Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Ip technology networking
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ip technology networking

890

Published on

7 layer Networking

7 layer Networking

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
890
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
71
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. IPTechnologyIPTechnology
  • 2.  Is the process of electronicallyIs the process of electronically communicating information between two orcommunicating information between two or more points.more points.  It is sometimes called ComputerIt is sometimes called Computer Communications.Communications.  It covers equipment and services in theIt covers equipment and services in the flow of digital information between computersflow of digital information between computers and computer equipments.and computer equipments. Data CommunicationsData Communications
  • 3. TRANSMISSION MEDIUM MESSAGE Point A DTE DCE SOURCE Point B DTEDCE DTE/DCE DTE/DCE INTERFACE INTERFACE RECEIVER Components of CommunicationsComponents of Communications SystemSystem
  • 4. OSI MODEL Open Systems Interconnection The 7-layer ModelThe 7-layer Model
  • 5. OSI is short for Open Systems Interconnection. The OSI layer was introduced by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984 in order to provide a reference model to make sure products of different vendors would interoperate in networks. 7 Layer OSI Model IBM Novell Cisco Nokia Sun Micro System Microsoft
  • 6. Physical LayerPhysical Layer Data-Link LayerData-Link Layer Network LayerNetwork Layer Transport LayerTransport Layer Session LayerSession Layer Presentation LayerPresentation Layer ApplicationApplication LayerLayer • Reduces complexity • Standardizes Interfaces • Facilitates modular engineering • Ensures interoperable technology • Accelerates evolution • Simplifies teaching and learning Why a Layered Network ModelWhy a Layered Network Model
  • 7. The 7 Layers of the OSIModelThe 7 Layers of the OSIModel 1. Physical Layer1. Physical Layer 2. Data-Link Layer2. Data-Link Layer 3. Network Layer3. Network Layer 4. Transport Layer4. Transport Layer 5. Session Layer5. Session Layer 6. Presentation Layer6. Presentation Layer 7. Application Layer7. Application Layer
  • 8. The 7 Layers of the OSIModelThe 7 Layers of the OSIModel 7. Application Layer7. Application Layer Network Processes to Applications • Provides network services to application processes (such as e-mail, file transfer, and terminal emulation. 6. Presentation Layer6. Presentation Layer Data Representation • Insures data is readable by receiving system • Format of data • Data structures • Negotiates data transfer syntax for application layer
  • 9. The 7 Layers of the OSIModelThe 7 Layers of the OSIModel 5. Session Layer5. Session Layer Interhost Communication • Establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications. 4. Transport Layer4. Transport Layer End-to-end Connections • Concerned with transportation issues between hosts • Data transport reliability • Establish, maintain, terminate virtual circuits • Fault detection and recovery • Information flow control
  • 10. The 7 Layers of the OSIModelThe 7 Layers of the OSIModel 3.3. NetworkNetwork LayerLayer Address and best path • Provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems • Domain of routing 2. Data-Link Layer2. Data-Link Layer Access to media • Provides reliable transfer of data across media • Physical addressing, network topology, error notification, flow control
  • 11. The 7 Layers of the OSIModelThe 7 Layers of the OSIModel 1. Physical Layer1. Physical Layer Binary Transmission • Wires, connectors, voltages, data rates
  • 12. Data EncapsulationData Encapsulation
  • 13. Data EncapsulationData Encapsulation
  • 14. The TCP/IPModelThe TCP/IPModel Application LayerApplication Layer Transport LayerTransport Layer InternetInternet Network AccessNetwork Access
  • 15. Protocol Graph: TCP/IPProtocol Graph: TCP/IP FTP HTTP SMTP DNS DNS TFTP TCP UDP IP Internet Your LAN Many LAN’s and WAN’s
  • 16. Comparing TCP/IPwith OSIComparing TCP/IPwith OSI Application LayerApplication Layer Transport LayerTransport Layer InternetInternet Network AccessNetwork Access Physical LayerPhysical Layer Data-Link LayerData-Link Layer Network LayerNetwork Layer Transport LayerTransport Layer Session LayerSession Layer Presentation LayerPresentation Layer Application LayerApplication Layer TCP/IP Model OSI Model Protocols Networks Host Layers Media Layers
  • 17. The two layers of the OSIModelThe two layers of the OSIModel 5. Session Layer5. Session Layer 6. Presentation Layer6. Presentation Layer 7. Application Layer7. Application Layer • Upper Layers The upper layers defines how the application within end station will communicate with each other and with users.
  • 18. The two layers of the OSIModel • Lower Layers 1. Physical Layer1. Physical Layer 2. Data-Link Layer2. Data-Link Layer 3. Network Layer3. Network Layer 4. Transport Layer4. Transport Layer •The Lower layers defines how data is transmitted end to end & •Responsible for networking and network addressing
  • 19. Components and DevicesComponents and Devices
  • 20. Transmission MediaTransmission Media Coaxial Cable Twisted PairCable Microwave Satellite FiberOptic Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 21. Coax LayersCoax Layers Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 22. ThicknetThicknet It is used in 10Base5 EthernetIt is used in 10Base5 Ethernet Half-inch in diameterHalf-inch in diameter Bulky and expensiveBulky and expensive Devices connected via vampire tapDevices connected via vampire tap 10Base5 Ethernet10Base5 Ethernet Carries information at 10 Mbps in baseband from using a Bus topology.Carries information at 10 Mbps in baseband from using a Bus topology. Using 50 ohm coaxial cable and using AUI (Attachment Unit Interface)Using 50 ohm coaxial cable and using AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) connectors.connectors. Called the Thick Wire EthernetCalled the Thick Wire Ethernet Maximum segment length is 500 meters.( w/o a repeater)Maximum segment length is 500 meters.( w/o a repeater) Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 23. ThinnetThinnet Used in 10Base2 EthernetsUsed in 10Base2 Ethernets Easier to work with, cheaper than thicknetEasier to work with, cheaper than thicknet BNC connectors on coax are attached to T connectors.BNC connectors on coax are attached to T connectors. 10Base2 Ethernet10Base2 Ethernet Standard on thin coaxial cable.Standard on thin coaxial cable. Cable is half the diameter of the 10 Base-5 Ethernet Cable.Cable is half the diameter of the 10 Base-5 Ethernet Cable. Run at 10 MbpsRun at 10 Mbps Maximum segment length 185 metersMaximum segment length 185 meters Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 24. STP(shielded twistedSTP(shielded twisted pair)pair)  the pairis wrapped withthe pairis wrapped with metallic foil orbraid tometallic foil orbraid to insulate the pairfrominsulate the pairfrom electromagneticelectromagnetic interferenceinterference UTP(unshielded twistedUTP(unshielded twisted pair)pair)  each wire is insulated witheach wire is insulated with plastic wrap, but the pairplastic wrap, but the pair is encased in an outeris encased in an outer coveringcovering Twisted PairTwisted Pair Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 25. Microwave Transmission ProcessMicrowave Transmission Process Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 26. uplink station dish dish downlink station satellite transponder 22,300 miles Satellite Transmission ProcessSatellite Transmission Process Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 27. Buffer coating glass or plastic cladding fiber core Consists of three concentric sectionsConsists of three concentric sections FiberOptic LayersFiberOptic Layers Layer 1 Components and DevicesLayer 1 Components and Devices
  • 28. Layer1 Components and DevicesLayer1 Components and Devices REPEATER
  • 29. Layer1 Components and DevicesLayer1 Components and Devices Two common internetworking problems are too many nodes, or not enough cables. If either of these problem exists, a repeater provides a simple solution.
  • 30. Layer1 Components and DevicesLayer1 Components and Devices The disadvantage of a repeater is that it can’t filter traffic. A bit, seen on one port of repeater, gets sent out to all other ports. As more nodes are added to the network, traffic level increases.
  • 31. Layer1 Components and DevicesLayer1 Components and Devices MULTIPORT REPEATER (HUB)
  • 32. Layer1 Components and DevicesLayer1 Components and Devices
  • 33. Layer2 Components and DevicesLayer2 Components and Devices VendorCode SerialNumber ROM RAM 0000.0c12.3456 24bits 24bits • MAC address is burned into ROM on a network interface card ARP -A • Physical addresses are alsoPhysical addresses are also known as hardware and BIA'sknown as hardware and BIA's (Burned In Addresses) but(Burned In Addresses) but most commonly as MACmost commonly as MAC addresses.addresses.
  • 34. Layer2 Components and DevicesLayer2 Components and Devices
  • 35. Layer2 Components and DevicesLayer2 Components and Devices BRIDGE Corporate Intranet Segment 1 Segment 2
  • 36. Layer2 Components and DevicesLayer2 Components and Devices LAN SWITCH
  • 37. Layer3 Components and DevicesLayer3 Components and Devices ROUTERS
  • 38. Layer3 Network LayerLayer3 Network Layer Application Transport Network Data Link Physical Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) • OSI network layer corresponds to the TCP/IP internet layer
  • 39. IPProtocolIPProtocol • Routed protocols are used to transport user data through internetwork. Examples of Network layer Routed protocols are: • IP • DECnet • AppleTalk • Routing protocols are used to update neighbor router about network connected to router in the internetwork. Examples of Network layer Routing protocols are: • OSPF • IGRP • RIP
  • 40. ICMP– Internet Control Message ProtocolICMP– Internet Control Message Protocol Is a message control and error-reporting protocol between devices or hosts.Is a message control and error-reporting protocol between devices or hosts. ExamplesExamples PINGPING -Ping is a basic-Ping is a basic InternetInternet program that lets youprogram that lets you verify that a particularverify that a particular IP addressIP address exists and can acceptexists and can accept requests.requests. TRACE ROUTETRACE ROUTE - is a- is a utilityutility that records the routethat records the route through the Internet between your computer and athrough the Internet between your computer and a specified destination computerspecified destination computer
  • 41. Exercise: PINGExercise: PING 1. Open Dos C: prompt 2. Ping 127.1.1.1 - t
  • 42. PING Command Network Layer Echo Request Echo Reply Router> ping 172.16.1.5 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.5, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms Router> Router> ping 172.16.1.5 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.5, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms Router>
  • 43. TRACE Command York# trace ROME Type escape to abort. Tracing the route to ROME (172.16.33.5) 1 LONDON (172.16.12.3) 1000 msec 8 msec 4 msec 2 PARIS (172.16.16.2) 8 msec 8 msec 8 msec 3 ROME (172.16.33.5) 8 msec 8 msec 4 msec York# York London 172.16.12.3 Paris 17216.16.2 Rome 172.16.33.5 Network Layer Link
  • 44. ARP– Address Resolution ProtocolARP– Address Resolution Protocol I need the Ethernet address of 172.16.3.2 I heard that broadcast, that is me. Here is my Ethernet address. IP: 172.16.3.2 = Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP: 172.16.3.2 = Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 172.16.3.13 172.16.3.2 IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???IP: 172.16.3.2 = ??? • Map IP Ethernet • Local ARP Arp –a Ipconfig /all
  • 45. RARP– Reverse Address Resolution Protocol What is my IP address? I heard that broadcast. IP address is 172.16.3.25 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = 172.16.3.25 Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = 172.16.3.25 Ethernet = 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???Ethernet = 0800.0020.1111 IP = ??? • Map Ethernet IP • ARP and RARP are implemented directly on top of the data link layer
  • 46. Layer4: Transport Layer I am busy now. Send data slowly. Hello! How fast can I send data?
  • 47. Layer4: Transport Layer KEYWORDS: • Quality of service • Reliability • End-to-end control • Information flow control • Error-detection and recovery • Three-way handshake • TCP / UDP
  • 48. Layer4: Transport Layer ApplicationApplication TransportTransport InternetInternet NetworkNetwork Transmission ControlTransmission Control Protocol (TCP)Protocol (TCP) User DatagramUser Datagram Protocol (UDP)Protocol (UDP)
  • 49. Layer4: Transport Layer TCP/IP Protocol Graph FTP HTTP SMTP DNS DNS TFTP TCP UDP IP Internet Your LAN Many LAN’s and WAN’s
  • 50. Layer4: Transport Layer PORT NUMBERS
  • 51. Layer 5: Session Layer
  • 52. Layer 5: Session Layer Protocols Service Request Service Reply • Network File System (NFS) • Structured Query Language (SQL) • Remote-Procedure Call (RPC) • X Window System • AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP) • DNA Session Control Protocol (SCP)
  • 53. Layer 6: Presentation Layer 1. Physical Layer1. Physical Layer 2. Data-Link Layer2. Data-Link Layer 3. Network Layer3. Network Layer 4. Transport Layer4. Transport Layer 5. Session Layer5. Session Layer 6. Presentation Layer6. Presentation Layer 7. Application Layer7. Application Layer Network Processes to Applications Data Representation • Insure data is readable by receiving system • Format of data • Negotiates data transfer syntax for application layer
  • 54. Layer 6: Presentation Layer Functions
  • 55. Layer 6: Presentation Layer GRAPHICS VISUAL IMAGES PICT TIFF JPEG GIF TEXT DATA ASCII EBCDIC Encrypted SOUND VIDEO MIDI MPEG QUICKTIME AVI • Provides video code formatting for conversion for applications
  • 56. Layer 6: Presentation Layer PICTURE
  • 57. Layer 6: Presentation Layer SOUND
  • 58. Layer 6: Presentation Layer VIDEO
  • 59. Layer 6: Presentation Layer <html> <head> <script language=javascript>var now=new Date,t1=0,t2=0,t3=0,t4=0,t5=0,ie5=0;t1=now.getTime();</script> <title>Yahoo!</title> <!--[if IE]> <script language=javascript> ie5=1; function err(a,b,c) { var img=new Image; img.src='http://srd.yahoo.com/hp1-err/'+escape(a)+','+escape(b)+','+escape(c)+'/*1'; return true; } window.onerror=err; function keypress() { if (window.event.keyCode<=32) return 1; document.onkeypress=null; HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE
  • 60. Layer 6: Presentation Layer Data Encryption
  • 61. Layer 7: Application Layer Client-Server: File Download
  • 62. Layer 7: Application Layer Client-Server Request-Response
  • 63. Layer 7: Application Layer A Television Remote is like a Web Browser
  • 64. Layer 7: Application Layer • Do you know where these addresses takes you? Once you get to these sites, will you remember these addresses to get there again? IP ADDRESS TABLES ? 198.133.219.25 204.71.177.35 152.163.210.7 198.150.15.234 207.46.131.15 192.233.80.6
  • 65. Layer 7: Application Layer CISCO.COM YAHOO.COM ORACLE.COM PLDT.COM.PH WHITEHOUSE.ORG NOVELL.COM IP ADDRESS TABLES 198.133.219.25 204.71.177.35 152.163.210.7 198.150.15.234 207.46.131.15 192.233.80.6 • This is why the DNS services are important to a web user. Without being able to use names to identify web sites, it would be much harder to locate and keep track of them
  • 66. Layer 7: Application Layer World Wide Generic Domains COM – This domain is intended for commercial entities, that is companies. This domain has grown very large and there is concern about the administrative load and system performance if the current growth pattern is continued. Consideration is being given to subdividing the COM domain and allowing future commercial registrations in sub domains. EDU – This domain was originally intended for all educational institutions. Many universities, colleges, schools, educational services organizations, and educational consortia have registered here. More recently, a decision has been made to limit further registration to four years colleges and universities. Schools and two year colleges will be registered in the country domains (see U.S Domain, especially, K-12 and CC, below). NET – This domain is intended to hold only the computers of network providers, that is NIC and NOC computers, the administrative computers, and the network node computers. The customers of the network provider would have domain names of their own (not in the NET Top Level Domain [TLD]). DNS Domains
  • 67. Layer 7: Application Layer World Wide Generic Domains ORG – This domain is intended as the miscellaneous TLD for organizations that do not fit anywhere else. Some non-government organization may fit here. INT – This domain is intended for organizations established by international treaties, or international databases. United States Only Generic Domains ORG – This domain is intended as the miscellaneous TLD for organizations that do not fit anywhere else. Some non-government organization may fit here. INT – This domain is intended for organizations established by international treaties, or international databases.
  • 68. Layer 7: Application Layer Example Country Code Domain US – As an example of country domain, the US domain provides for the registration of all kinds of entities in the United States on the basis of political geography, that is, a hierarchy of “<entity-name>.<locality>.<state code>. US”. For example, “IBM.armonk.NY.US.” in addition, branches of the US domain are provided within each state for schools (K12), community colleges (CC), technical schools (TEC), state government agencies (STATE), councils of governments (COG), libraries (LIB), museums (MUS), and several other generic type of entities.
  • 69. Layer 7: Application Layer
  • 70. Layer 7: Application Layer VARIOUS INTERNET APPLICATIONS 1
  • 71. Layer 7: Application Layer 2 VARIOUS INTERNET APPLICATIONS
  • 72. Layer 7: Application Layer 3 VARIOUS INTERNET APPLICATIONS
  • 73. Layer 7: Application Layer 4 VARIOUS INTERNET APPLICATIONS
  • 74. Layer 7: Application Layer When sending an e-mail to someone, the process that is followed is to send the letter to the post office where the user belongs. The user then “picks up” the e-mail from the post office at his or her next logon. Picture of E-mail Message Going to Mail Server to E-mail Client
  • 75. Layer 7: Application Layer E-mail Message with Address
  • 76. Layer 7: Application Layer • A DNS server resolves the Post Office name of an e-mail address. DNS functions
  • 77. Layer 7: Application Layer Mail Server Functions
  • 78. Layer 7: Application Layer • When the name is found in the user list, the letter is place in the proper mailbox. If no match is found for the e-mail user at the receiving post office, an error message is sent to the sending post office stating no user by that name exists at the receiving post office. Mail Server Functions
  • 79. Layer 7: Application Layer • When the user JJones logs on and checks the mail, the letter is downloaded to the client computer to read. Mail Server Functions
  • 80. Layer 7: Application Layer • A Telnet session attaches a client computer to a host to allow the client to control the host remotely. This connection is just like the remote terminal connection to the same LAN as the host instead of being attached through a WAN. Telnet Functions
  • 81. Layer 7: Application Layer • A Telnet session starts like any other communication program: with an address to connect to a host computer. The address can be either IP addresses or DNS entries. Telnet Functions
  • 82. Layer 7: Application Layer Network Connection Process • An FTP server provides files that can be downloaded from the server and a place for files to be uploaded from the client.
  • 83. Layer 7: Application Layer FTP Program Screen • This graphic shows a standard FTP client software login screen. It includes HOST NAME, which can be an IP address or DNS name, HOST TYPE, USER ID, and PASSWORD. It can also contain startup directory locations for the FTP sessions.
  • 84. Layer 7: Application Layer Browser Web Page • A web page can use color, text, graphics, or other multimedia effects to create an electronic presentation to users of the web. The web can be navigated by clicking on the hyperlinks. These links usually colored and underlined objects on the web page that will take you to a new page when clicked.
  • 85. Layer 7: Application Layer Hyperlinks • Clicking on a hyperlink will bring up a new web page in the browser windows
  • 86. Layer 7: Application Layer URL /edu/cisco.comwww.http:// Identifies to the browser what protocol should be used. Identifies what type of site is being contacted by the browser. Represents the domain entry of the web site. Identifies the folder where the web page is located on the server. Also since no name is specified, the browser will load the default page identified by the server. • Identified here are the parts of a standard URL (Uniform Resource Locator) address.
  • 87. Layer 7: Application Layer
  • 88. This page intentionally left blankThis page intentionally left blank
  • 89. Because you’ve reached the endBecause you’ve reached the end of the presentationof the presentation
  • 90. Talagang The End Na!Talagang The End Na!

×