Cultural Intelligence: A Leadership Skill for the Future

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This presentation is for educators who wish to explore the increasing cultural diversity of staff, students and community and how cultural intelligence can be grown.

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Cultural Intelligence: A Leadership Skill for the Future

  1. 1. Cultural  Intelligence   How do we equip ourselves and our ministries to understand, partner with and engage in multicultural relationships? A  leadership  skill  for  the  future   Dr  Cheryl  Doig  Monday, Oct. 20, 2008
  2. 2. Culturally  Intelligence  Cultural  intelligence  (CQ)  refers  to  the  capability  of  individuals  to  func<on  effec<vely  in  mul<cultural  contexts.     Earley  &  Ang  (2003)     We  tend  to  be  more  able  to  more  readily  decode  the   mental  states  of  others  in  social  groups  closest  to  us;   thus,  rela<ve  to  those  outside  the  group,  we  would   have  an  intra-­‐cultural  advantage.   Ringleb,  Rock,  Conser  -­‐  “NeuroLeadership  in  2010”  
  3. 3. •  90%  of  leading  execu<ves  from  68  countries   named  mul<cultural  leadership  as  their  top   management  challenge                  -­‐Interna)onal  Labor  Union  •  67%  of  interna<onal  air  travel  revenue  is   generated  by  Asian  and  Middle  Eastern  airlines  
  4. 4. 2006  Census  hWp://www.business.nsw.gov.au/invest-­‐in-­‐nsw/about-­‐nsw/people-­‐skills-­‐and-­‐educa<on/ethnic-­‐diversity    
  5. 5. Are  they  distributed  evenly?   Redfern….Chatswood…ParramaWa  What  is  the  make  up  of  your  school?  How  has  it  changed  in  the  last  5  years?  How  do  you  expect   it  to  change  by  2020?   What  stereotyping  do  you  hear?  
  6. 6. Reflec<ng  on  your  staff  Conscious  Incompetence   Conscious  competence  Staff  begin  to  recognise  other  cultural   Staff  begin  to  accommodate  other  norms  and  start  finding  out  about  how   cultural  norms  into  their  planning  and  they  differ  -­‐  considering  why  others  might   adjust  their  thinking  and  behaviour  to  fit  not  be  responding  as  staff  thought.   other  cultural  norms  as  appropriate.    Unconscious  Incompetence   Unconscious  competence  Staff  react  to  new  cultural  contexts  based   Staff  automa<cally  adjust  their  thinking  on  their  own  cultural  context,  assuming   and  behaviour  to  fit  diverse  cultural  that  their  understandings  and  beliefs  are   situa<ons.  Feeling  uncomfortable  on  shared.   purpose.    Communi)es  are  con)nuing  to  change  –  how  are  you  developing  capabili)es  to  meet   these  diverse  cultural  needs?    
  7. 7. Culturally  Intelligent  staff…  •  Are  interested  and  mo<vated  to  change  •  Understand  how  cultures  are  similar  and   different  •  Use  their  awareness  to  plan  their  strategy  •  Know  when  to  adapt  and  when  not  to  
  8. 8. What  is  your  experience?  •  Most  of  us  tend  to  underes<mate  the  degree  to   which  we  ourselves  are  a  product  of  culture.  It’s   much  easier  to  see  it  in  others.    •  Culture  isn’t  something  that  just  happens  to  us;   rather  we’re  also  ac<ve  creators  of  it.  •  We  ohen  assume  that  what  mo<vates  us   mo<vates  others  eg  (clock-­‐<me  cultures  v  event-­‐ <me  cultures).  
  9. 9. 3  categories  of  human  behaviour  •  Universal  needs  –  food,  water,  clothing,  housing,   economic  systems    •  Visible  culture  -­‐    symbols,  images,  branding,  what  is   said,  how  <me  is  managed…  •  Immersed  culture    -­‐  thoughts,  values,  and  assump<ons   that  lie  beneath  the  surface  (the  role  of  students,   teachers  and  families…)  •  Personal  –  our  deepest  individual  differences  –   iden<fiable  personal  quirks   David  Livermore  –  Leading  with  Cultural  Intelligence:  The  New  Secret  to  Success  
  10. 10. ! ! ! CQ  as  a  4-­‐step  Cycle   What’s my motivation forHow  should  I  adapt?   learning about diverse cultures?        4.  CQ     1. CQ ACTION   DRIVE 3.  CQ     2.  CQ     STRATEGY   KNOWLEDGE  What’s  my  plan?   What  cultural   understanding  do  I   need?   ! © 2010 Cultural Intelligence Center, www.culturalq.com ©  www.CulturalQ.com    
  11. 11. CQ  Drive  (moRvaRon)   Interest,  drive  and  mo)va)on  to  adapt  inter-­‐culturally    •  Intrinsic  Interest  –  deriving  enjoyment  from   culturally  diverse  experiences  •  Extrinsic  Interest  –  gaining  benefits  from   culturally  diverse  experiences  •  Self-­‐Efficacy  –  having  the  confidence  to  be   effec<ve  in  culturally  diverse  situa<ons   What  experiences  have  you  had  in  ea<ng  foods  that  were   interes<ng,  exo<c  or…difficult….  
  12. 12. CQ  Drive  QuesRons  •  What  aWracts  you  about  working  with  people   from  other  cultures?  •  What  things  do  you  think  might  challenge  you   about  the  cultural  diversity  of  our  school?  •  What  experience  have  you  had  in  working  with   different  cultures?  With  X  specifically?  •  Think  of  a  <me  when  you  were  successful  in   interac<ng  with  someone  from  a  different   cultural  background.  What  did  you  learn  from  the   experience?  
  13. 13. Improving  CQ  Drive  •  Iden<fy  similari<es  between  the  cultural             groups  represented    •  Link  to  performance  –  gepng  the  best  out  of   your  team  –  list  the  tangible  benefits  •  Demonstrate  vulnerability  and  provide  hands  on   experience  •  Map  your  school  cultures  and  strengths  using  an   apprecia<ve  inquiry  approach  •  Explore  the  documentary  “Go  back  to  where  you   came  from”  and  reflect  on  your  personal  beliefs  •  Link  forward  momentum  to  an  exis<ng  interest   eg  sport,  art…  
  14. 14. CQ  Knowledge  (cogniRon)   Understanding  of  cultural  norms  and  how   cultures  are  similar  and  different    •  Understanding  that  team  members  from  some   cultures  are  less  likely  to  speak  up  •  Business  –  knowledge  about  economic  and  legal   systems  •  Interpersonal  –  knowledge  about  values,  social   interac<on  norms,  and  religious  beliefs  •  Socio-­‐Linguis)cs  –  knowledge  about  rules  of   languages  and  rules  for  expressing  nonverbal   behaviors  •  Leadership  –  knowledge  about  managing  people   and  rela<onships  across  cultures  
  15. 15. CQ  Knowledge  QuesRons  •  From  your  visit  to  our  school,  what  do  you   an<cipate  will  be  different  from  your         previous  work/school?  •  Recall  a  <me  when  you  were  stereotyped.   How  did  you  respond?   Regardless  of  the  quality  or  faults  of  ones  parents  one  must   always  love  and  respect  them.  Do  you  agree?   31%  Dutch    95%  Asians  
  16. 16. Improving  CQ  Knowledge  •  Beat  the  ‘filter  bubble’  by  searching  in  the  country   of  interest  eg  site:cn  educa<on  will  give  you   educa<on  sites  from  China.  Compare  the   differences  in  perspec<ves.  •  Access  books  and  websites  about  different   cultures.  •  Use  cultural  generalisa<ons  consciously  as  a  best   first  guess…and  dig  deeper.  •  Explore  educa<on  (formal/informal)  expecta<ons.  •  Study  a  foreign  language.  
  17. 17. Live  Mocha  hWp://www.livemocha.com/    
  18. 18. Cultural  Value  Dimensions  Individualism/Collec<vism   Power  Distance  High  –  Australia   High  –  Malaysia  Low  –  China   Low  –  New  Zealand                                Uncertainty  Avoidance   CooperaRon/Compe<<on  High  –  Singapore   High  –  Sweden  Low  -­‐  UK   Low  -­‐  Japan   hWp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gJzRS0I7tA&feature=fvwp&NR=1   hWp://www.kwintessen<al.co.uk/intercultural/dimensions.html  
  19. 19. CQ  Strategy  (metacogniRon)   Your  awareness  and  ability  to  plan  in  light  of  your   cultural  understanding    •  Awareness  –  knowing  about  ones’   exis<ng  cultural  knowledge  •  Planning  –  strategizing  before  a   culturally  diverse  encounter  •  Checking  –  checking  assump<ons   and  adjus<ng  mental  maps  when   actual  experiences  differ  from   expecta<ons.  
  20. 20. CQ  Strategy  QuesRons  Think  about  a  mee.ng  that  you  had    with  another  cultural  group.    •  How  did  you  prepare  for  it?  •  In  such  a  mee<ng  where  it  wasn’t  going  your   way,  what  did  you  do?  How  did  you  react?  •  When  you  are  working  with  people  from  other   cultures,  how  do  you  change  the  way  you   communicate?  
  21. 21. Improving  CQ  Strategy  •  Find  a  cultural  mentor  •  Observe  people  from  different  cultural  backgrounds  •  Plan  for  the  culturally  diverse  encounter  –  OPV  •  Schedule  a  private  conversa<on  ahead  of  <me  with  individuals  who   are  averse  to  direct  conflict  •  Ask  staff  to  come  with  3  ideas  to  share  •  Avoid  stereotypes  •  Check  assump<ons  and  adjust  mental  maps  and  consider  what   other  other  perspec<ves  need  to  be  considered  and  what  you  can   do  differently  for  beWer  results  •  Develop  understandings  of  assump<ons/interpreta<ons  v  evidence   and  integrate  •  Provide  scenarios  for  staff  to  work  through  and    share  
  22. 22. Describe  what  you  see…   What’s  going  on?  
  23. 23. Conversa<on   An  exchange  of  ideas  between  two  or  more  people   Conscious  use  of  language  and  clarity  of  purpose  through…   Social   Discussion   Dialogue   tab le  • Reach  a  conclusion   Un predic • Exploratory  • Kill  choice   • Suspend  assump<ons  • Debate   • Mutual  ques<oning  • Logically  explore   • Growing  of  insights  and   new  ideas   Consensus   Advoca<ng   Listening   Inquiring  Decision   Task  AND  rela<onship   Understanding   www.thinkbeyond.co.nz  ©  2011  
  24. 24. CQ  AcRon  (behaviour)   Flexibility  to  adapt  when  rela.ng  and  working  inter-­‐culturally    •  Adapt  verbal  and  non-­‐verbal  behaviour  to  meet   the  needs  of  the  group,  while  s<ll  remaining   authen<c  •  If  successful,  mee<ngs  will  be  effec<ve  and   respeczul  •  Non-­‐Verbal  –  modifying  non-­‐verbal  behaviors   (e.g.,  gestures,  facial  expressions)  •  Verbal  –  modifying  verbal  behaviors  (e.g.,  accent,   tone)  •  Speech  Acts  –  modifying  the  manner  and  content   of  communica<ons  (e.g.  direct/indirect)  
  25. 25. CQ  AcRon  QuesRons  Think  about  a  <me  when  you  needed  to  do  something  you  felt  very  uncomfortable  doing?    What  did  you  do?  What  did  you  tell  yourself?  What  happened?  
  26. 26. Improving  CQ  AcRon  •  Travel  to  a  different  culture  and  explore  local   haunts,  sepngs,  foods…  •  Find  out  how  to  deal  with  difficult  situa<ons  and   act  on  this  eg  refusing  gihs  (be  upfront,  donate  to   a  charity  on  your  behalf,  involve  a  third  party…),   apologies,  feedback  •  Role  play  eg  lack  of  eye  contact  •  Imitate  successful  others  •  Integrate  mul<culturalism  and  globalisa<on  into   school  strategy  and  expecta<ons  
  27. 27. What  well?     well?     What  went   went   What  impact  did  it  have?   What  impact  tdid  it  have?   How  do  you  think  more  of   hat?  How  do  you  think  you  could  do   more  of  that?  
  28. 28. Cultural  Intelligence    Leading  with  cultural  intelligence  doesn’t   mean  being  a  chameleon  to  every  individual   and  situa<on  encountered.  But  it  does  mean   knowing  when  an  empowering  style  is  most   necessary  as  compared  to  a  more  direc<ve   one….  It  requires  discipline  and  hard  work  to   become  more  adaptable  in  how  we  inspire   and  lead  people  in  an  increasingly  diverse   world.  And  with  that  hard  work,  slowly  but   surely,  you  can  be  a  global  leader.   hWp://davidlivermore.com/2011/09/09/can-­‐you-­‐really-­‐be-­‐a-­‐global-­‐leader/    
  29. 29. Extra  resources  •  hWp://www.culturalq.com/rter  David   Livermore  -­‐  Cultural  Intelligence  Center  •  www.cicollec<ve.com  Trisha  Carter  –   Intercultural  Specialist,  organisa<onal   psychologist,  Sydney  •  hWp://www.culturaldetec<ve.com/  -­‐  for   informa<on  on  values  lenses   c.doig@thinkbeyond.co.nz                  www.thinkbeyond.co.nz    

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