E A R T H Q U A K E S
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E A R T H Q U A K E S

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PowerPoint Presentation ng group ni Carol. :D

PowerPoint Presentation ng group ni Carol. :D

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  • 1. EARTHQUAKES Anna dela cruz Kate feliciano Rheena fuentebella Carol galang 1-4
  • 2. What is an earthquake?
    • An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor, or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the  Earth's   crust  that creates seismic waves . 
    • earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquake  epicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficient displacement to cause a  tsunami . The shaking in earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity.
  • 3. fault
    • a  fault  or  fault line  is a planar  fracture  in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side. Large faults within the Earth's  crust  are the result of differential or shear motion and active fault zones are the causal locations of most  earthquakes . Earthquakes are caused by energy release during rapid slippage along a fault. A fault that runs along the boundary between two  tectonic plates  is called a  transform fault .
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Seismic waves
    • Seismic waves  are  waves   of force that travel through the  Earth  or other elastic bodies, for example as a result of an  earthquake ,  explosion , or some other process that imparts forces. 
    • Seismic waves are studied by  seismologists , and measured by a  seismograph , which records the output of a  seismometer , or  geophone .
  • 7. Types of seismic waves
    • Body waves- travel through the interior of the Earth. They follow ray paths bent by the varying density and modulus (stiffness) of the Earth's interior. The density and modulus, in turn, vary according to temperature, composition, and phase. This effect is similar to the refraction of light waves . There are two main kinds of body waves:
    • P-waves and S-waves
  • 8. P-waves
    • P waves (primary waves) are longitudinal or compress ional waves. In solids, these waves generally travel almost twice as fast as S waves and can travel through any type of material. In air, these pressure waves take the form of sound waves; hence they travel at the speed of sound . Typical speeds are 330 m/s in air, 1450 m/s in water and about 5000 m/s in granite. When generated by an earthquake they are less destructive than the S waves and surface waves that follow them, due to their smaller amplitudes.
  • 9. The P wave
  • 10. S-waves
    • S waves (secondary waves) are transverse or shear waves, which means that the ground is displaced perpendicularly to the direction of propagation. In the case of horizontally polarized S waves, the ground moves alternately to one side and then the other. S waves can travel only through solids, as fluids (liquids and gases) do not support shear stresses. Their speed is about 60% of that of P waves in a given material. S waves arrive second in a seismic station because of their slower speed. S waves are several times larger in amplitude than P waves for earthquake sources
  • 11. The s-wave
  • 12. P and S waves in Earth's mantle and core
    • When an earthquake occurs, seismographs near the epicenter , out to about 90 km distance are able to record both P and S waves, but those at a greater distance no longer detect the high frequencies of the first S wave. Since shear waves cannot pass through liquids, this phenomenon was original evidence for the now well-established observation that the Earth has a liquid outer core, as demonstrated by Richard Dixon Oldham . This kind of observation has also been used to argue, by seismic testing, that the Moon has a solid core, although recent geodetic studies suggest the core is still molten.
  • 13. Surface waves
    • Surface waves are analogous to water waves and travel just under the Earth's surface. They travel more slowly than body waves. Because of their low frequency, long duration, and large amplitude, they can be the most destructive type of seismic wave. There are two types of surface waves: Rayleigh waves and Love waves . Theoretically, surface waves can be understood as systems of interacting Primary and Secondary waves, which are also known as P waves and S waves.
  • 14. Rayleigh waves
    • also called ground roll, are surface waves that travel as ripples with motions that are similar to those of waves on the surface of water
    • The existence of these waves was predicted by John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh , in 1885
  • 15. Tsunamis
    • A tsunami is a series of water waves that is caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water , such as an ocean .
  • 16. Causes of tsunamis
    • A tsunami can be generated when  convergent  or destructive  plate boundaries  abruptly move and vertically displace the overlying water. It is very unlikely that they can form at divergent (constructive) or conservative plate boundaries.
  • 17. Measuring and earthquake
    • The magnitude of most earthquakes is measured on the  Richter scale , invented by Charles F. Richter in 1934. The Richter magnitude is calculated from the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded for the earthquake, no matter what type of wave was the strongest. 
  • 18. Earthquake safety and hazards
    • Drop, cover, and hold.
    • Crouch against inner walls avoiding windows, mirrors, wall hangings, and furniture.
    • Outdoors - move to a playground. Avoid vehicles, power lines, trees, and buildings. Sit down to avoid being thrown down.
  • 19.
    • After earthquakes, water and power failures. Stores closed, travel is difficult.
    • You may have to wait several days.
    • Prepare an earthquake kit - canned food, water, first aid supplies, stored where it is easy to reach.
  • 20. Questions :d
    • 1. What is an earthquake?
    • result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. 
    • 2. A planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side.
    • FAULT
  • 21.
    • 3. Waves of force that travel through the Earth.
    • Seismic waves
    • 4. longitudinal or compress ional waves.
    • P-waves
    • 5. Transverse or shear waves.
    • S-waves
    • 6.Earthquakes generate seismic waves which can be detected with a sensitive instrument called a 
    • seismograph
  • 22.
    • 7. analogous to water waves and travel just under the Earth's surface
    • Surface waves
    • 8. magnitude of most earthquakes is measured on a
    • Richter scale
    • 9.what year did the Richter scale invented? And who invented it?
    • 1934, Charles F. Richter
    • 10. Give an example of what to do to survive an earthquake =))))))
  • 23. Earthquake safety and hazards
    • Drop, cover, and hold.
    • Crouch against inner walls avoiding windows, mirrors, wall hangings, and furniture.
    • Outdoors - move to a playground. Avoid vehicles, power lines, trees, and buildings. Sit down to avoid being thrown down.
  • 24.
    • After earthquakes, water and power failures. Stores closed, travel is difficult.
    • You may have to wait several days.
    • Prepare an earthquake kit - canned food, water, first aid supplies, stored where it is easy to reach.