URBAN COMMUNITY LABSWater storage/transport/supplyResearch compilationFacilitators: Huda Jaffer, Sudipto Das Gupta Team: Chhavi, Mrinali, Rigzin, Shail, Shivam
OVERVIEW Target users Location & situation Interviews Needs analaysisBusiness & personal Online and market research
Target users- PersonalMigrant labourers, slum dwellersPain points no access to kaveri drinking water through government cannot afford to buy water from the cycle wallahs no fixed source of water, rely on irregular BBMP water tankers, private taps Have to put up fights with the people who pay for the connections
Activity•Carrying pot to fill•Walking to nearest source orcycling•Collecting water•Carrying heavy weight•Storing water•Using it for various purposesEnvironment•Uneven narrow roads•Irregular availability of water•Hostile tap owners and crowds•BBMP tankers•Hygiene•Stagnant waterInteraction•Other users•Water business people•Government•BBMP staff•NGOObjects•Cycles•Plastic pots•Ropes•Hooks•Electric tape•Plastic sheets•Pipes and taps•Tanks•20 liter bottles.a,e,i,o,u Analysis
Target users- BusinessCycle wallahsPain points Have to pull cycles with upto 200kgs of load over long distances Sell it for petty rates, sometimes even on credit A lot of them are too old , they resort to water delivery thinking it’s the only way of earning theirlivelihood. Cars and autos ram into their cycles leaving them with repair expenses
Activity•Filling water•Loading pots•Pushing cycle•Managing traffic•Delivery•Cycle back•Repeat.Environment•Uneven narrow roads•Irregular availability of water•Hostile tap owners and crowds•Heavy trafficInteraction•Hotel owners•Residents•Co workers•Tap owners•Government officials•Hardware shop•Cycle shops•Repair shopsObjects•Cycles•Plastic pots•Ropes•Hooks•Electric tape•Plastic sheets•Pipes and tapsa,e,i,o,u Analysis
Interviews- Personal users“We have to walk two three kilometers for the paid water and the free water is farther away,but we prefer going there, we cant afford Rs.2 for each pot.”-Krishnappa Garden.“Water is used for everything, and for drinking we don’t boil”- PaiLayout“Three or four days in a month we don’t end up getting water, those days we end up buyingDrinking water and making do with how much we have.”-Hoskerhalli“We end up making 2-3 tripsa day, whoever is free goes and brings back two filledpots, we need at least 20 pots a day”Thubrahalli“We cant afford to pay more that Rs.20 a month for water, we tried fixing the current freesupply of water through pipes but the people around are just too lazy and don’t care”- IdkaMohalla.
Interviews-Cycle wallahs“We set our prices according to the distance. It starts from Rs. 3-4 per pot over a distance of 1-2 kms.and goes up to Rs.7-8 over 7-8 kms. ““The reckless auto drivers just ram into us and the pots break instantly. They are neither apologetic norhelpful, leaving us with the repair expenses. We wish the containers were more sturdy”:We need to take the water up two floors at times to empty the pots into the tanks because the ownersrefuse to do it”“Most of us have permanent customers. We receive a call from them and we go and deliver. ““There are times when the consumers don’t have money at all to pay. We have also given it for free attimes. During other times we also give water on credit.”“Pain is inevitable, we have to do something to earn our livelihood.”
Needs analysis- Cycle wallahsUp to 200 kg weightPulling a weight of up to 200 kg for a distance of 5-10 kms. This posture causes chest pain andbreathlessness. Weakening knees, shoulders and legs. Regular intake of pain killers
Needs analysis- Cycle wallahsNavigating through trafficThey have to navigate through busy roads, therefore a cycle occupying minimum space seems like themost feasible option despite of the discomfort .
Needs analysis- Cycle wallahsUncertain repair costsThe plastic pots need to be replaced every two months. The cost of a new pot is between Rs. 50-70depending on the quality.
Needs analysis- Personal usersPainful ergonomicsMen and women have been carrying these pots full of water for ages but it is awfully hard to carry them. Children startcarrying these pots from the age of 5.
Needs analysis- Personal usersNumber of tripsIn one go one person can carry maximum of 2 pots. Daily requirement of a family of four is 10-12 pots. That means ifthere is just one person sourcing the water, they need to make 6 trips everyday
Needs analysis- Personal usersNo identity, no waterMost of the migrant laborers who are not under any contractor have a tough time sourcing water because they don’thave ration cards . Government doesn’t provide them with any amenities. They have to fight with the privateconnection owners to let them take water. They grab any opportunity to source water.
Online and Market research- Existing solutions in different parts of the worldDifferent ways of carrying- domestic use
PACK h20-Help carry hopeFeatures :• Double Liner• Chlorine tablet pouch• Adjustable shoulder straps• Protective Cover• Volume: 5 gallons• Strap strength: 352 lb• Puncture resistance w/poly liner: 52 lbf• Drain Spout• Hand straps• Puncture-resistant shell• Reflective tape• Weight: 43 lbf• Backpack seam strength: 13.8 lbf• Tear resistance of backpack fabric: 63 lbf• The PackH2O is 7 timeslighter and 7 times smallerthan a jerry can that holdsthe same amount of water.• The PackH2O inner linercan be removed andsanitized in the sun
Advantages• Since the weight is shared onthe shoulders, theweight becomes much easier to carry.• The bag is collapsible and occupies minimum spacewhen not in use.• Easy storage.• Can be used by all age groups.Disadvantages• Health issues.PACKH20
Carts used by water delivery services in USAPROS• No weight is taken directly on your body.• Pushing is easier than pulling• Can carry up to 80 litres, 4 bottles(8 pots• Compact• DurableCONS• Might require additional arrangementsto make sure they don’t topple and fall.• Balancing seems a little tricky
Hippo Water Roller- used in South Africaby under privilegedPROS-• No weight is directly taken on the body.• Easier to push it around than to carry it.• Can carry up to 50L at one go.• Since its air tight you can use it forwashing clothes while traveling.CONS-• The roads are in a very bad condition.• The material of the product might wearoff earlier according to the storage.
Advantages.• since the device is in cylindrical shape.• Its very easy to roll which makes the work much much easier than actually carryingthat amount on head.• time savings (fetching water can be very time consuming in some poor ruralenvironments) reduced effort• reduced strain (carrying heavy weights on the head every day for years puts strainon the body, particularly the vertebral column);• increased water availability, with benefits for health and perhaps even enablingvegetables to be growmn• hygienic storage due to the sealed lid on the roller.Disadvantages• rollers cannot be stacked efficiently to save space;
Market/online research for water business.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKQBI6bGghA
Water Delivery TricycleThis type of cargo tricycle is frequentlyused throughout Mexico. Vendors use itto sell things like fresh bread, ice creamfrom coolers, and in this case bottledwater. I frequently purchased water fromone of these as they cruised around mylocal neighborhood in Playa del Carmen,exchanging an empty bottle for a full onefor about $2. Sometimes the bikes areused as the family car or cheap taxis(called bici taxis), with 2 plastic chairsplaced on the front.
Advantages.• Easily navigable• Sturdy• Can be cycled to go delivery and while comingback• More capacityDisadvantages.• More expensive than cycles• Occupy more space
• Aquaduct Concept Vehicle by IDEO.Winner of the ’08 Innovate or Diecompetition sponsored by Google andSpecialized, the Aquaduct is “a pedal-powered concept vehicle thattransports, filters, and stores water.”Pedal to the well, fill up the tank andby the time you’re home you have 8liters of purified water.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-U-mvfjyiao&feature=player_embedded
Advantages.• Purified drinking water• Complete removal of the purification processat homeDisadvantage• Capacity• Expense• Availability of material and manufacture
Water PurificationOnline/ Market/ existing solution globally
During field research, most of the time there wasn’t any form of purification. Afew people boiled water but the general mentality was that they didn’t want tospend gas or fuel wood to boil water. They said they’d rather got to the hospitalas and when they fall ill.For us to introduce water purification systems, we must first make them aware ofthe importance of clean water.
Types of water purification• Boiling• Sunlight Exposure• Chlorination• Flocculation• Filtration - Straining• Three-Pot Treatment
BoilingEquipment/Skill Required:Water containerIntense heat – fuel (wood, gas, etc)– Preferably a fuel efficient stoveMust be able to produce heatProcess:Water should be placed in a container and heated untilboiling.The water should be allowed to boil for at least 10minutes.Once cooled the water will be ready to use.
•Advantages–Simple and effective method of purification–Will kill many waterborne bacteria through the intenseheat–Uses local available materials•Disadvantages–Can sometimes be difficult, time consuming, and cost inefficientbecause of the high volume of fuel used–Will not remove mud from ‘murky’ water–Will not remove suspended or dissolved compounds
Sunlight ExposureEquipment/Skill Required:Disposable clear plastic bottles (glass bottles should not be used as they do not let enoughsunlight into the water)Bright sunlightProcess:Fill a clean bottle, leaving a quarter empty.Put the top on and shake the bottle for 20 seconds.The bottled should then be left in sunlight(usually on the roof of your home) for one day(or two days if the sky is cloudy)Drink the water straight from the bottle to avoidcross-contamination.In the rainy season, paint one side of the bottle black.This will increase the water temperature quicker.The painted side should be placed underneath
Advantages:Kills harmful bacteria and pathogensSimple, convenient and inexpensiveIf used correctly, the water is as clean as boiled waterWill not change the taste of waterDisadvantages:Will not remove mud from ‘murky’ waterA 6-12 hour waiting period
ChlorinationEquipment/skill required:Household bleachWater vesselStirrerClearest water possibleProcess:Boil the water for 5 minutesAdd the bleach to water.Stir thoroughly.Let it stand for at least 30 minutes.
Advantages:Easy to use method of chemical purification of waterEffective at killing bacteria and virusesInexpensiveDisadvantages:Not effective at killing all parasites.Complex compounds can form with organic material which over time canbe hazardous to health.It is best to use the water in a shorter period of time and store it in aplastic container in a cool and shaded place.
Coagulation and FlocculationEquipment/skill required:A coagulant (ex. aluminium sulphate)Some skill/training2 vesselsStirrerFilter – a clothProcess:Add a coagulant to water and stir rapidly.Allow to stand for some time, and continuously stir slowly to form large flocs.The formed flocs clean the water by attracting pathogens and othermicroorganisms.Remove the flocs using filtration and be careful to not re-contaminate the water.
Advantages:Proven reduction of viruses, bacteria, protozoaPesticide and heavy metal removalSimple technology and useDisadvantages:May be toxic if used improperlyCould be more expensive and complicated than othermethods due to increased number of required materials andskillRequires multiple steps
Filtration -StrainingEquipment/skill required:Porous barrier: cost and efficiency depends on the barrier: clean wovenfibers (cotton cloth, linen, others) Moringa tree seed press cake, ceramicfilterWater vesselProcess:Fix the barrier on top of the water vessel.If using cloth it should be folded 4-8 times to create a thicker barrier.Pour water through the barrier into the vessel, trapping solids andparticles on top of the barrier.Take care to only allow filtered water to reach the bucket.
Letting water collected during the day settle over night can be an effective way ofimproving the clearness of water by reducing turbity (very murky water) and is acheap alternative to sand filtering.However you must leave undisturbed for a sufficient period of time (at least 10hours), out of sunlight (at night), in a sealed container is best.Warning: Must be used in conjunction with Filtering. This is only a pre-treatment tomake Filtering more effective!!
Advantages:Cost effectiveImmediate access to waterFilters out all particles that are larger than the pores in the barrierCan be cleaned and reusedDoes not alter taste of waterDisadvantages:Does not guarantee removal of all virus particles and infectiouscontaminants, chemicals, pollutants, chemicals and poor tastesShould not be used as a sole purification method
Three-Pot TreatmentEquipment/skill required:3 water vessels/pots for processing; 1 for collection of dirty water and 1 forcollection of clean waterif possible - a flexible pipe to siphon water as it disturbs sediment less thanpouringif possible - a cloth or any filtration barrierProcess:Pour water into the first pot (pouring it through cloth increases efficiency).Let the water settle for as many hours as possible – a length of just one day cankill of more than 50% of most bacteria.Pour water into a second pot, let it settle again.Then pour into the third pot and let it settle again.Drinking water is drawn from the third pot only.
Advantages:Cost effectiveEasy to use and maintainBacterial contamination levels decrease through settlementand over timeDisadvantages:Does not guarantee complete removal of some bacteria andmicro-organismsCould take a few days to treat water
Purification system one.clay-based water purification system for household use in developing countries. Thesystem consists of a ceramic filter element, made of kiln-fired clay treated with colloidalsilver, set in a plastic receptacle tank with a plastic lid and spigot. These filters have beenproduced and promoted in Africa, Central America, and Southeast Asia, but have notbeen widely adopted due to poor financial planning and failures in meeting the expectedamount and quality of water produced. The team improved the filtration system and atthe same time developed customized training that creates broader awareness,encouraging adoption on a much larger scale, and stimulating local production andsupport.
• The main filter elements are the container and filter medium. The filter element ismanually filled with water from a contaminated source, which seeps through theclay at a rate of two to three liters per hour. The filtering effect of the clayeliminates a large portion of water-borne pathogens.• Application of the colloidal silver has add on benefits and ensures completebacteria removal.• A study funded by USAID in Nicaragua found that the ceramic filters can remove98-100 percent of E. coli, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. This study howeversuggets that only with sufficient education household filters can both treat waterefficiently and meet drinking water standards (2). Colloidal silver is an anti-bacterial agent with a wide range of application in medical practice. It has beenused extensively prior to the development of antibiotics in the 1940s and 50s(1).The amount of silver used and also leached from the filter medium is estimated tobe negligible and therefore should not be a health concern (1). Teachingcommunities how to use and maintain filters, however, is the most significantelement of such process.
In context to UCLAdvantages• Low cost.• Easy to use• Eco friendly
Disadvantages• may not be compatible with chlorinated watersources due to demonstrating the need forbetter consumer education, in addition toclogging and loss of silver which commonlyexperienced.• people only use filters for a fraction of theirdrinking water
Hindustan pure it compact/ Pureit Classic: Pureit is the easy, practical andaffordable way to get safe drinking water.
Advantages• It does not require a tap connection.• Really simple to use.• Total capacity is 23 Litres. Purified storage capacity is 9 litres.• Doesnt need expensive gas, electricity or continuous tap water.• No plumbing or expensive maintenance requiredDisadvantages• cost 2350 rupee• filerationkit have to change within 6 month which cost around 1000 rupee.• just 9 liter water storage is not enough for 7-8 member family .