Cultural Intelligence: A Leadership Skill for the Future
Cultural Intelligence How do we equip ourselves and our ministries to understand, partner with and engage in multicultural relationships? A leadership skill for the future Dr Cheryl Doig Monday, Oct. 20, 2008
Culturally Intelligence Cultural intelligence (CQ) refers to the capability of individuals to func<on eﬀec<vely in mul<cultural contexts. Earley & Ang (2003) We tend to be more able to more readily decode the mental states of others in social groups closest to us; thus, rela<ve to those outside the group, we would have an intra-‐cultural advantage. Ringleb, Rock, Conser -‐ “NeuroLeadership in 2010”
• 90% of leading execu<ves from 68 countries named mul<cultural leadership as their top management challenge -‐Interna)onal Labor Union • 67% of interna<onal air travel revenue is generated by Asian and Middle Eastern airlines
2006 Census hWp://www.business.nsw.gov.au/invest-‐in-‐nsw/about-‐nsw/people-‐skills-‐and-‐educa<on/ethnic-‐diversity
Are they distributed evenly? Redfern….Chatswood…ParramaWa What is the make up of your school? How has it changed in the last 5 years? How do you expect it to change by 2020? What stereotyping do you hear?
Reﬂec<ng on your staﬀ Conscious Incompetence Conscious competence Staﬀ begin to recognise other cultural Staﬀ begin to accommodate other norms and start ﬁnding out about how cultural norms into their planning and they diﬀer -‐ considering why others might adjust their thinking and behaviour to ﬁt not be responding as staﬀ thought. other cultural norms as appropriate. Unconscious Incompetence Unconscious competence Staﬀ react to new cultural contexts based Staﬀ automa<cally adjust their thinking on their own cultural context, assuming and behaviour to ﬁt diverse cultural that their understandings and beliefs are situa<ons. Feeling uncomfortable on shared. purpose. Communi)es are con)nuing to change – how are you developing capabili)es to meet these diverse cultural needs?
Culturally Intelligent staﬀ… • Are interested and mo<vated to change • Understand how cultures are similar and diﬀerent • Use their awareness to plan their strategy • Know when to adapt and when not to
What is your experience? • Most of us tend to underes<mate the degree to which we ourselves are a product of culture. It’s much easier to see it in others. • Culture isn’t something that just happens to us; rather we’re also ac<ve creators of it. • We ohen assume that what mo<vates us mo<vates others eg (clock-‐<me cultures v event-‐ <me cultures).
3 categories of human behaviour • Universal needs – food, water, clothing, housing, economic systems • Visible culture -‐ symbols, images, branding, what is said, how <me is managed… • Immersed culture -‐ thoughts, values, and assump<ons that lie beneath the surface (the role of students, teachers and families…) • Personal – our deepest individual diﬀerences – iden<ﬁable personal quirks David Livermore – Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success
CQ Drive (moRvaRon) Interest, drive and mo)va)on to adapt inter-‐culturally • Intrinsic Interest – deriving enjoyment from culturally diverse experiences • Extrinsic Interest – gaining beneﬁts from culturally diverse experiences • Self-‐Eﬃcacy – having the conﬁdence to be eﬀec<ve in culturally diverse situa<ons What experiences have you had in ea<ng foods that were interes<ng, exo<c or…diﬃcult….
CQ Drive QuesRons • What aWracts you about working with people from other cultures? • What things do you think might challenge you about the cultural diversity of our school? • What experience have you had in working with diﬀerent cultures? With X speciﬁcally? • Think of a <me when you were successful in interac<ng with someone from a diﬀerent cultural background. What did you learn from the experience?
Improving CQ Drive • Iden<fy similari<es between the cultural groups represented • Link to performance – gepng the best out of your team – list the tangible beneﬁts • Demonstrate vulnerability and provide hands on experience • Map your school cultures and strengths using an apprecia<ve inquiry approach • Explore the documentary “Go back to where you came from” and reﬂect on your personal beliefs • Link forward momentum to an exis<ng interest eg sport, art…
CQ Knowledge (cogniRon) Understanding of cultural norms and how cultures are similar and diﬀerent • Understanding that team members from some cultures are less likely to speak up • Business – knowledge about economic and legal systems • Interpersonal – knowledge about values, social interac<on norms, and religious beliefs • Socio-‐Linguis)cs – knowledge about rules of languages and rules for expressing nonverbal behaviors • Leadership – knowledge about managing people and rela<onships across cultures
CQ Knowledge QuesRons • From your visit to our school, what do you an<cipate will be diﬀerent from your previous work/school? • Recall a <me when you were stereotyped. How did you respond? Regardless of the quality or faults of ones parents one must always love and respect them. Do you agree? 31% Dutch 95% Asians
Improving CQ Knowledge • Beat the ‘ﬁlter bubble’ by searching in the country of interest eg site:cn educa<on will give you educa<on sites from China. Compare the diﬀerences in perspec<ves. • Access books and websites about diﬀerent cultures. • Use cultural generalisa<ons consciously as a best ﬁrst guess…and dig deeper. • Explore educa<on (formal/informal) expecta<ons. • Study a foreign language.
Cultural Value Dimensions Individualism/Collec<vism Power Distance High – Australia High – Malaysia Low – China Low – New Zealand Uncertainty Avoidance CooperaRon/Compe<<on High – Singapore High – Sweden Low -‐ UK Low -‐ Japan hWp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gJzRS0I7tA&feature=fvwp&NR=1 hWp://www.kwintessen<al.co.uk/intercultural/dimensions.html
CQ Strategy (metacogniRon) Your awareness and ability to plan in light of your cultural understanding • Awareness – knowing about ones’ exis<ng cultural knowledge • Planning – strategizing before a culturally diverse encounter • Checking – checking assump<ons and adjus<ng mental maps when actual experiences diﬀer from expecta<ons.
CQ Strategy QuesRons Think about a mee.ng that you had with another cultural group. • How did you prepare for it? • In such a mee<ng where it wasn’t going your way, what did you do? How did you react? • When you are working with people from other cultures, how do you change the way you communicate?
Improving CQ Strategy • Find a cultural mentor • Observe people from diﬀerent cultural backgrounds • Plan for the culturally diverse encounter – OPV • Schedule a private conversa<on ahead of <me with individuals who are averse to direct conﬂict • Ask staﬀ to come with 3 ideas to share • Avoid stereotypes • Check assump<ons and adjust mental maps and consider what other other perspec<ves need to be considered and what you can do diﬀerently for beWer results • Develop understandings of assump<ons/interpreta<ons v evidence and integrate • Provide scenarios for staﬀ to work through and share
CQ AcRon (behaviour) Flexibility to adapt when rela.ng and working inter-‐culturally • Adapt verbal and non-‐verbal behaviour to meet the needs of the group, while s<ll remaining authen<c • If successful, mee<ngs will be eﬀec<ve and respeczul • Non-‐Verbal – modifying non-‐verbal behaviors (e.g., gestures, facial expressions) • Verbal – modifying verbal behaviors (e.g., accent, tone) • Speech Acts – modifying the manner and content of communica<ons (e.g. direct/indirect)
CQ AcRon QuesRons Think about a <me when you needed to do something you felt very uncomfortable doing? What did you do? What did you tell yourself? What happened?
Improving CQ AcRon • Travel to a diﬀerent culture and explore local haunts, sepngs, foods… • Find out how to deal with diﬃcult situa<ons and act on this eg refusing gihs (be upfront, donate to a charity on your behalf, involve a third party…), apologies, feedback • Role play eg lack of eye contact • Imitate successful others • Integrate mul<culturalism and globalisa<on into school strategy and expecta<ons
What well? well? What went went What impact did it have? What impact tdid it have? How do you think more of hat? How do you think you could do more of that?
Cultural Intelligence Leading with cultural intelligence doesn’t mean being a chameleon to every individual and situa<on encountered. But it does mean knowing when an empowering style is most necessary as compared to a more direc<ve one…. It requires discipline and hard work to become more adaptable in how we inspire and lead people in an increasingly diverse world. And with that hard work, slowly but surely, you can be a global leader. hWp://davidlivermore.com/2011/09/09/can-‐you-‐really-‐be-‐a-‐global-‐leader/
Extra resources • hWp://www.culturalq.com/rter David Livermore -‐ Cultural Intelligence Center • www.cicollec<ve.com Trisha Carter – Intercultural Specialist, organisa<onal psychologist, Sydney • hWp://www.culturaldetec<ve.com/ -‐ for informa<on on values lenses firstname.lastname@example.org www.thinkbeyond.co.nz