Health & Safety Conf Culture Change


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  • 09/25/11
  • Health & Safety Conf Culture Change

    1. 1. A Primer on Culture Change 2010 EHS&WC Conference
    2. 2. Strategic Priorities <ul><li>Growth through acquisitions and joint ventures in targeted markets </li></ul><ul><li>Build plants in rapidly growing markets </li></ul>STRATEGIC & PROFITABLE GROWTH OPERATIONAL EXCELLENCE <ul><li>Safety first </li></ul><ul><li>Quality leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity, supply chain and process excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Employee development </li></ul>INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Research and development focused on melting, forming and glass properties </li></ul><ul><li>New products, new features or new processes </li></ul><ul><li>Drive growth with total packaging solutions and conversions to glass </li></ul><ul><li>Partner with new and existing customers </li></ul><ul><li>Promote glass benefits to customers, retailers and others </li></ul>MARKETING GLASS OPTIMIZE SHAREHOLDER RETURN COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY
    3. 3. What is Culture? <ul><li>Culture : The shared beliefs, values and assumptions of a group of people. </li></ul>
    4. 4. A Deeper Definition of Culture <ul><li>Culture is a pattern of shared tacit assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration,… </li></ul><ul><li>that has worked well enough to be considered valid and,… </li></ul><ul><li>therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, feel in relation to those problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Schien, E., The Corporate Culture Survival Guide, 2009. </li></ul>
    5. 5. What Does Culture Do for Us? <ul><li>A group’s culture allows it’s members to reach the quasi-stationary equilibrium emotional state. </li></ul><ul><li>People are seeking physiological and psychological equilibrium at all times. Culture helps us stabilize our emotional and cognitive state, which is perpetually bombarded by new external and internal stimuli that have the potential for upsetting and moving the equilibrium to a new state. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures help us avoid uncertainty and unpredictability, but they also can suppress learning and improvement. </li></ul>Source: Schien, E., The Corporate Culture Survival Guide, 2009.
    6. 6. The Levels of Culture <ul><li>Schein identifies 3 levels of culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused Values </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying Assumptions </li></ul>Assumptions are the deepest and most important level. Assumptions are where the culture of a group “lives”.
    7. 7. Levels of Culture – Artifacts Artifacts <ul><li>Superficial symbols of the group </li></ul><ul><li>What is seen </li></ul><ul><li>What is heard </li></ul><ul><li>What is felt </li></ul><ul><li>Visible products of the group </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>Creations </li></ul><ul><li>Style of the Group </li></ul><ul><li>clothing </li></ul><ul><li>manners of address </li></ul><ul><li>myths </li></ul><ul><li>stories </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts are: </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to observe </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to decipher </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols are ambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in classification </li></ul>
    8. 8. Levels of Culture – Espoused Values <ul><li>Strategies, goals, philosophies communicated by the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin as a shared value then become shared assumption if they work. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially started by founder, leader and then assimilated. </li></ul><ul><li>Testable in the physical environment or by social consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>Group has a greater level of awareness of these. </li></ul><ul><li>The actual basic assumptions of the group may be inconsistent with the espoused values </li></ul>Espoused Values
    9. 9. Levels of Culture – Underlying Assumptions <ul><li>Assumptions define us: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what we pay attention to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what things mean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>react emotionally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what actions to take when </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolve as solutions to problems and are consistently repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis becomes reality if it works or group believes it works. </li></ul><ul><li>To learn new assumption requires resurrection, reexamination, frame breaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans need cognitive stability/predictability </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defense mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>McGregor: if people are treated consistently in terms of certain basic assumptions, they come eventually to behave according to those assumptions in order to make their world stable and predictable. </li></ul><ul><li>different cultures make different assumptions about others based on own values etc: see them with our eyes not theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions may also be called a group’s “World View” and “DNA”. </li></ul>Underlying Assumptions
    10. 10. True Culture Transformation <ul><li>Changes in the group’s (and the individuals that make up the group) basic assumptions must occur. </li></ul><ul><li>From a high level, this occurs when: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural assumptions must be disconfirmed. </li></ul><ul><li>Survival Anxiety must overcome Learning Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>New cultural assumptions are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization of new assumptions. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Psychological Safety <ul><li>Reassurance of the learner that the pain of unlearning and relearning will be possible, worthwhile, and adequate resources will be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the restraining forces created from learning anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to Create Psychological Safety: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a compelling positive vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide formal training to new ways of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide practice fields, coaches and feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive role models. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Align systems and structures consistent with desired change. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Culture is a Learning Process <ul><li>Culture is learned, evolves with new experiences, and can be changed if one understands the dynamics of the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes of group learning (Cognitive Redefinition): </li></ul><ul><li>Only occurs if adequate psychological safety exists. </li></ul><ul><li>New cultural learning can occurs by trial and error or a formal training process by management. If no formal process is present, the group will learn for itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity is minimized for new behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>The new behavior must lead to desirable outcomes. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Stages of Cultural Learning/Transforming <ul><li>Stage 1 Unfreezing: Creating the motivation to change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disconfirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of survival Anxiety or guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of psychological safety to overcome learning anxiety. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 Learning new concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new meanings for old concepts and new standards for judgment. Imitation of and identification with role models. Scanning for solutions and trial-and-error learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 Refreezing: Reestablishing equilibrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalizing new concepts, meanings and standards. Incorporation into self-concept and identity. Incorporation in to ongoing relationships. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Elements of a Culture Transformation Process <ul><li>Precisely define new goal to be achieved (i.e. Zero Incidents). </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what elements of current culture prevent the new goal from being reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the ideal future state of the culture that will allow the goal to be reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify actionable items to transform related cultural elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop grass roots/leadership teams to manage the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage department level personnel to implement the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Loop the process until goal is reached. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Define the New Goal <ul><li>In our case we have defined it: Zero Incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Group culture is very broad. We are only interested in those elements that directly relate to our achievement of the goal. </li></ul><ul><li>We must have a specific goal to identify which elements of group culture restrain us from achieving the goal. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Restraining Aspects of Current Culture <ul><li>In an effort to provide control over uncertainty, culture creates restraining forces with in us. Driving forces seek to create change. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to achieve the transformation of a cultural assumption, we must understand and minimize restraining forces. </li></ul><ul><li>All levels of culture should be examined in this process. As an example: how are artifacts (i.e. rites and rituals) supporting the restraining cultural element? </li></ul>Force Field Analysis
    17. 17. Determine the Ideal Future State <ul><li>What are the ideal cultural assumptions that will facilitate the achievement of the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Before we set out on the journey of change we must have a destination firmly in mind. </li></ul>Source: Culture Change Consultants, 2005
    18. 18. Create a Plan to Reach the Ideal State <ul><li>Specific actions should be developed to address the cultural restraints that were identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Timely and effective follow-up on these items is important to generating a true culture driving force. </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for the change and advantages of the change should be communicated to all members of the group </li></ul>Today
    19. 19. Engage People with Cultural Change Teams <ul><li>Members of the group (employees) at all levels must be engaged In the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Many smaller groups are more effective than a few large groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The guidance team coordinates the activities and monitors progress of the groups. </li></ul>Source: Culture Change Consultants, 2005
    20. 20. Culture Change: A Looped Process <ul><li>Because group culture is constantly evolving to meet new external stimuli, the change process must be continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-iteration of the previous steps must occur to guide the cultural evolution process. </li></ul>
    21. 21. A Word on Subcultures <ul><li>As organizations grow and mature, they not only develop their own overall cultures, but they also differentiate themselves into many subcultures based on occupations, product lines, functions, geographies, and echelons in the hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>To deal with subcultures transformation efforts must be “village by village” and include efforts to understand all the cultures at a site. </li></ul>Site Culture
    22. 22. Safety First Basic Assumption <ul><li>The Safety 1 st document is a vision of our ideal desired state regarding site culture for safety excellence. </li></ul><ul><li>This will be part of our navigation system that helps us decode our existing culture and transform it into the engine of success. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Big Picture… The Safety System Bridge Source: ProAct Safety Inc.
    24. 24. Link to Zero Incidents <ul><li>We will not legislate our way to Zero Incidents by writing procedures. We must transform our culture in to one that generates H&S successes. </li></ul><ul><li>The understanding of culture allows us to become effective leaders of the culture transformation process. </li></ul>2017 – Zero Incidents Improve Systems Capabilities Culture