doors and windows: due to weakened pears between openings, stress concentrate on openings so thatcorners of openings crack and fail. • Change of material or dimension: Failure can be due to a sudden change in mass or stiffness. • Columns: if the column is too thin compared to its length it can bend excessively and collapse. • Connections: weak connections between wall and wall, wall and roof, wall and foundation lead to collapse of the entire structure. • Building extensions: Very closed buildings that oscillate may bang into each other. If a new construction is directly attached to an existing one the stress will concentrate at adjoining walls and might result into serious damage. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 17
  • 18. 3. Water and Sanitation: WASH committee and Total Sanitation Campaign There are various initiatives led by local NGOs to improve the conditions of water supply and sanitation in the region, by extending the application of government schemes to villages and households that remain still uncovered. 3.1 Water supply One of the major initiatives of the Government in the domain of water and sanitation was the initiation of the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) in 1972-73, renamed as Rajiv Gandhi national drinking water mission in 1991-92. Swajaldhara scheme was started under it in 2002 and focuses on rural population. The scheme aims to provide safe drinking water in rural areas with full ownership by the community. It also envisages that the standard individual need of water per person per day i.e. 40 lpcd (litres per capita per day) and quality of BIS (Bureau of Indian Standard) will be ensured to everybody in rural areas. 2011 data of state of Bihar shows that out of total habitation of 1,07,642 only 88,801 have been covered under the mission. In Madhubani district only 1641 habitations out of 2644 have been covered under the Swajaldhara. The people of 1003 uncovered habitations are collecting drinking water from personal or community tube wells, dug wells, tanks, and ponds. There is water supply through hand pump in a few villages. Along the river belts the water table is generally high and therefore the construction of deep bore wells is normally not required. In these areas the water table is at a depth of 3 to 5 meters. 3.2 Drainage facilities, Liquid and Solid Waste Management. Drainage system is generally absent in the villages. This factor hampers the outflow of water during and after floods as well as during monsoon. The periods of water logging are very long and are worsened by lack of drainage facilities at household and village level. There is not liquid or solid waste management system in the villages. The households mostly dispose their liquid wastes on fields, roads, ponds, courtyards and open spaces. This leads to unhygienic environment and diseases. Most of the solid waste produced is organic and it is directly disposed in the fields, but plastic material is also used, which is also disposed in the fields along with organic matter, or even on roads and ponds or in open spaces around the house. It is urgent to introduce liquid and solid waste management systems and educate the people to segregate organic material from plastics and others, before their consumption will increase. 3.3 Sanitation To eradicate the practice of open defecation in rural areas the Government started its flagship program of Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in 1999. The program provides subsidy and support for construction of toilets to families below poverty line (BPL families), schools, Anganwadis and to build sanitary complex for common use. There is provision of toilets for APL families under Rammanohar Lohiya Swachata yojana by the State government of Bihar. A nodal agency called PRAKALP is authorised by Bihar State Water and Sanitation Mission to implement the TSC program, and is directly implementing the project in the whole State. The achievement of State of Bihar in construction of Toilets for BPL families is only 39% and 15.29% for APL families. The Total School toilet target is 76,581, while constructed toilets are only 54,178. Of total Anganwadi toilet target of 6595 only 22% has been achieved so far. Detailed guidelines have been provided to ensure community participation, beneficiaries’ contribution and role of local governing bodies like PRIs, but studies reveal there is very low community participation in the programme. There is a larger scope of improvement in water and sanitation status Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 18
  • 19. through community awareness The water and sanitation situation is obviously worsened in presence of water logging. Water logging and unclean environment trigger the contamination of water, hence water born diseases generally follow floods. Lack of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities adds to the distress of people. In 2008, SAKHI with the support of Water Aid India started working in 15 villages of two blocks of Andhrathari and Jhanjharpur. Its aim was to improve WASH status of 1500 families who were recipients of CM Awaas Yojana after the 2007 floods. Low cost toilet models were constructed in 330 households and 400 families were provided safe drinking water through installation of 80 hand pumps. Speeches and drawing competitions in schools and Nukkad natak on WASH were organised, which facilitated the use of 70 % of model toilets. Trainings on Diarrhoea management to the community helped reduce the diarrhoea cases up to 10 %. According to the data of Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Madhubani district has achieved 100% target of IHHL (individual household latrine) construction for 67,482 BPL families, but the physical verification of the project area led by SAKHI and other organizations alike shows that the coverage is only 3% in BPL families. As per the table showing below, block performance status of Total Sanitation Campaign, 91% household of Andhrathari and 92% of Jhanjharpur block are practicing open defecation. The percentage of people accessing sanitation services is very less: only 9 % and 8% in respective blocks. The percentage shows that large numbers (more than 80% of the population of the blocks) are not having toilet in the house.   Block  Status  of  Baseline  survey  (BLS)  Andhrathari   Sl.No   With   Toilet   Components   Without   Toilet   Total   1   Total  Household   733   8079   8812   2   Total  BPL  HH     214   3186   3400   3   Total  APL  HH     519   4893   5412   4   Total  Schools     11   46   57     Block  Status  of  Baseline  survey  (BLS)  Jhanjharpur     1   Total  Household   438   5452   5890   2   Total  BPL  HH     110   2154   2264   3   Total  APL  HH     328   3298   3626   4   Total  Schools     9   49   58   Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 19
  • 20. Madhubani district Elementary Education plan (Annual work plan 2008-2009) reveals that 159 schools do not have toilets and 556 schools are without facility for drinking water. In 2193 schools there are no separate toilets for boys and girls. Jhanjharpur, which is one of the important sub division of Madhubani district, has 49 schools lacking toilet facility, whereas the district data pertaining to school toilet construction is showing 99.35% project achievement, which is contradictory itself. 3.4 Toilet typology implemented by SAKHI and WASH committee The low cost toilet model implemented by SAKHI is a leak pit system. The leak pit is built using bricks, it is 3.5 feet deep and 3 feet wide, covered by a reinforced cement lid. The limited depth of the pit is determined by the generally high water table (it can be as high as 5 feet in this area). For the implementation of the toilet high raised locations are selected, since this system is not suitable for flood prone areas: the system is not watertight and can be inundated, thus it cannot be implemented in all the households regardless of their location. The pan is generally placed on a brick plinth raised by 1.5 ft. The cost of the structure is 3200 INR to which the cost of the superstructure has to be added. The government contributes through the Total Sanitation Campaign scheme by 3000 INR or 3500 INR for BPL families. The facilitators suggest building a second pit since it will increase the capacity of the toilet and allow a cyclical use of the same. As the second pit will fill, the content of the first will dry and become a granular matter suitable for manure. This system will increase the cost of the latrine by 1600 INR. The total cost of the system with two pits is 4800 INR. The cost of the superstructure varies according to the materials used. The facilitators suggest a bamboo superstructure, which is low cost, but the beneficiaries generally prefer brick superstructure with asbestos sheet cover. The cost of a toilet with a brick superstructure can increase up to 10,000 INR. Generally the beneficiaries cannot afford building a brick superstructure, so they leave the latrine semi-open and don’t make full use of it. Leak pit toilets implemented in Magrona (Andhrathadhi block). The superstructure was not completed. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 20
  • 21. 3.5 Toilet typology for flood prone areas implemented by Bihar Sewa Samiti, Madhubani Among the flood preparedness models implemented by BSS in flood affected areas, there is a common female bathroom complex (4 bathrooms) with one hand pump and washing platform, which is flood protected with stairs. Another model implemented by BSS is the installation of 1000 toilets in floods affected villages of Bisfi block. The toilets are installed on raised homesteads and they are mainly of three types: 1. With bamboo (100 toilets) or concrete superstructure (45) 2. With concrete water storage/water tube (600) 3. Without superstructure (475) Common batroom complex and individual household toilets implemented by BSS madhubani. Photos Bihar Sewa Samiti Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 21
  • 22. 4. Disaster Risk Reduction through appropriate building technologies and design Best practices in the field of construction should be implemented at district level, which will have beneficial outcomes also at state level. It is urgent to fill the gaps in knowledge and dissemination of appropriate building practices, bearing in mind the specific geographic features and climatic conditions of the district, and considering the various hazards that jeopardize the region. This will avoid loss of human lives and enormous economic loss due to disaster. To consider construction as an activity that relies entirely on people’s resources and individual skills does not trigger an inclusive development of the region; moreover, this attitude will have very negative drawbacks both in the long and short term, having already seen the extent of damage provoqued by various hazards on inadequate buildings. Government schemes and organizations at different level should work together for the implementation of innovative solutions that will foster local capacities for appropriate building while enhancing local economy. BUILDING CENTRE MICRO CREDIT INSTITUTIONS NGOs DISSEMINATION OF APPROPRIATE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PRI INDIRA AWAAS YOJANA AND OTHER GOVT.SCHEMES ENABLE ACCESS TO SAFER HOUSING It is important to facilitate people participation in the process, through involvement of village level institutions, and make development people driven. Synergic involvement of all stakeholders – the government with grants schemes, banking institution with credit and microcredit schemes, PRI for equitable development, NGOs for supporting the process, and Building Centers for technology transfer – is critical for implementing actions that require simultaneous deployment of large amounts of resources. 4.1 Introduction of Building Centers A Building Centre is a grass root level technology transfer mechanism and institution for propagation of appropriate, cost effective and environment friendly building technologies. The main objectives of the Building Centre are: • Function as a technology transfer centre in the field of housing, building and development • Capacity building and training centre for masons, artisans, carpenters, etc • Manufacturing and distribution outlet that makes available building components to end users • Provide design consultancy and services for matching technology to local situation • Undertake field studies for development of appropriate, cost effective, environment friendly building materials and construction techniques adapted to local conditions A Building Centre is a valuable resource not only for technology transfer and capacity building, but also in term of livelihood creation for local people. There is certainly a wide range of low cost building technologies that could be introduced in Madhubani district according to its specific features, but this goal cannot be achieved without preliminary studies and sound technical support. Any suggestion that remains on paper without attempting effective implementation through Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 22
  • 23. institutions that are specific to this field is of little or no use to the people. 4.2 Dissemination of appropriate building technologies Dissemination of appropriate building technologies has to be achieved primarily through first hand training of local masons and craftsmen by the building centre. Secondly these practices can be supported through the distribution of written and illustrative materials such as handbooks and posters in order to reach out to a maximum number of people, even to those self-builders who have limited access to skilled craftsmanship and building centers. This material should be distributed by local NGOs that should also facilitate access to the building centre whenever further information or technical support is required. 4.3 Enhancement of local building technologies and materials As observed during various field visits, there are mainly two building technologies which are currently used in the villages of Madhubani. These are bamboo and confined brick masonry, although especially for the latter sound and safe buildings are rarely achieved. Such attempts are hampered by lack of financial resources and lack of skilled craftsmanship. It is therefore urgent to fill these gaps and disseminate safer construction practices in the region. 4.3 a - Bamboo building technology In the vernacular bamboo dwellings of Madhubani there is an inherent potential for technical improvements in current building practices. Suitable construction practices must have been frequent in the region until recent times, but are now partly lost. Variations of vernacular, correctly built houses are seen in different areas, with specific traditional features occurring in certain villages rather then others. For instance, in Kosi River belt most houses have a sound roofing system, both in terms of structure and thatch cover. It is important to identify and document what remains of the appropriate designs in the region and enable local masons and craftsmen who still master these skills to transfer their knowledge. Moreover, bamboo building technology can be enhanced though the introduction or reintroduction of suitable practices in the seasoning and treatment of bamboo. Technical innovations can also improve the stability and durability of bamboo structures. Bamboo houses are earthquake resistant due to the high elasticity of bamboo: bamboo can endure deformation and return to its original shape. It is needed to increase the durability of bamboo shelters, which can be achieved also through following natural processes. Another challenge is to make these structures flood resilient. This can be achieved through building at a higher level or by raising the plinth level and simple waterproofing of bamboo posts at their base. Further improvement can be achieved if research cells / building centers are created, which are devoted to the study and implementation of innovative building technologies using local materials like bamboo. Use of bamboo in construction should be fostered since it is earthquake proof, low cost, and eco-friendly. Being used in many places as the primary building material, it is already accepted by many people in the district. Further, enhancing bamboo building technology in the region has a huge potential for livelihood creation. The cultivation of bamboo is also beneficial to soil conservation and afforestation, hence plantations should be encouraged as part of social forestry programs. Moreover, financial assistance could be extended also to those who want to build a bamboo house. This will allow them to adopt flood mitigation measures and increase the durability of their houses. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 23
  • 24. The table below shows the estimated local cost of a medium size bamboo house (19’x23’). The house has a raised earthen plinth of about 2 feet. Brick or cement were not used for construction: Item Quantity Unit Rate Mud Bamboo Wooden post Rope Doors (sesame wood) Thatch(paddy straw) labor Total material cost Total   25 45 2 15 2 tailor culms trunk Kg door 300/tailor 80/culm 6500/trunk 60/kg 3000/door 10 bundle 500/bundle 20 Man days Material cost (INR) 7500 3600 13000 900 6000 300/day Labor cost (INR) 5000 6000 36000 42000 In many cases no or very less labor is used, the house being self-built by the family’s members. Hence the cost of the house will come down to the cost of building materials. Cost of materials differs locally depending on the distance from the source and transportation. The local measure tailor indicates one tractor, which can transport a volume of about 60 cubic feet. The prizes of bamboo also vary locally depending on quality, seasoning, and transportation, between 60 and 120 INR/bamboo culm. If brick foundation and plinth are added, the cost of the house will increase by about 37,000 INR, by using first grade bricks and proper cement mortar, hence bringing the cost of materials to 73,000 INR. If labor cost has to be added for foundations and plinth, about 10 skilled men days, the cost of the house will increase by another 3000 INR. The total cost of a sound bamboo house of 440 sqft with brick foundation and a platform raised by 2 feet is estimated to be about 80,000 INR. It can augment up to 1 lakh and above if the plinth level is raised further, or if specific features are chosen for the roof. It is therefore nedeed to extend financial aid also to those who intend to build a bamboo house. Medium size bamboo house in Kasiyam village. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 24
  • 25. 4.3 b - Confined brick masonry Most of the pucca houses in the region show an attempt to use confined brick masonry as a building system. Unlike for RC frames where columns, beams and slabs are built previously and walls afterwards, in confined brick masonry walls are built first, and columns and beams are cast within walls. Madhubani district is situated in Earthquake zone V, hence the use of first quality materials and appropriate reinforcement of the brick masonry is a must. With respect to brick construction, the following problems are seen in the region: • Lack of knowledge of the building technology and lack of skilled craftsmanship • Use of poor building materials (low grade country bricks) • Replacement of cement mortar with mud mortar is a widespread practice • Lack of proper bonding of the walls • Lack of Reinforced Concrete bands and columns • Lack of waterproofing • Interruption of the construction for long periods due to financial constraint These factors altogether leave these houses vulnerable to earthquake and also to floods and monsoon. It is urgent to disseminate appropriate building technology in the region and increase financial assistance for those who want to build a brick house. The average cost of a finished 260 sqft house (2 small rooms) with suitable RC bands and columns amount to 2 lakhs and above nowadays. The amount provided by schemes like Indira Awaas Yojana (45,000 INR) is inadequate to deliver a sound financial and technical support for building a durable, earthquake proof brick structure. The table below illustrates the estimated local cost of a confined brick masonry house (13’x20’). The house has a raised plinth of about 2 feet and there are reinforced concrete bands at plinth, lintel level and a Reinforced Concrete Slab. RC columns are not provided. Item Structure Brick (mitta pucca quality,not first quality Cement Sand Steel Rods Stone chips Finish Plaster Cement Door (sesame or jamun wood) Window (sesame or jamun wood) Labor Skilled Unskilled Total material cost Labor cost Total cost   Quantity Unit Rate (INR) Material cost (INR) 12000 brick 4/brick 48000 60 6 500 2 Bag (50kg) tailor kg tailor 420/bag 2800/tailor 5100/100 kg 5600/tailor 25200 16800 25500 11200 2 25 1 tailor bag door 3000/tailor 420/bag 6000/door 6000 11000 6000 2 window 2000/window 37 74 Man day Man day 300/man day 200/man day Labor cost (INR) 4000 11100 14800 1,53700 25900 1,79600 Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 25
  • 26. The estimate was done with the owner. This house is considered not to be earthquake resistant since it lacks of reinforced concrete columns at the corners. Adding them would bring the cost of the finished house of 260 sqft to above 2 lakh. Construction of a confined brick masonry house in Bhagwatipur (Andhrathadi block) 4.4 Introduction of alternate, low cost building technology There is a huge range of low cost, eco-friendly building technologies that have been developed in India so far. The implementation of such technologies requires in depth knowledge of local geographic, climatic and socioeconomic conditions as well as of the natural resources of an area. This is not likely to be achieved without the support of a structure fully devoted to it. Technology should develop in accordance to local specific conditions: that is why an institution like a building centre or an NGO entirely devoted to such activities is a requirement for holistic and environment conscious development of the region. Among the low cost building technologies introduced in India by various organizations and institutions thereare: Wall systems: • Stabilised Compressed Earth Block (SCEB): in this technology raw earth bricks are manually produced in a press. Some amount of cement or other stabilizer is added to the earthen mixture in order to make the brick more durable and waterproof. This technology, along with stabilized rammed earth, has been used widely in Kachchh district of Gujarat for the reconstruction of entire villages after the 2001 earthquake. U shaped Stabilized Compressed Earthen Blocks produced in a manual press. Photo Hunnar Shaala • Fly Ash Brick (FAB): Fly Ash Bricks use fly ash, which is a by-product of thermal power stations. Fly ash supplied by thermal power stations is free of cost and the entrepreneur has to bear only transportation charges to the manufacturing unit. Fly ash bricks can also be produced in a manual press like the one used for SCEB. Their cost is 20% inferior to that of normal fired bricks. Moreover they are an energy efficient material that also reduces the environmental pollution by fly ash. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 26
  • 27. • Hollow concrete blocks: they are cost effective and a better alternative to burnt clay bricks by virtue of their durability, fire resistance, thermal insulation, small dead load and high speed of construction. Concrete hollow blocks being usually larger in size then the normal clay building bricks, they allow faster construction using less mortar. Fly-ash bricks produced in a manual press Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln at Datia Madhya Pradesh) Batches of fired bricks ready from the VSBK • Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln bricks: a Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) is an energy efficient, eco-friendly technology for firing clay bricks. This technology was originally developed in China. It consists of one or more rectangular vertical shafts within a kiln structure. The arrays of dried green bricks are stocked into batches, which are continuously loaded from the top of the shaft. At the bottom of the shaft, batches of fired clay bricks are continuously removed. The bricks are pre-heated at the top, fired at the centre and cooled at the bottom. This technology economizes on fuel cost with saving of 30 to 50% compared with other common brick firing technologies. The VSBK technology was brought in India from China for the first time in 1966 by TARA (branch of Development Alternatives) and adapted to Indian conditions. TARAGRAM at Datia (Madhya Pradesh) houses the first kiln that was then replicated to four different climate zones of India. There are now over 200 operational kilns all over the country. The technology is particularly suited for small scale and decentralized production unit. It can be an efficient alternative to horizontal country brick kiln, which are depleting vast portions of agricultural land in Madhubani district and produce poor bricks with scarce mechanical strength. Roofing: • Micro Concrete Roofing tiles (MCR): they are a cost effective and extremely versatile roofing material. Their shape is similar to Mangalore tiles and they can be used on steel, wood or bamboo understructure. They are made by vibrating an optimum mix of cement, sand, fine stone aggregate and water in a vibrating table. They are highly durable, lighter than other roofing tiles (require less understructure), can be easily installed, reduce heat gain and do not contain asbestos fibers. • Corrugated Bamboo Roofing Sheets: they are an alternative to corrugated asbestos, iron, plastic and zinc roofing sheets. They can be produced in a range of standard sizes and can be used to cover dwellings, stores and other buildings. They are cooler in the sun than metal sheets. CBRS are produced by firmly pressing together woven bamboo mats previously impregnated with an adhesive resin. Making of Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles at Datia • Bamboo trusses and purlins: bamboo trusses offer a good substitute for supporting roof loads and transmitting them to the foundation through columns. Bamboo trusses are prefabricated using culms having an outer diameter of 75-100 mm. When the top and bottom chord and struts Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 27
  • 28. members are joined by suitable fastening devices, a truss can resist both compressive and tensile forces and act as a stronger supporting component even in earthquake compared to rafter-purlins system. The introduction of such technologies while considering local specific conditions will contribute to the sustainable development of the region. The use of alternate building materials significantly reduces the carbon footprint of the building. They are also economically advantageous and can create employment for local people. It is estimated that by using these materials energy consumption for production of building materials can be reduced by 25-33 per cent resulting into 11 per cent decrease in carbon dioxide emissions. Eco-building technologies also reduce the pressure on natural resources, by reducing both material and energy requirements. Training on the production and use of alternate building materials is available through technical resource agencies such as the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC), the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), the National Institute for Rural Development (NIRD), the Indian Playwood Industries Research and Training Institute (IPIRTI), and selected NGOs (among which Development Alternatives, COSTFORD, Hunnar Shaala Foundation, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) and various building centers all over India. 4.5 Ban on asbestos The widespread and increasing use of asbestos in the region is a preoccupying factor for the health of the residents, including present and future generations. People are not aware of long and potentially short-term (in case of hazard and sudden rupture) impact on human health of asbestos. Asbestos sheets for roofing have been introduced in the region since the last 15-20 years. Their use will lead to widespread and serious health problems within the next decades. Asbestos has been banned in Europe as after decades its effects on health have been proven: all forms of asbestos are carcinogenic to humans, and may cause mesothelioma and cancer of the lung, larynx and ovary. Asbestos exposure is also responsible for other diseases, such as asbestosis (fibrosis of the lungs), pleural plaques, thickening and effusions (World Health Organization). Asbestosis is a serious, progressive, long-term disease of the lungs. Inhaling asbestos fibers that irritate and inflame lung tissues, causing the lung tissues to scar, causes asbestosis. The scarring makes it hard to breathe and difficult for oxygen and carbon dioxide pass through the lungs. Asbestosis generally progresses slowly. The latency period for the onset of asbestosis is typically 10-20 years after the initial exposure. Currently, about 125 million people in the world are exposed to asbestos at the workplace. According to the most recent WHO estimates, more than 107 000 people die each year from asbestos-related lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis resulting from exposure at work. It is estimated that one in every three deaths from occupational cancer provoked by asbestos. In addition, it is estimated that several thousand deaths annually can be attributed to exposure to asbestos in the home. (WHO). Today asbestos is banned or restricted in 52 countries. It is banned entirely in the European Union (EU). In the US asbestos use is limited to a handful of products, such as automobile brakes and gaskets. India is now the world’s second largest asbestos market, behind only China, consuming nearly 3,50,000 tons in 2008. Asbestos use in India has risen by 83% since 2004, according to government figures. A study by two Delhi researchers suggests that by 2020, deaths from asbestos-related cancers could reach one million in developing countries. It is urgent to review the laws and regulation for the use of dangerous materials like asbestos. Asbestos should be banned at state and national level and valuable low-cost alternatives should be proposed to the rural dwellers. The growing market of asbestos should be replaced by low cost, energy efficient and environment and health friendly building materials. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 28
  • 29. 4.6 Introduction of smokeless chulas In order to reduce the incidence of fire, which is among the major hazards in Madhubani district, it is important to change cooking habits. The introduction of smokeless chulas is compelling both for fire prevention and health. The actual cooking method is to cook on open chulas that can be situated either indoor or outdoor, on the veranda or in the courtyard. This factor constitutes already a major health hazard for the dwellers, especially women and children, who are exposed to the smoke for long hours every day. Often the air inside the house is saturated with smoke due to lack of ventilation. Open chulas increase the incidence of fire accidents, in particular during summer season when sudden high winds bring the volatile leaves used as fuel everywhere around. The fire can spread fast, especially if the thatch used for roofing is not properly compacted. Smokeless chulas are low cost, safe cooking devices that can be found in different models all over India. The dissemination of such an improved cooking practice certainly requires financial support and sustained engagement by NGOs and other grassroots organizations, but it is a determining factor for the health and well being of the rural dwellers. 4.7 Safe water supply Safe water supply is a concern in floods affected areas. Contamination of water sources due to floods and water logging triggers water borne diseases, representing a major health hazards for the population. Access to safe water during and after floods should be granted to affected people. Bihar Sewa Samiti (BSS) has implemented a model for Platform Raising of existing hand pumps in floods affected villages. The hand pump’s platform is raised by 4.5-5’ (HFL) to be above the highest recorded flood level. The proposed and implemented design is round with steps: the round-leveled shape favours the flow of water around the platform, thus avoiding water logging. Each hand pump serves 10 to 15 families and it is completed by a drainage facility. Platform raising of existing hand pump. Maintenance is taken care of by two trained and equipped persons from Photo courtesy BSS each village. They have also installed new hand pumps using the same round shaped design and a soak pit as drainage facility. 4.8 Improved sanitation, drainage and waste management Appropriate sanitation with innovative solutions for flood prone areas should be implemented in affected areas. It is necessary to mobilize both financial and technical resources in this direction, while supporting the work of organizations already committed in achieving the goal of Total Sanitation in the region. There are various models of toilet and waste management that could be implemented: Both the pan and the pit are raised to a safe level. Photo Bihar Sewa Samiti • Soak/leak pits for toilets are not suitable for areas that are prone to flooding or with high water table, since the risk of ground water contamination is too high. The model shown in the image has been implemented Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 29
  • 30. on a raised homestead. • Ecosan models are suitable for implementation in areas with high water table. Ecosan is a system with separate chambers in which the excreta is separated from urine and after drying for several months it turns into dry, odorless and bacteria free granular manure suitable for agricultural use, while urine diluted in water can be used as fertilizer. In Ecosan models ash is used for flushing instead of water. Such toilets help in maintaining ecological sanitation and prevent pollution of the water table. Ecosan systems require management and follow up after implementation, therefore an extensive hygiene and education program should precede and accompany the introduction of composting latrines. • Systems of liquid and solid waste management should also be implemented in order to improve hygiene and health at household and village level. • Vermicompost units at household level are a valuable resource not only for production of manure for own use, but also for selling to others, thus becoming a complementary source of income for the family. • Implementation of drainage systems is crucial in order to reduce the lenght of floods and water logging and for general improvement of health ad hygiene in the villages. 4.9 Homestead raising Homestead raised through MGNREGA. Photo courtesy BSS Since 2009 Bihar Sewa Samiti (BSS) with support from UNICEF has intervened for homestead land raising through MGNREGA in various villages of Darbhanga and Madhubani district, among which is Laxmipur Ghoghantola of Raghouli G.P in Bisfi block (Madhubani). Through such interventions a Village Disaster Management Committee was formed at village level and several training and other capacity building input activities have been completed with the VDMC. While formulating their own Village Disaster Management Plan, the VDMC planned to elevate the entire homestead land of a tola above HFL (highest flood level) to avoid inundation and displacement. BSS raised awareness about the fact that such kind of work can be taken under MGNREGA (Mahatama Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), thus converting homestead raising into an opportunity of paid labor for the beneficiaries. The model has been implemented for 700 households in 12 villages, with raised homesteads of 4.5 to 5 feet. It proved to be sustainable during last floods and it is going to be adopted on a larger scale over the region. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 30
  • 31. 4.10 Improved bamboo housing In remote areas prone to floods such as the Kosi River belt, it is imperative to support the residents by helping them to build bamboo houses that are flood resilient. Bamboo building is so far the only option for such dwellings since the scarce road connectivity makes transportation of heavy building materials very difficult. Since other types of houses are not viable, only shelters made mainly out of bamboo are seen in these areas. Some features to be introduced in order to improve the resilience and durability of bamboo houses even in presence of flood could be: • Building in safer, high raised areas • Raising the ground level of entire hamlets on a mound through collective work, which is a practice al ready adopted in the region • Plantation of water absorbing plants all around the houses, as already seen in the region • Raising the plinth to a safe level and providing solid brick foundation to the building • Selecting the sound bamboo building features that are seen along the Kosi River belt and in other ar eas of the district to use them in new constructions • Enhancing the durability of bamboo through natural methods: harvesting of bamboo culms only when they are mature (between 3 and 5 years), soaking the bamboo in water to allow the starch to drain, drying of bamboo culms • Waterproofing of bamboo using tar (bitumen) based painting for the portion that is embedded in the foundation and exposed to flood. • Studying a method for protecting the bamboo culm at its base and easily replacing it when necessary. The introduction of such measures is likely to increase the cost of an average bamboo housing unit (350 sqft), from 33,000 INR to 75,000 INR and above depending on the location, height of plinth, technology and craftsmanship used. Both financial and technical support is therefore needed in order to enable all the families to upgrade their dwellings and make optimal use of local resources. 4.11 Vernacular features of bamboo houses and other constructions using bamboo in Madhubani district Several vernacular features are present in some of the bamboo dwellings found over the region, which are the repository of a bamboo building technology that must have been widespread up to a certain point of time. After the advent of other building materials, this vernacular technology would have been progressively lost, as it happens in most cases. Those who can afford it, by investing the same amount of money, prefere to build a doubtfully safe brick house rather than a sound, well built bamboo house. A few bamboo karigar still practice this kind of construction, which is certainly more durable and resilient if compared to most of the brick houses seen in Madhubani district. A bamboo house is also cost effective: even when technical improvements are introduced, its cost would be always inferior to that of a comparable brick construction. It is important to identify and document such buildings and the artisans who still master the skill of building with bamboo. These knowledgeable bamboo artisans should be enabled to transfer their expertise to the new generations of builders. In fact, bamboo building technology can still play an important role in the development of the region and it should be transferred before it completely disappears. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 31
  • 32. Features of bamboo houses and buildings in different areas of Madhubani: Bamboo house in Kasyiam: This house of about 300 sqft was built a few years ago by a local bamboo karigar. It has an elevated brick platfrom that protects the house from floods. The roof of seasoned bamboo is robust and it integrates cross bracings to increase its resistance. The jalis above the doors provide light and ventilation to the interior. The walls are plastered with mud both on the inner and outer surface, thus optimazing insulation. At the time of construction the cost of this house was of about 80,000 INR. Bamboo house in Sijoul: the house was built after the last floods on a brick platfrom raised above flood level. The house consists of two rooms opening on a private courtyard and an outdoor veranda opening towards the road. The exterior jali filters light and ventilation trough the veranda. The roof is robust, skillfully executed and covered with layers of compacted thatch. The house construction was costing about 1 lakh INR. Features of roofs in the Kosi River Belt: most of the bamnoo roofs seen in the Kosi River belt are four hipped, which is among the most stable roofs in case of earthquake. The four sides of the roof are built separately and then mounted onto the main structure. The roof is then covered with compacted layers of thatch. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 32
  • 33. Own House built by bamboo karigar Ram Swarup Muckyia in Raima village (Jhanjharpur block) using a particular bamboo lattice work from Darbangha district. The bamboo lattice work is used both for roofing and jalis. Details from the house of bamboo karigar Ram Swarup Muckyia: the bamboo walls are plastered and whitewashed, with decorative motives. The interior furniture is also plasterd with mud; the side and back walls are left unplastered on the outer surface, revealing a dense and sturdy bamboo lattice work. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 33
  • 34. Mantap built by bamboo karigar Ram Swarup Muckyia in Hainthi Bali village (Jhanjharpur block). A carved wooden connector holds the bamboo rafters together at the centre. Puja house built by bamboo karigar Ram Swarup Muckyia near Raima village (Jhanjharpur block). The technique used for the roof is the same as for the houses. As referred by the bamboo artisan, this feature comes from Dharbanga. Puja house built by bamboo karigar Ram Swarup Muckyia in Jhanjharpur Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 34
  • 35. 5. Draft project of an improved bamboo house for the Kosi River belt (Gadhgaon) The project proposal is thought for villages situated along the Kosi River belt and similar locations, where due to lack of connectivity by road there is scarce availability of building materials and most of the shelters are made out of bamboo. Some degree of technical improvement can be introduced in order to make such shelters more durable and resilient with respect to floods and other hazards. Plan: the housing unit consists of 2 rooms, a kitchen and storage area. It refers to the typical layout of a village house unit, where the kitchen may also be placed on the veranda or outdoor, hence dividing the house in just two rooms. It is recommended to place the kitchen indoor in a space with proper ventilation and to introduce the use of smokeless chulas in order to reduce the risk of fire. The walls should be plastered with mud on both sides for improved insulation and also to prevent fire accidents. Heavy timber posts, which are generally used for the walls structure, are replaced by less costly but resistant bamboo posts. The bamboo posts are placed at intervals of 3 feet, which will strengthen the structure and prevent deformations. Horizontal tie-culms above plinth level and cross bracing are introduced as seismic safety features. They will prevent deformation and sagging. Mezzanines are introduced at a height of 7 feet in order to provide space for storage of goods. Particularly, a storage facility should be provided for ready to eat foods (beaten rice/chura, sattu, gur, biscuits and milk powder) for at least 15 days for a family of 5. This will assure certain autonomy in times of floods. The roofing system adopted is the one seen in the villages of the Kosi River belt, a hipped roof with a dense bamboo rafters and purlins structure that assures stability. Three doors give independent access to the rooms from the veranda. The plinth is raised by 2 feet but can be raised more depending on floods level. Small openings on the bamboo walls provide ventilation, along with a bamboo jali above the doors. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 35
  • 36. Openings for light and ventilation are cut directly on the bamboo lattice walls, as commonly seen in the region. A mash or a bamboo jali can be added to protect the small windows. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 36
  • 37. Continuous brick foundations contribute for the stability of the entire structure. Small concrete footing blocks provide a more stable base for the bamboo culms. A pvc pipe embedded in the concrete blocks and emerging above plinth level provide waterproofing to these foundations and allows easy replacement of the bamboo culms when necessary (local bamboo karigar tie the roof to the bamboo posts and tie-beams using only rope, therefore when they have to replace the bamboo posts the roof is just lifted). The height of such device can be regulated upon the highest recorded flood level and it will sensitively increase the life span of the vertical bamboo culms. The horizontal bamboo ties are fixed right above the PVC pipe. This will allow dividing the wall in two parts, thus economizing the cost of walls replacement in case of damage by heavy floods. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 37
  • 38. This is an orientation that can easily be adapted to local conditions and households’ requirements. If technical and financial assistance is provided the owners will be able to select locally available resources and combine them with new technical inputs for a building that is more resilient to hazards and adapted to the specific climatic conditions of each area. Such a house is certainly cost-effective compared to brick pucca houses, but it still demands further investment as compared to an average bamboo house. The cost of an improved bamboo house of 350 sqft is estimated to be about 75,000-80,000 INR. Cost may vary according to dimensions of the house (smaller houses measure about 250 sqft) and capacity of the owner to contribute in the construction process. It is important to underline that the proposed house presents some flood mitigation measures and it is not responsive to all kind of situation: for a major control over floods the habitations should be built at a high, safer level. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 38
  • 39. REFERENCES AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Floods and earthquakes GOI-UNDP-GOB Disaster Risk Management Programme Madhubani. Multi-Hazard Resistant new construction or reconstruction of BPL houses in in flood prone alluvial areas. http://nidm.gov.in/PDF/safety/flood/link4.pdf K.Jain, Sudhir. On better Engineeing Preparedness: Lessons from the 1988 Bihar Earthquke. Earthquake Spectra, EERI, Vol.8, N°3, 1992. http://www.nicee.org/eqe-iitk/uploads/EQR_Bihar.pdf Madhubani district Madhubani district vision 2012 Flood resilient housing Ahmed, Iftekhar. Handbook on Design and Construction of Housing for Flood-prone Rural Areas of Bangladesh. United States Agency for International development, 2005. http://sheltercentre.org/library/handbook-designand-construction-housing-flood-prone-rural-areas-bangladesh Earthquake resistant masonry buildings: EERI & IAAE. Seismic design guide for low-rise confined masonry buildings. August 2011. http://sheltercentre. org/library/seismic-design-guide-low-rise-confined-masonry-buildings Schacher, Tom. Confined masonry: an illustrated guide for masons. Swiss Agency for development and Cooperation, 2007. http://sheltercentre.org/library/confined-masonry-illustrated-guide-masons Boen, Teddy. Earthquake Resistant Design of Non-Engineered Buildings in Indonesia. 2001. http://www. buildingtrustinternational.org/Indonesian%20Earthquake%20Resistant%20Design.pdf Bamboo building: Bamboo as a building material. RWTH Aachen University, 2002. http://bambus.rwth-aachen.de/eng/PDF-Files/ Bamboo%20as%20a%20building%20material.pdf Lopez, Oscar Hidalgo. Bamboo construction manual (manual de construccion con bambu). Universidad Nacional de Colombia,1981. http://sheltercentre.org/library/bamboo-construction-manual-manual-deconstruccion-con-bambu Jansenn, J.A. Jules. Designing and Building with Bamboo. Technical report n°20, INBAR, 2000. http://www. inbar.int/publication/pdf/INBAR_Technical_Report_No20.pdf Guitérezz, Jorge A. Structural Adequacy of Traditional Bamboo housing in Latin America. Technical Report n°19, INBAR, 2000. http://www.inbar.int/publication/pdf/INBAR_Technical_Report_No19.pdf National Mission on Bamboo Applications (NMBA). Building with Bamboo. Training Manual 01, New Delhi, February 2004. Practical Action. Bamboo Preservation. Technical Brief, 1995. http://sheltercentre.org/sites/default/files/PA_ BambooPreservation.pdf Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 39
  • 40. I acknowledge the contribution of SAKHI Bihar, for logistic support and assistance during site visits. SAKHI and BSS Madhubani for illustrating the mentioned projects in the field of water and sanitation and homestead raising. MANAV VIKAS SANSTHAN, Madhepur and GYANODAYA, Simra for precious information about relevant areas of the district and the assistance provided during site visits. Appropriate Design and Building technology for Disaster Risk Reduction in multi-hazard prone areas of Madhubani district, Bihar 40