Preparing For A Debate Ppp Est 2Presentation Transcript
PREPARING FOR A DEBATE
Debate is an excellent activity for language learning because it engages students in a variety of cognitive and linguistic ways. The purpose of this workshop is to make you understand upon this point by providing a step-by-step guide that will give teachers everything they need to know for conducting debate in an English class.
Why debate ?
Why debate? It is fun People stare at you and we feel important GIVES OPORTUNITIES TO DEFEND IDEAS IT GIVES YOU CONFIDENCE SPEAKING IN PUBLIC age of reason Shows intelligence of mind
Have the possibility to get new friends
It is a systematic work, students must be persistant.
Invest a lot of time
Have the opportunity to express ideas
Students can get good skills to develop for forward professional careers
So what is debating
a formal discussion between people who are expressing opposing views with the aim of persuading an audience to agree with them. Debates are a common ingredient in many of the decision-making structures of democracies.
Focus on an issue
WHAT IS THE FORMAT
The room layout and speech order for this format of debate :
Different kind of debates
Parliaments and legislative chambers
Modern schools’ debating
It is called ‘parliamentary’ style debating. It contains the following essential elements:
an agreed motion for debate – a proposal or belief that can either be endorsed or rejected;
two sides to argue for endorsement or rejection;
rules to ensure fairness, such as a prescribed number of speakers on each side; a fixed time allocation for each speaker; and a fixed order of speaking;
a neutral chairperson or speaker to enforce the rules;
a notional ‘audience’ who must take the decision to endorse or reject the motion – in competitions this notional audience is represented by judges who assess how persuasive the teams have been.
RULES OF THE DEBATE
Motion most of the time is given by PIAP.
Two teams: proposition and opposition.
Teams don´t choose the side of the motion they are asked to argue for.
Four students by each team and they speak once during the debate .
There must be a chairperson.
Teams will present speeches alternately
Speeches must not exceed three minutes in length
A timekeeper will time the speeches and make agreed signals to let speakers know when they have one minute left and when they have run out of speaking time.
There will be a break of ten minutes between the third opposition speech and fourth proposition speech.
Speakers will not respond to comments or questions from the audience immediately – their teams will have a chance to respond in the fourth speeches.
The final speeches on each side are called summary speeches, and must not contain new arguments.
Teams must behave in a courteous way at all times.
COMING UP WITH MOTIONS AND REASONS
The first step when preparing for a debate is to come up with motions and reasons for why your team is right. This is something that can be done as a whole class in school, or just with the team.
First of all, get the pupils to quietly think of as many reasons as they can, independently. The pupils should be encouraged to write down anything that comes to mind.
When everybody has thought of, and written down, all the reasons that they can think of the pupils should be encouraged to read up about the topic, either in the school library or on the internet.
GROUPING REASONS to make the motion stronger
When all the reasons that the pupils can think of are displayed where they can be easily seen (don’t worry at this stage if more than one person has written the same reason – this is very likely to happen and probably indicates that it is a good reason) try to group together those arguments that are similar.
AFTER GROUPING REASONS
When this process is complete you should have a few (perhaps two, three or four) broad groups of reasons to support your team’s point of view, each containing a few more specific, related reasons. At the moments, these reasons are just assertions – that is, opinions without any explanation or proof. The next step of preparation is to turn these reasons into arguments.