Chapter 4:
Network Access

Introduction to Networks

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cis...
Chapter 4: Objectives
Students will be able to:
 Explain how physical layer protocols and services
support communications...
Chapter 4
4.1 Physical Layer Protocols
4.2 Network Media
4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols
4.4 Media Access Control
4.5 Summar...
Getting it Connected

Connecting to the Network

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco C...
Getting it Connected

Connecting to the Network

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco C...
Getting it Connected

Network Interface Cards
Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender

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© 200...
Purpose of the Physical Layer

The Physical Layer

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Cisco...
Purpose of the Physical Layer

Physical Layer Media

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Cis...
Purpose of the Physical Layer

Physical Layer Standards
Standard
Networking Standards
organization
•
•

ISO 8877: Official...
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1

Physical Layer Fundamental Principles
Physical
Components

Frame Encoding
Technique

Si...
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1

Bandwidth

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Conf...
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1

Throughput

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Cisco Con...
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1

Types of Physical Media

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Network Media

Copper Cabling

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Cisco Confidential

14
Copper Cabling

Characteristics of Copper Media

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Cisco C...
Copper Cabling

Copper Media

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cable

Coaxial cable
Presen...
Copper Cabling

Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cis...
Copper Cabling

Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable
Braided or Foil Shield
Foil Shields

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© 2008 Cisco Syste...
Copper Cabling

Coaxial Cable

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Cisco Confidential

19
Copper Cabling

Cooper Media Safety

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential
...
UTP Cabling

Properties of UTP Cabling

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Cisco Confidenti...
UTP Cabling

UTP Cabling Standards

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

...
UTP Cabling

UTP Connectors

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Cisco Confidential

23
UTP Cabling

Types of UTP Cable

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Cisco Confidential

24
UTP Cabling

Testing UTP Cables

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

25
UTP Cabling

Testing UTP Cables

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

26
Fiber Optic Cabling

Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

...
Fiber Optic Cabling

Fiber Media Cable Design

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Con...
Fiber Optic Cabling

Types of Fiber Media

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Cisco Confide...
Fiber Optic Cabling

Network Fiber Connectors

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Cisco Con...
Fiber Optic Cabling

Testing Fiber Cables

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Cisco Confide...
Fiber Optic Cabling

Fiber versus Copper
Implementation issues

Fibre-optic

Bandwidth supported

10 Mbps – 10 Gbps

10 Mb...
Wireless Media

Properties of Wireless Media

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Conf...
Wireless Media

Types of Wireless Media
•
•
•
•

IEEE 802.11 standards
Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi.
Uses CSMA/CA
Variati...
Wireless Media

Wireless LAN

Cisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac wireless router
Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Al...
Wireless Media

802.11 Wi-Fi Standards
Standard

Frequency

Backwards
compatible

802.11a

54 Mbps

5 GHz

No

802.11b

11...
Purpose of the Data Link Layer

The Data Link Layer

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cis...
Purpose of the Data Link Layer

Data Link Sublayers

Network

LLC Sublayer
Data Link

802.15
Bluetooth

802.11
Wi-Fi

802....
Purpose of the Data Link Layer

Media Access Control

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ci...
Purpose of the Data Link Layer

Providing Access to Media

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Data Link Layer

Layer 2 Frame Structure

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Cisco Confiden...
Layer 2 Frame Structure

Creating a Frame

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Cisco Confide...
Data Link Layer

Layer 2 Standards

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

...
Layer 2 Standards

Data Link Layer Standards
Standard
organization

Networking Standards

IEEE

802.2: Logical Link Contro...
Topologies

Controlling Access to the Media

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confi...
Topologies

Physical and Logical Topologies

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confi...
WAN Topologies

Common Physical WAN Topologies

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Co...
WAN Topologies

Physical Point-to-Point Topology

Presentation_ID

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Cisco ...
WAN Topologies

Logical Point-to-Point Topology

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Cisco C...
WAN Topologies

Half and Full Duplex

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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential...
LAN Topologies

Physical LAN Topologies

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confident...
LAN Topologies

Logical Topology for Shared Media

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco...
LAN Topologies

Contention-Based Access

Characteristics

Contention-Based Technologies

•
•
•

•
•

Presentation_ID

Stat...
LAN Topologies

Multi-Access Topology

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidentia...
LAN Topologies

Controlled Access

Characteristics

Controlled Access Technologies

•
•

•
•

•
•

Presentation_ID

Only o...
LAN Topologies

Ring Topology

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

56
Data Link Frame

The Frame

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

57
Data Link Frame

The Header

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

58
Data Link Frame

Layer 2 Address

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

59
Data Link Frame

The Trailer

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

60
Data Link Frame

LAN and WAN Frames

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential
...
Data Link Frame

Ethernet Frame

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

62
Data Link Frame

Point-to-Point Protocol Frame

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Co...
Data Link Frame

802.11 Wireless Frame

Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidenti...
Network Access

Summary
• Physical Layer Protocols
• Network Media

• Data Link Layer Protocols
• Media Access Control

Pr...
Presentation_ID

© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

66
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Cisco1 chapter4

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Network Access Introduction to Networks Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  2. 2. Chapter 4: Objectives Students will be able to:  Explain how physical layer protocols and services support communications across data networks.  Build a simple network using the appropriate.  Explain the role of the data link layer in supporting communications across data networks.  Compare media access control techniques and logical topologies used in networks. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  3. 3. Chapter 4 4.1 Physical Layer Protocols 4.2 Network Media 4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols 4.4 Media Access Control 4.5 Summary Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  4. 4. Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
  5. 5. Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  6. 6. Getting it Connected Network Interface Cards Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  7. 7. Purpose of the Physical Layer The Physical Layer Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  8. 8. Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  9. 9. Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Standards Standard Networking Standards organization • • ISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45) ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568. • • • TIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all voice, video and data networks. TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces TIA-598-C: Fiber optic color coding TIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers ANSI • 568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIA ITU-T • G.992: ADSL IEEE • • • 802.3: Ethernet 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) 802.15: Bluetooth ISO EIA/TIA Presentation_ID • © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
  10. 10. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Physical Layer Fundamental Principles Physical Components Frame Encoding Technique Signalling Method • • • • • • UTP Coaxial Connectors NICs Ports Interfaces • Manchester Encoding • Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) techniques • 4B/5B codes are used with Multi-Level Transition Level 3 (MLT-3) signaling • 8B/10B • PAM5 • Changes in the electromagnetic field • Intensity of the electromagnetic field • Phase of the electromagnetic wave Single-mode Fiber Multimode Fiber Connectors NICs Interfaces Lasers and LEDs Photoreceptors • Pulses of light • Wavelength multiplexing using different colors • A pulse equals 1. • No pulse is 0. Fiber Optic cable • • • • • • • Access Points NICs Radio Antennae • DSSS (direct-sequence spreadspectrum) • OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) • Radio waves Wireless media • • • • Media Copper cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
  11. 11. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Bandwidth Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  12. 12. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Throughput Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  13. 13. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Types of Physical Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  14. 14. Network Media Copper Cabling Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  15. 15. Copper Cabling Characteristics of Copper Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  16. 16. Copper Cabling Copper Media Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cable Coaxial cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  17. 17. Copper Cabling Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  18. 18. Copper Cabling Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable Braided or Foil Shield Foil Shields Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  19. 19. Copper Cabling Coaxial Cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  20. 20. Copper Cabling Cooper Media Safety Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  21. 21. UTP Cabling Properties of UTP Cabling Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  22. 22. UTP Cabling UTP Cabling Standards Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  23. 23. UTP Cabling UTP Connectors Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  24. 24. UTP Cabling Types of UTP Cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  25. 25. UTP Cabling Testing UTP Cables Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  26. 26. UTP Cabling Testing UTP Cables Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
  27. 27. Fiber Optic Cabling Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
  28. 28. Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber Media Cable Design Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
  29. 29. Fiber Optic Cabling Types of Fiber Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
  30. 30. Fiber Optic Cabling Network Fiber Connectors Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
  31. 31. Fiber Optic Cabling Testing Fiber Cables Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
  32. 32. Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber versus Copper Implementation issues Fibre-optic Bandwidth supported 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps 10 Mbps – 100 Gbps Distance Relatively short (1 – 100 meters) Relatively High (1 – 100,000 meters) Immunity to EMI and RFI Low High (Completely immune) Immunity to electrical hazards Low High (Completely immune) Media and connector costs Lowest Highest Installation skills required Lowest Highest Safety precautions Presentation_ID Copper media Lowest Highest © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
  33. 33. Wireless Media Properties of Wireless Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
  34. 34. Wireless Media Types of Wireless Media • • • • IEEE 802.11 standards Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi. Uses CSMA/CA Variations include: • • • • • • 802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz 802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz 802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz 802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz 802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz 802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz • IEEE 802.15 standard • Supports speeds up to 3 Mbps • Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to 100 meters. • IEEE 802.16 standard • Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps • Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
  35. 35. Wireless Media Wireless LAN Cisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac wireless router Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
  36. 36. Wireless Media 802.11 Wi-Fi Standards Standard Frequency Backwards compatible 802.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHz No 802.11b 11 Mbps 2.4 GHz No 802.11g 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz 802.11b 802.11n 600 Mbps 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz 802.11b/g 802.11ac 1.3 Gbps (1300 Mbps) 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz 802.11b/g/n 802.11ad Presentation_ID Maximum Speed 7 Gbps (7000 Mbps) 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz 802.11b/g/n/ac © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
  37. 37. Purpose of the Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
  38. 38. Purpose of the Data Link Layer Data Link Sublayers Network LLC Sublayer Data Link 802.15 Bluetooth 802.11 Wi-Fi 802.3 Ethernet MAC Sublayer Physical Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
  39. 39. Purpose of the Data Link Layer Media Access Control Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  40. 40. Purpose of the Data Link Layer Providing Access to Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
  41. 41. Data Link Layer Layer 2 Frame Structure Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
  42. 42. Layer 2 Frame Structure Creating a Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
  43. 43. Data Link Layer Layer 2 Standards Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
  44. 44. Layer 2 Standards Data Link Layer Standards Standard organization Networking Standards IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC) 802.3: Ethernet 802.4: Token bus 802.5: Token passing 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) 802.15: Bluetooth 802.16: WiMax ITU-T • • • • G.992: ADSL G.8100 - G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspects Q.921: ISDN Q.922: Frame Relay ISO • • HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC) ANSI Presentation_ID • • • • • • • • X3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
  45. 45. Topologies Controlling Access to the Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
  46. 46. Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
  47. 47. WAN Topologies Common Physical WAN Topologies Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
  48. 48. WAN Topologies Physical Point-to-Point Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
  49. 49. WAN Topologies Logical Point-to-Point Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
  50. 50. WAN Topologies Half and Full Duplex Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50
  51. 51. LAN Topologies Physical LAN Topologies Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51
  52. 52. LAN Topologies Logical Topology for Shared Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52
  53. 53. LAN Topologies Contention-Based Access Characteristics Contention-Based Technologies • • • • • Presentation_ID Stations can transmit at any time Collision exist There are mechanisms to resolve contention for the media CSMA/CD for 802.3 Ethernet networks CSMA/CA for 802.11 wireless networks © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53
  54. 54. LAN Topologies Multi-Access Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54
  55. 55. LAN Topologies Controlled Access Characteristics Controlled Access Technologies • • • • • • Presentation_ID Only one station can transmit at a time Devices wishing to transmit must wait their turn No collisions May use a token passing method Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55
  56. 56. LAN Topologies Ring Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56
  57. 57. Data Link Frame The Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57
  58. 58. Data Link Frame The Header Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58
  59. 59. Data Link Frame Layer 2 Address Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59
  60. 60. Data Link Frame The Trailer Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60
  61. 61. Data Link Frame LAN and WAN Frames Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61
  62. 62. Data Link Frame Ethernet Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 62
  63. 63. Data Link Frame Point-to-Point Protocol Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 63
  64. 64. Data Link Frame 802.11 Wireless Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 64
  65. 65. Network Access Summary • Physical Layer Protocols • Network Media • Data Link Layer Protocols • Media Access Control Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 65
  66. 66. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 66
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