1. Professional Portfolio Cherise C. Brown Psychology, SeniorCollege of Undergraduate Studies Argosy University
2. Section A: Professional Profile
3. CHERISE C. BROWN http://www.linkedin.com/pub/cherise-brown/20/989/517Cell: 646-220-7661 E-mail: email@example.com PROFILECareer oriented professional with fourteen years of experience in managing business relationsand special projects at senior executive level. Serve as primary point of contact and liaison forexecutives, clients, personnel and agencies. Maintain excellent written and oral communicationskills, creative problem solving abilities, and uphold high levels of confidentiality. Highlymotivated, organized, efficient responsible and have experience with working with deadlines. Iam effective working both independently and as a team member on group projects. PROFESSIONAL HISTORYArgosy University ▪ Seattle, WashingtonLibrarian Assistant- November 2010 – PresentPerformed a wide variety of general library work including technical instruction, researchservices, and direct patron assistance. Managed the daily operational needs of the library, suchas copy cataloging, FedEx shipping, circulation management, and shelving materials. Assistedpatrons at the service desk and on the telephone with online journal article retrieval, basicreference, research information and referral. Greet and direct patrons to various library sectionsand provide assistance in locating specific materials. Compiled monthly statistics and registerednew patrons into the library computer database. Received and resolved complaints from patronsor referred them to a librarian. Processed Interlibrary Loan requests received from patrons suchas articles and books that are loaned to patrons for a specific amount of time. Daily tasks rangefrom checking mail in the morning, updating holdings information, data entry, and maintenanceof e-mail.Affiliated Computer Services, A Xerox Company ▪ Staten Island, New York 1996 – August 2010Port Authority Bus Analyst-Violations (Promotion) May 2004 – August 2010Researched and developed comprehensive business solutions for Business account holders,including, activity tracking, transaction analysis, and toll audits. Investigated fraudulent use,improper vehicle assignment, and negative balance resolutions. Managed and supportedprogram’s most political and sensitive accounts, including MTA Transit Authority FranchisedBus accounts, New Jersey Transit, and Coach USA Bus Franchise. Responsible for handlingconfidential information received from both the customer and our clients. Frequent project work,included analyzing, testing, and supporting system enhancements. Communicate violation issuesverbally and in writing with managers and executives at ACS and the NY/NJ Port Authority.Functions outside the job description:Assisted with preparing training modules for the launch of a new database. Modules focused on
4. improving customer service for the Call Center, Correspondence, and Walk in Centers. Ensuredsystem integrity and peak performance through regular account sampling and ongoing regressiontesting. Monitored new system integrations to ensure changes met contractual specifications andhad no adverse affects on the system. Identified, documented and tracked system issues until asatisfactory resolution was obtained. Worked with development and operations staff on systemimprovement strategies to ensure all projects met program goals and were delivered on time.Training & Development Department (Promotion) February 2002 –May 2004Identified training and development needs through job analysis, appraisal schemes and regularconsultation with business managers. Designed and developed training and developmentprograms based on both the organizations and the individuals needs. Considered the costs ofplanned programs and kept within budgets. Worked in a team to produce programs that weresatisfactory to all relevant parties in the organization, such as work leads, supervisors and seniormanagers. Monitored new hire calls to provide quality assurance. Produced training materials forin-house courses. Ensured evaluations were conducted on all training and development programsin line with the approved evaluation strategy. Provided evaluation summaries to the facilitators ina timely manner. Provided feedback to client groups and managers about training anddevelopment programs on a quarterly basis.New Jersey Transit Clerk March 2001 – January 2002Generated queries and prepared reports for New Jersey Transit that reflected all open violations.Reviewed customer accounts and responded using various forms of communication such as e-mails, phone calls and written correspondence. Responsible for creating logs to track incomingand outgoing violation letters for our clients.Violations Speed Clerk July 1999 – February 2001Duties included receiving customer’s disputes regarding violation Speed Suspensions. Adjustedthe speed violation status as per Agencies decision. Generated letters through an automatedsystem to inform customers, the status of their speed violation. Contacted the agencies/clients viae-mail and FedEx. Created and logged all information daily using an Excel spreadsheet thatmaintained a break down of each speed violation a customer received. Frequently traveled to thePort Authority to assist with processing speed violations and reviewing images.Customer Service Representative- Violation Phones, August 1996 – June 1999Responsibilities included assisting customers on how to handle submitting payments for theirviolations. Duties included answering customer queries, problem solving and providing detailedinformation on using the website to maintain their account and make violation payments.Worked with new customers in the development of new accounts and the implementation of newsystems. Assisted in training of new customer service representatives and associates. EDUCATION AND TRAINING
5. Argosy University- Seattle, WA Major Psychology Bachelors in Psychology GPA 3.96 RELEVANT QUALIFICATIONSMicrosoft Word, Excel, Power Point, Access, Outlook, use of web based applications. REFERENCES
6. 11th April, 2012Hiring Manager:The enclosed resume is regarding the position of Administrative Assistant. During my educationand administrative related jobs, I have gained strong skills in coordinating administrative policiesand actions for boards of directors, various management teams, and department supervisors. Myadministrative duties have included the evaluation of incoming and outgoing corporatecommunications, business research, analysis, and report development for key stakeholders anddecision makers. I am experienced in meeting management including agenda and minutepreparation ensuring projects are kept on schedule and follow up actions are completed timely.Throughout my professional and academic career, I have become aware of the strategicadvantage and positive impact diversity can have on the corporate bottom-line. This has led meto develop the skill to interact and work well with individuals and groups from variousbackgrounds to develop shared vision in reaching corporate objectives and goals. I haveestablished an outstanding ability to meet organizational objectives and demands both as anindividual and within group settings. I am goal-oriented, motivated, compassionate and alwayseager and willing to learn something new.I believe my credentials reflect my ability to interface effectively and efficiently with all levels ofmanagement, clients, employees, and vendors. I look forward to the opportunity to meet with youto discuss how my administrative skills and education would be beneficial to your organizationmeeting is important strategic objectives and goals.My enclosed resume provides more details about my unique work experience, education, andadministrative skills.Sincerely,Cherise C. Brown
7. Section B: Professional Work Samples
8. Self- Evaluation Narrative I have been a student here at Argosy Seattle for a year and six months and I can truly saythat my eyes have been open into a new world. I came to Seattle as a transfer student and I knewI wanted to get into the field of Psychology and I was eager and hungry to gain a deeperknowledge of Psychology. I was aware that there were many fields of Psychology but here atArgosy I was introduced to fields of Psychology I was not familiar with or was not aware thatcertain things fell under the umbrella of Psychology. When I began here at Argosy I was convinced that I wanted to be a Child Psychologistand I could not see myself in a different role. After taking some Sociology, Diversity and Ethicsclasses here at Argosy my career path has changed I still want to work with children but alsotheir families. I would like to pursue a career in Family Counseling. By taking the classes here Ihave learned to become more empathic, compassionate and aware of cultural differences in oursociety. I have accomplished getting of some of my fears such as speaking in front of groups. Ihave had to do at least one or two presentations for each class I have taken here at Argosy, whichhas helped me become more relaxed and comfortable speaking in front of groups. I have alsolearned how to work with small and large groups and I have learned how to accept constructivecriticism from students and faculty. The psychology program at Argosy is amazing because you are able to learn about all thefield of Psychology has to offer from Abnormal Psychology to Industrial/OrganizationalPsychology. I believe by attending Argosy University one will be able to determine which fieldof Psychology they feel best fits them. I personally found Industrial/Organizational Psychologyto be very interesting but I have a passion to work with children and families, but I learned howto interact with people on a professional level by taking the Industrial/Organizational
9. Psychology. Suggestions that I would offer for the future at Argosy would be the ability to have livechat rooms especially for online classes. I am a hands-on person, who likes to interact withpeople, and I seek feedback, and I know we chat rooms labeled, Questions for the Professor, andStudent Lounge but live chatting is deeper level of interaction. It would allow the students to askquestions directly to the professor or classmates and receive an answer immediately. Iunderstand everyone has busy and crazy schedules so there could be set hours maybe once ortwice a week where we could meet online and have an open forum. My first sample of work demonstrates my ability to understand the importance ofdiversity and being aware of how people are affected because of their culture. I was able torelate with my own culture but I also learned that one must be open-minded and realize that othercultures have something to offer. I learned the importance of being well rounded. I believe myweakness with this paper was that I choose to write about Martin Luther King because I couldrelate to racism and prejudice. I believe I should have tried to do the paper on someone I was notfamiliar with, and I think it would have helped me come out of my comfort zone. My second sample of work I have to say was one of my favorite papers. I truly love myPhysiological Psychology class because I love the human brain. You really can learn somethingnew about our brains everyday. This paper we had to act as if I were an assistant in the officeand a client was asking us questions in reference to different physical symptoms they wereexperiencing. I enjoyed this paper because it allowed me to do thorough research. In this paper Iwas able to show my knowledge of the field physiological psychology. I was able to show thatthrough my research that I understood the concept of neurodevelopment and how psychologyplayed a major role in the development of the brain, and the client’s symptoms. In this paper I
10. was able to present the information I had obtained in an appropriate and professional manner. My third work sample exemplifies my research skills, my analytical skills, critical andcreative thinking skills. In this sample of my work I approach the problem of children becomingbullies and the factors that lead to this behavior. For this paper I took my time locating empiricalarticles in reference to my hypothesis. This paper also taught me about the social issues thatyoung people today are experiencing. I believe in this paper I was able to communicate howchildren do not just become bullies for no reason. I learned how children are affectedpsychologically and the results are the changes in a child’s behavior, which is usually in anegative way. Some of my weaknesses with this paper is that I start of strong and I’m strongthroughout the whole paper until the end. The purpose of a conclusion is to wrap up or sum upthe key factors of my paper, and I believe I did that but I believe I needed to be more specific andpinpoint what the purpose or goal of my paper was. One of my weaknesses is having a greatbeginning and a mediocre ending. My last sample is a brochure I created for my Skill for Success class geared towardsteenagers and learning how to manage their time. I believe this sample showed my ability tocommunicate to different audiences and be able to get my point across at a teenagers level. Ibelieve this sample also shows my interpersonal and organizational skills. I wanted the brochureto be something that would be very informative but appealing to a young person. I would saymy weakness for this sample would be the fonts I chose. I believe it might have been better if Ichanged the fonts up and had different types of fonts so that it would not appear so much like apaper and more like a flyer. I am aware of my weaknesses and I intend to take writing classes once I graduate to helpme get my thoughts on paper properly, and have the ability to start and end on a good note. I
11. intend to continue working with children and seeking a job working with children because Ibelieve this will continue to prepare me for social work with children and their families. I amcurrently volunteering at an after school program where I am mentoring inner city children and Ibelieve this will help me become more diverse.
12. STUDENT SELF APPRIASAL OF LEARNING Bachelor of Arts in Psychology College of Undergraduate StudiesINSTRUCTIONS: You will find below the seven competencies the BA Psychology program at ArgosyUniversity espouses. While there is no expectation that students come into the program having mastered theseven (7) competencies, our goal in the program is to work with you to instill in you these competencies asyou work your way through your degree in psychology.So, please be as honest as you can be, noting the areas wherein you demonstrate exemplary mastery of theprogram outcomes, as well as those where you may find yourself at the emerging or proficient levels. Pleasemark ONLY one number of the four for each program-learning outcome. The blank box entitledCOMMENTS has been designated as a place where you can, if you wish, put words to the rating you havegiven yourself on the specific program outcome. Program Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Outcome One 1 2 3 (4) CRITICAL THINKINGCompetency 1.1 Demonstrates limited Recognizes the Analyzes the essential Evaluates the essential ability to identify the essential elements of a elements of a problem, elements of a problem,Apply critical essential elements of a problem, issue, or issue, or argument and issue, or argument with problem, issue, or hypotheses, analysis andand creative argument; however, explains the logic of argument (e.g. ignores or conclusions that support some aspects of hypotheses or conclusions;thinking, misses important aspects their own position on the of hypotheses or hypotheses or details and nuances are problem throughskeptical inquiry conclusions, own conclusions are incorporated and multiple objective research.and the scientific assumptions or agenda is confused or incorrect, points of view areapproach to forced; unable to take into details or nuances are considered withsolve problems account more than one missing or glossed contradictions resolved. perspective such asrelated to over, multiple points of neuropsychological, social, view are taken into Limited support frombehavior and cognitive, etc.). account but research and analyticmental deduction is provided. contradictions are notprocesses. resolved.COMMENTS: When I am working on an assignment I make sure to take time to evaluate and analyze the problem or issue at
13. hand before I begin writing anything. Once I have my facts I then have information to begin my research, and come to aconclusion to support my thoughts.Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary One 1 2 (3) 4CRITICAL THINKINGCompetency 1.2 Does not seek Seeks information Seeks information from Seeks information from information from from multiple multiple sources and multiple sources and multiple sources and is sources, and describes it on the basis evaluates it on the basis ofSeek and evaluate inconsistent in its consistency, relevance, describes it on the of its consistency,scientific evidence describing information and accuracy, and produces on the basis of basis of its relevance, and accuracy a logical progression offor psychological consistency, and allocates such consistency, relevance, ideas that are relevant andclaims. and accuracy (e.g. fails relevance, and information to the coherent. to distinguish between accuracy, making problem, issue, or fact, opinion, and value some attempt to argument at hand. judgment; does not avoid bias in include connections to materials used but other contexts; does not question “norms” or struggles with being expert evidences). able to allocate information to the problem, issue, or argument at hand.COMMENTS: I have definitely improved my research skills and seeking information from multiple sources, I believe I need towork on making sure my ideas or thoughts are coherent to others, because I do not want to cause any confusion. Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Two 1 2 3 (4) RESEARCHCompetency 2.1 Identifies the majority Explains the majority of Applies sound Applies skeptical inquiry of an empirical an empirical article’s reasoning as a basis for and sound reasoning as article’s components components, including, critical analysis of all of a basis for criticallyApply basic research the abstract, hypothesis, the components of an analyzing all of themethod, including but is only able to methodology, statistical empirical article. components of an explain a few of suchresearch design, data and other evaluative Applies the results of a empirical article. components (e.g.: the tools, and results of the research study to Extends the results of aanalysis, and abstract, hypothesis, study, but is unable to alternative research study andinterpretation to methodology, draw connections across problems/situations. applies them tobecome informed statistical and other the various elements. alternativeconsumers of research. evaluative tools, or Identifies when to problems/situations. conduct a critical analysis results of the study). of research, but analysis is Critical analysis of flawed. research is limited or missing.
14. COMMENTS: Whenever I am conducting research I usually try to find the pros and cons of the topic I am working on, andanalyze the thoughts of other researchers and compare these thoughts with my own. Also when I do research I crossreference and analyze articles that are referenced in the article I’m reading to see if there is valid points I could use tosupport my hypothesis or thoughts. Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Two 1 2 3 (4) RESEARCHCompetency 2.2 Relies primarily on Obtains, Examines sources from a Identifies and evaluates a subjective or personal arranges, variety of sources variety of appropriateAccess and select experience, popular press classifies, pertinent to the chosen professional sources reports of psychology, and/ and/or topic when completing a pertinent to the chosenappropriate or anecdotal evidence describes project in psychology. topic, integrating reasonedinformation from a when completing a project information appraisals (limitations,variety of print and on a topic in psychology from a variety Works to integrate strengths, comparisons) ofelectronic sources of sufficient, sufficiently diversified such information into the Collects pools of resources diversified, and information retrieved via work of a project inand apply them that are not sufficient or appropriate their sources; such work is psychology.responsibly to diversified, nor organized evidence based, focused sourceswritten and oral per the requirements of pertinent to the and to-the-point.presentations. the project at hand. chosen topic when completing a project in psychology.COMMENTS: I believe that I have improved my skills of comparing and contrasting topics in reference to the field ofpsychology. I have also learned that there will be limitations and that I have to learn how to still find a solution.Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Three 1 2 (3) 4COMMUNICATIONCompetency 3.1 Introduction is limited or Introduction is present Introduction has an Introduction catches missing entirely. but incomplete or opening, provides come the audience’sPresent Transitions between slides underdeveloped. background information, attention, provides are infrequent, illogical, or Transitions between slides and states the topic. compelling andpsychological missing entirely. are sporadic. Conclusion is Transitions between slides appropriate backgroundconcepts orally for Conclusion is limited or recognizable, but are present. Conclusion info, and clearly statesvarious purposes missing entirely. incomplete or summarizes main the topic. Thoughtfulusing technology underdeveloped. argument and has a clear transitions between Visual design of ending. slides are appropriatewhen appropriate. presentation (i.e. and help the flow of background, pictures, ideas. Conclusion leaves etc.) is lacking or Design of presentation the listener with a completely overpowers (i.e. background, pictures, Design of presentation (i.e. sense of closure and text, etc.) upstages the background, pictures, text
15. the presentation to the writing or speaking at etc.) is clear, appropriate provides concluding point of interfering with inappropriate times, or for the assignment, insights. comprehensibility or visual design is too balanced and compliments design is inappropriate for understated at points, or both the writing and the assignment design is inconsistent. speaking throughout the Visual design of presentation. presentation (i.e. background, pictures, etc.) is clear, Any written portion In any written portion appropriate for the (including writing on the (including writing on the Any written portion assignment balanced slides and in notes) slides and in notes), errors (including writing on the and compliments both contains numerous errors in spelling and grammar slides and in notes) follows the writing and in spelling, grammar, and/ exist that somewhat conventions of spelling and speaking throughout or sentence structure that interfere with grammar throughout. the presentation. Visual severely interferes with comprehension. Errors are infrequent and design engages audience, does not readability and do not interfere with distract from comprehension. comprehension. information. APA format is attempted to paraphrase, quote, and The presentation is No attempt at APA format cite, but errors are Using APA format, basically error free in in presentation. significant. accurately paraphrased, terms of mechanics. In quoted, and cited in many any written portion spots throughout when (including writing on appropriate or called for. the slides and in notes), Errors present are grammar and somewhat minor. mechanics help establish a clear idea and aid the reader in following the writer’s logic. Using APA format, accurately paraphrased, quoted, and cited throughout the presentation when appropriate or called for. Only a few minor errors present.COMMENTS: I believe when I begin a paper that I definitely catch the attention of the reader, but I believe I need to work onkeeping that attention through out my papers. I am currently improving with each paper but there is definitely room forimprovement. Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Three 1 2 (3) 4COMMUNICATION
16. Competency 3.2 Introduction and Introduction and Introduction has a clear Introduction catches the conclusion are limited conclusion are present opening, provides reader’s attention, provides or missing entirely. but incomplete or background information, compelling and appropriatePresents and states the topic. background info, and clearly underdeveloped.psychological Conclusion recapitulates states the topic. Conclusioninformation in main argument and has a leaves the reader with a sense clear ending. of closure and provideswriting, using The paper lacks a concluding insights. thesis statement or The paper is looselytechnology, style, argument focus. organized around a The paper is organizedand professional Transitions are thesis or argument around an arguable, clearly The paper is well organizedconventions as infrequent, illogically, that may have to be stated thesis statement or around an arguable, focusedappropriate to the or missing entirely. inferred. Transitions argument. Transitions are thesis or argument. are sporadic. Thoughtful transitions clearlyaudience. appropriate and help the flow of ideas. show how ideas relate. Writing contains numerous errors in spelling, grammar, Errors in spelling and and/or sentence grammar exist that Writing follows The paper is basically error structure that severely somewhat interfere conventions of spelling and free in terms of mechanics. interferes with with readability grammar throughout. Grammar and mechanics help readability and and/or Errors are infrequent and establish a clear idea and aid comprehension. comprehension. do not interfere with the reader in following the readability or comprehension. writer’s logic. APA format is Using APA format, No attempt at APA attempted to accurately paraphrased, format. Using APA format, accurately paraphrase, quote, quoted, and cited in many paraphrased, quoted, and Writing often slips into and cite, but errors spots throughout when cited throughout the first and/or second are significant. appropriate or called for. presentation when person. Word choice is Errors present are appropriate or called for. Only consistently Writing sometimes somewhat minor. a few minor errors present. inaccurate, unclear, or slips into first and/or inappropriate for the second person. Word Writing remains professional audience. choice is sometimes in third person throughout Writing remains in third inaccurate, unclear, or writing. Word choice is person throughout writing. inappropriate for the precise, appropriate for the audience. Word choice is accurate, audience, and memorable. clear and appropriate for the audience.COMMENTS: I believe I have mastered my skills with APA format but I do need to work on thoughtful transitions and makesure that they are clearly showing how my ideas relate to the topic being discussed. I also need to work on using the correcttense through out my entire paper, I have improved, but it is still a work in progress. Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Four 1 2 3 (4) VALUESCompetency 4.1 Examines ethical Examines ethical Examines ethical Examines ethical behavior
17. Justify the necessity behavior from a single behavior from behavior from different from a variety of perspectives perspective and different perspectives, but is not and clearly differentiatesof ethical behavior able to differentiate frequently makes perspectives, but between objective evidencein the science and judgments without shows limited ability between objective and subjective experiencepractice of evidence and subjective grounding them on to apply those experience when addressing how personalpsychology. sound evidence. Does multiple attempting to make biases can affect ethical not address own perspectives into informed decisions. decision-making. personal biases. making informed Identifies and analyzes decisions. Identifies own personal biases. own personal biases, but does not analyze them.COMMENTS: I believe I learned so much about Ethics from all of my Psychology classes, but there were 2 specific classesthat really left an impression on me and helped improve my ethical skills and that was Ethics is Psychology and Psychologyin the Community. I learned about the variety of ethics and how to differentiate what is ethical or unethical. I have a strongunderstanding of the American Counseling Association rules of Ethics. Program Outcome Four Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary VALUES 1 2 3 (4)Competency 4.2 Exhibits inability to Identifies and Applies and analyzes Analyzes major and understand variations comprehends obvious major variations in subtle variationsAnalyze the complex in populations and/or variations in populations and/or between populations socio-cultural contexts populations and socio- socio-cultural contexts, and their socio-culturalvariations in populations as related to cultural contexts as as related to contexts as it relates toand contexts as related to psychological related to psychological psychological psychologicalpsychological explanations such as explanations, such as explanations, such as explanations, such asexplanations, and the importance of discrimination, discrimination, discrimination, prejudiceevaluate the importance diversity in the prejudice, and the prejudice and the and the importance of practice of psychology. importance of diversity importance of diversity diversity in the practiceof diversity in the practice Identifies forms of in the practice of in the practice of of psychology.of psychology. discrimination and psychology. psychology. prejudice but cannot recognize personal biases in.COMMENTS:I have had experience with discrimination and prejudice, and the Sociology and Psychology classes I have takenhere at Argosy have given me a better understanding. I can now analyze major and minor situations in a way before where Idid not fully understand the psychological side of the situation. I also have a better understanding of diversity and how toapply it every day life. Program Outcome Five Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary KNOWLEDGE BASE OF 1 2 (3) 4 PSYCHOLOGYCompetency 5.1 Recognizes some Explains and Analyzes and integrates Provides a critical analysis major concepts, begins to major concepts, of major concepts in
18. Explain and analyze theoretical integrate major theoretical perspectives, psychology that include perspectives, concepts, empirical findings, and theoretical perspectives,major concepts, empirical findings, theoretical historical trends in a empirical findings,theoretical perspectives, and historical trends perspectives, variety of scenarios in the historical trends andempirical findings, and in psychology, but empirical findings, field of psychology. integration of the findingshistorical trends in finds it difficult to and historical within the larger socio-psychology. recall identifying trends in cultural context. features of different psychology. precepts.COMMENTS: I believe that I have the ability to analyze concepts based on research of empirical findings and theories, but Ibelieve I can improve use improvement of theoretical perspectives. I want to work on having a better understanding oftheoretical perspectives and how to apply them to scenarios of everyday life and the field of psychology.Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Six 1 2 (3) 4 APPLICATION OF PSYCHOLOGYCompetency 6.1 Identifies psychological Explains and begins to Integrates personal, Integrates personal, social, principles and begins to integrate personal, social, and organizational and organizational issues inApply examine and analyze social, and organizational issues in applying applying psychological personal, social, and issues or behavior using psychological principles to principles to everydaypsychological organizational issues, but different psychological everyday problems but problems with respect toprinciples to is unable to integrate or principles, does so with some socio-cultural variables.examine and generalize applications demonstrating ability to variability.analyze personal, beyond given examples. provide explanationssocial, and that extend beyond simplistic identificationorganizational of such principles.issues.COMMENTS: I can definitely say after taking classes here at Argosy I have truly learned how to apply psychological principlesto everyday problems. I will analyze everyday issues and see if there may be a psychological factor. I do not over analyzethings, because I know I definitely need more training and schooling to be fully knowledgeable of certain situations. Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Seven 1 2 3 (4) INTERPERSONAL EFFECTIVENESSCompetency 7.1 Identifies the different Identifies culturally Analyzes culturally Evaluates and applies culturally forms communication, sensitive forms of sensitive forms of sensitive forms of but does not indicate communication, but is communication and communication with an analysisAnalyze the how it is culturally limited in describing identifies how each of how each contributes toimportance of sensitive and does not how each contributes contributes to effective interpersonal
19. effective describe how each to effective effective communication and relationship contributes to effective interpersonal interpersonal development both individuallycommunication interpersonal communication and communication and and in an organizationalskills in developing communication and relationship relationship environment.strong interpersonal relationship development both development both development both individually and in an individually and in anand organizational individually and in an organizational organizationalrelationships that organizational environment. environment. environment.are culturallysensitive andrespectful ofdiversity.COMMENTS: I believe communication is vital when one is trying to develop a strong relationship. I am aware that everyoneis different and that I need to be sensitive to a person’s culture and that it may be different then mine. I do not judge a bookby it’s cover, and I do not try to force my views or thought to another, I understand that we all have something tocontribute to our world. Program Outcome Unsatisfactory Emerging Proficient Exemplary Seven 1 2 3 (4) INTERPERSONAL EFFECTIVENESSCompetency 7.2 Demonstrates only Demonstrates openness Applies feedback to Proactively seeks and partial openness to to receiving feedback develop adaptable applies feedback toSolicit and utilize receiving and utilizing and begins to apply strategies that facilitate develop flexible strategies feedback to develop feedback to develop effective interpersonal and that facilitate dynamicfeedback to develop strategies of strategies of facilitating organizational relationships interpersonal andadaptable and facilitating effective current effective showing evidence of how organizational relationshipsculturally sensitive interpersonal and interpersonal and these strategies meet showing evidence of howapproaches of organizational organizational current and future these strategies meet bothfacilitating dynamic relationships, but relationships, but does relational needs. current and future does not address not integrate feedback relational needs.interpersonal and future behaviors. in future behaviors.organizationalrelationships.COMMENTS: I am open to receive feedback because I feel you can always learn something new. I love interacting withpeople I believe that it helps improve development of one’s social skills.
20. ORATORICAL LEADERS AND THE MAGIC OF STEREOTYPES Oratorical Leaders and the Magic of Stereotypes Argosy University Cherise Brown
21. ORATORICAL LEADERS AND THE MAGIC OF STEREOTYPES I enjoyed watching all of the video clips and my final decision was between Dr. MartinLuther King and Severn Suzuki, and I chose Dr. King. I chose Dr. King because he exemplifiesthe views of not one specific race but of human beings. Dr. King had a true gift of unconditionallove, which is rare today. Dr. King fought for Civil Rights of African Americans but he also feltthat we were all human beings and should have been treated equally. I have these same beliefsand views of Dr. King, that we should not be judged because of the color of our skin but by thecontent of our character (King Jr., 2011). Dr. King represents America at its best an Americathat personifies equality, justice, and the celebration of community and individualism. (Siebold,2000, p.181) These qualities I mentioned are why I chose Dr. King as a leader because I felt helead people and nations in the direction of emancipation, economic prosperity, and politicalfreedom. I have watched Dr. King’s speech numerous times and each time I get chills becauseyou can hear the passion in his voice and his words were elegant. When I watched the video thistime I watched Dr. King’s eyes and I could see that he had a genuine love and dedication forhuman beings and was willing to do whatever he needed to for African Americans voices to beheard. In Dr. King’s speech the in-group is the African American people that were fighting for Civilrights. The African American people wanted to be treated as human beings and have the samerights as whites. Dr. King wanted to let the government know without being violent that AfricanAmericans as a community were angry and it was time for the oppression to end. The AfricanAmerican community worked together and began boycotting buses, and businesses thatsupported segregation. The communities had peace walks and held signs saying end segregation,no more racism and many other statements. One of the main attributes that Dr. King enforced tothe in-group was love. Dr King compares the three Greek words for love: eros, philia, and
22. ORATORICAL LEADERS AND THE MAGIC OF STEREOTYPESagape. Dr. King’s thoughts of the Greek word agape were beautiful and encouraging. Agapelove is a love in which the individual seeks not his own good, but the good of his neighbor(Siebold, 2000). I was taught in church that this is a love that Christ has for us an unconditionallove, and as a Christian you should show this love to all. Dr. King viewed this love asnondiscriminating, seeking the best in every person to belong to the best of the human family(Siebold, 2000). Dr. King had an agape love for America and the human beings that lived on theplanet. To love, Dr. King felt, is to resist injustice, to meet the needs of your brother, to restorecommunity, and to be God-like (Siebold, 2000). In the video during Dr. King’s speech stated that the Emancipation Proclamation had beenpassed to free Negro slaves over a hundred years ago and blacks were still not free. Dr. Kingalso mentioned in his speech that the Declaration of Independence, stated that all men, black menas well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and thepursuit of Happiness”, and this was not so (King, 2011). During those times black peoplepeacefully marched and were hosed down by whites but; the black people continued to holdhands and stand firm for their civil rights. Black people where brutally beat up by lawenforcement and were attacked by dogs. Dr. King mentioned a stereotype that is still alive todayamongst the African American community and that is; living in the ghetto. Dr. King said in hisspeech; we cannot be satisfied as long as the negros basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to alarger one (King, 2011). These are just a few of the challenges the African American communitywas fighting against and still fighting against today. There are people today that feel blacks stillbelong in the ghetto and this has to change, no one should be in the ghetto. The goal should havebeen to try and get rid of the ghettos so everyone would live in good communities. The in-groupis looking for respect, justice, equality, and love.
23. ORATORICAL LEADERS AND THE MAGIC OF STEREOTYPES The members of the out-group whom were not necessarily all white people, but white peoplethat was against the abolishment of segregation and civil rights for African Americans. I believethere were members of the out-group that were operating within the social structure of that timebecause that was all they knew. There were some people of that group that felt bad for the painthat had been afflicted on the African American community. There were also members that feltblacks were not humans, and should have been treated like animals. During those times therewere groups that conspired against the in-group like the Ku Klux Klan. They felt blacks had norights, and did not deserve the “pursuit of happiness”. Even with all of this hate Dr. King saidthat we must love our white brothers, no matter what they do to us, we must make them knowthat we love them (Bishop, 1994). Dr. King felt that we as a people had to learn how to meethate with love. I have had many situations where I have been discriminated against because of my race orgender. I worked at a restaurant as a waitress and I had a couple ask if they could have adifferent waitress. My boss asked if I had said or done something to offend them and they statedthey did not want a black person taking their order. My boss then told them I do not think youwill want the food either, because or chef is black too. The couple gathered their belongings andleft the restaurant. I have been in groups where everyone was either African American orHispanic and did not want white people in our group and I refused to work with the group. Myattitude towards prejudice, and discrimination is that it is alive and well today because it istaught. A person is not born ignorant they are taught to feel a certain way about a group ofpeople. One does not know the different negative stereotypes of another race until they hear itfrom someone else. We as a nation need to recognize and acknowledge that we are all humanbeings and we all have feelings and a heart. I have learned that prejudice, subordination, and
24. ORATORICAL LEADERS AND THE MAGIC OF STEREOTYPESdiscrimination will keep hate alive in our world. There are people that feel you need theseelements for a society to function properly and I disagree. We need to accept that eachindividual has something unique to bring to our world, and that there is no race that is better thananother. We need to learn how to love and respect one another instead of pulling each otherdown. We, as a country, need to work on economic prosperity, and political freedom for all.
25. ORATORICAL LEADERS AND THE MAGIC OF STEREOTYPES REFERENCESBishop, J. (1994). The Days of Martin Luther King, Jr. NY: Barnes & Noble Books New York.Siebold, T. (2000). People Who Made History Martin Luther King Jr. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, Inc.Martin Luther King Jr.: I Have a Dream. (2011). [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbUtL_0vAJk
26. NEURODEVELOPMENT Neurodevelopment Cherise Brown Argosy University
27. NEURODEVELOPMENT Robert called with complaints of back pain and spells of dizziness and was told that hemay have a bulging disc and that he should have an MRI done. Robert said he has never had anMRI before and wanted to know how it works and what exactly is an MRI. I explained to Robertthat an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) uses magnetic and radio waves, and createscomputer-generated images. I explained that an MRI is able to cut through multiple layers of thespine and show any changes in soft tissues such as nerves and ligaments and an MRI can also beused to verify loss of water in a disc, enlargement of a facet joint, stenosis (narrowing of spinalcanal), or a herniated disc (DePuy Spine, 2012). I explained to Robert by having this test donewe would be able to see if there is a disc that is dislocated or damaged and then the doctor’swould know what the next step should be as far as rehabilitation or surgery if needed. I also explained to Robert that there are some MRI exams that require a special dyewhich is referred to as a contrast. The dye is usually given before the test through a vein (IV) inyour hand or forearm and the dye helps the radiologist see certain areas more clearly (Wilkinson,2008). I also explained that some doctors might request that small devices, called coils, may beplaced around the head, arm, or leg, or other areas to be studied because these devices help sendand receive the radio waves, and improve the quality of the images (Wilkinson, 2008). I also letRobert know that each case is different it really depends on what exactly the doctor’s are lookingfor in the test results. Robert then mentioned that he was curious if there are any type side effects from havingan MRI. I explained to Robert that MRI’s use no radiation. There are currently no side effectsfrom the magnetic fields and radio waves that have been reported. I told Robert that they dyethat is used called gadolinium is very safe and it is rare that anyone had an allergic reaction(Wilkinson, 2008). I asked Robert if he had any kidney problems or a heart pacemaker because
28. NEURODEVELOPMENTgadolinium can be harmful to patients with kidney problems who require dialysis and the doctorwould need to know this before we proceed with the MRI (Wilkinson, 2008). Robert asked whatwould happen if he had a pacemaker, I explained that the strong magnetic fields created duringan MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants to not work as well and it could alsocause a piece of metal inside your body to move or shift (Wilkinson, 2008). Robert wanted to know if he had other options such as getting an X-Ray or a PET scaninstead of an MRI. I explained to him that X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation that,similar to light, passes through specific objects but not all and that conventional X-rays are nothelpful in depicting normal versus damaged areas of the brain (Argosy, 2012). X-rays are goodbut they may not detect everything that an MRI could find. I explained to Robert that PET Scansare good and very thorough; and the procedure for this test involves injecting a radioactiveisotope into a patient’s carotid artery and then observing the changing images that reflect theongoing metabolic activities in the brain (Argosy, 2012). The thing that I had to emphasize toRobert was that it is always necessary to correlate a PET scan with another imaging method, likeCT or MRI or ultrasound, to determine what the PET scan has actually found (HealthNews,2012). I explained that both the X-Ray and PET scan can be used instead of an MRI, but eachscan has functions they are specifically good for detecting such as a PET scan is effective indetecting types of cancer and where it is spreading to, and X-rays are good but you may needmultiple X-rays to find the problem or at the end you may end up having to get an MRI done. Atthe end I explained to Robert he would make the final decision. Christen is hurt and feels that maybe her parenting style has something to do with herdaughter being diagnosed with autism. She believes that her daughter has a psychiatric disorderI would first try to calm her down and explain that her daughter’s world is not over and explain
29. NEURODEVELOPMENTto her what autism entails. I would explain to Christen that autism is a bio-neurologicaldevelopment disability that impacts the normal development of the brain in the areas of socialinteraction, communication skills, and cognitive function (National Autism, 2012). I wouldexplain to Christen that autism is not something you can catch or pass along to someone else andthat autism affects the brain and makes communicating and interacting with other peopledifficult. Individuals with autism typically have difficulties in verbal and non-verbalcommunication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities and individuals with autismoften suffer from numerous physical ailments which may include: allergies, asthma, epilepsy,digestive disorders, persistent viral infections, feeding disorders, sensory integration dysfunction,sleeping disorders, and more (National Autism, 2012). The main thing that I want Christen torealize is that not everyone with autism has the same symptoms and that some people may haveautism in different phases such as mild, while others may have a more sever case. I explain to Christen that one of the best things she can do right now for her daughter is tobecome educated about Autism. To join groups, and to do some research, which will help her,better understand this disorder and how one can function and live with autism. There are sometips that I could give Christen to help with her daughter the first being to provide structure andsafety being consistent and sticking to schedules. I would tell Christen that should also have aform of reward system for when her daughter has good behavior, and to try and create a homesafety zone (National Autism, 2012). The second tip I would recommend to Christen is to findnonverbal ways to connect with her daughter. Communication is the key when dealing with achild with autism. You communicate by the way you look at your child, the way you touch himor her, and by the tone of your voice and your body language, your child is also communicatingwith you, even if he or she never speaks, you just need to learn the language (National Autism,
30. NEURODEVELOPMENT2012). I will also explain to Christen that it is also important to pay attention to her daughter’ssensory sensitivities. Christen then asked what symptoms or behavior should she be looking forthat her child might experience. I describe that Christen should pay attention to her daughter’ssocial skills, language and behavior. I then explain to her what specifically to look for undereach of these symptoms. Social skills • Fails to respond to his or her name • Has poor eye contact • Appears not to hear you at times • Resists cuddling and holding • Appears unaware of others feelings • Seems to prefer playing alone — retreats into his or her "own world" (MayoClinic, 2011) Language • Starts talking later than age 2, and has other developmental delays by 30 months • Loses previously acquired ability to say words or sentences • Doesnt make eye contact when making requests • Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm — may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech • Cant start a conversation or keep one going • May repeat words or phrases verbatim, but doesnt understand how to use them (MayoClinic, 2011) Behavior • Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand-flapping • Develops specific routines or rituals
31. NEURODEVELOPMENT • Becomes disturbed at the slightest change in routines or rituals • Moves constantly • May be fascinated by parts of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy carMay be unusually sensitive to light, sound and touch and yet oblivious to pain (MayoClinic,2011)
32. NEURODEVELOPMENT ReferencesArgosy University Online. (2012). PSY350 Physiological Psychology. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from Argosy My Classroom: http://myeclassonline.comDePuy Spine. (2012). How Back and Neck Pain are Diagnosed. Retrieved from: http://allaboutbackandneckpain.com/understand/diagnosis-how.asp#diagnosticHealthNews. (2012). All About Scans. Retrieved from: http://www.scandirectory.com/content/pet-scan.asp#ixzz1knKALa1yMayo Clinic (2011). Autism Symptoms. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/autism/DS00348/DSECTION=symptomsNational Autism Association. (2012). Autism. Retrieved from: http://www.nationalautismassociation.org/index.phpWilkinson ID, Paley MNJ. (2008). Magnetic resonance imaging: basic principles. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allisons Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone
33. THE BULLY WITHIN The Bully Within: Contributing Risk and Protective Factors of Adolescent Bullying Cherise Brown Argosy University
34. THE BULLY WITHIN AbstractThis paper explores how families, schools, peer pressure and neighborhood factors are connectedwith adolescent’s association in bullying beyond their own behaviors that could increase theirprobability from becoming bullies. Adolescents are impressionable and what they are subjectedto can affect their behavior and depending on their environment it could lead to bullying.Bullying is a behavior that adolescent’s use to gain popularity, power and even safety in somesituations. Influence plays a major role in the development of adolescents. Peers, schools, andfamilies have the ability to have an effect on the character, development and behavior pressure ofan adolescent and if this influence is negative it could potentially lead to an adolescent being abully. Bullying is an issue nationwide and it is the responsibility of everyone to becomeeducated on what factors can lead a child to bullying and in this paper it explores the majorfactors that one should be aware of.
35. THE BULLY WITHIN The Bully Within Contributing Risk and Protective Factors of Adolescent Bullying Peer acceptance is the point to which adolescents are well liked by their peers: allegedpopularity indicates visibility, dominance, and prestige (Bruyn, Cillessen, & Wissink, 2009).During the adolescent years peer approval and acceptance are vital because a child is trying toestablish where exactly do they “fit in”. As adolescents your peer’s opinion of you is of highimportance. One wants to be considered the “cool kid” or the one that everyone wants to bearound. “At l0 to 12 years of age, children begin to separate from parents, and identificationwith peers may become exaggerated and cliques may form and change frequently and by middleand high school, as the issue of belonging becomes even more critical, cliques and bulliesbecome more prominent” (Mandel, 2005 p. 2). Bullying is looked at as if it is just between onechild and another and this is not necessarily always true. Espelage (2002) suggests that onecannot assume that bullying among adolescents is a simple interaction between a bully andvictim but that there are groups of students who support their peers and sometimes participate inteasing and harassing of other students. According to research bullying is defined as a diverse type of practical aggressionexemplified by a dominance imbalance between the perpetrator and victim that usually involvesrepetition (Solberg & Olweus, 2003). There have been a number of studies that were conductedto find out the factors of why or how a child becomes a bully. Baldry & Farrington (2005)believe that bullying is a complex phenomenon; and that no single cause can explain why somechildren bully others or are victimized; instead it is possible to identify so called risk factors that,if present, can increase the risk of becoming a bully (or a victim). Which leaves one asking thequestion what factors can contribute to a child becoming a bully?
36. THE BULLY WITHIN Bullying is not a segregated behavior that is positioned in such variables such as power,competition and status, instead bullying is a social behavior that transpires in relativelyestablished groups and entails the involvement of others in normal abilities. One couldhypothesize that there are various risk factors to consider why an adolescent would become abully such as peer pressure, home, school and neighborhood. Konishi & Hymel (2009) proposedthat while some adolescents can find adequate ways of reacting, other adolescents may bullyothers as a way of reacting to an environment that they identify as stressful or traumatic.Peer Pressure FactorsBeing popular to an adolescent is very important because socially that person wants to be the onethat everyone wants to be around. Adolescents have many instances where they interact withvarious types of peer pressure to fit in with the “in crowd”. Schein (2004) proposes that everynew group must decide how to distribute dominance and social status, how to define criteria forinclusion and exclusion, how to develop norms and rules that classify peer relationships and howto identify punishments and reward. Peer pressure is defined as influence from members of onespeer group (Lindberg, 2010). Adolescents have their own culture where they seek approval fromtheir peers based on the way they dress, physical appearance, and dominance. As a result,according to researchers bullying is a way of creating and restoring culturally accepted andappreciated values and ideas (Hamarus & Kaikkonen, 2008). When an adolescent wants to fit in with specific social groups if bullying is necessarysome adolescents will give into their peers so that they can be accepted into this group.Popularity can be both a positive and negative attribute. Everyone wants to feel accepted andwhen one feels ostracized, they can react in a negative way. According to Bruyn, Cillessen &Wissink (2009) bullying was positively associated with popularity, and this association was
37. THE BULLY WITHINstronger for adolescents with lower levels of acceptance. Bullying at times can be used as amechanism of defense because an adolescent does not fit in and does not want to be hurt or madefun of.Home FactorsParents and our society need to become more aware of how their own behavior can affect thebehavior of an adolescent. Parents play a major role in how a child could become a bully basedon their parenting style and the environment their child is subjected to. In an experimentconducted by Espelage, Bosworth & Simon (2000) they examined the degree to whichadolescents’ views of their environment as disorganized or unsafe were related to bullyingbehavior in early adolescence. Adolescents are extremely impressionable at an early age and onemust be careful of what they see and hear. Raising children can be difficult and when a child is disobedient there is usually someform of discipline. There are some parents that may go too far with the disciplining where achild can begin to develop negative feelings inside. Konishi & Hymel (2009) stated that childrenthat get reprimanded by receiving a beating from their parents could lead to a child becoming abully. With that being said, it does not mean that every child that is reprimanded could become abully, but if the child is abused it is something to consider if the child is known as a bully.According to researchers Bauer, Herrenkohl, Lozano, Rivara, Hill & Hawkins (2006) childrenexposed to interparental violence are more likely to show physical aggression, include bullyingbehaviors, maybe as a product of social learning with children observing violence to be anacceptable method of resolving conflict. A child might think it is ok to resolve their problemswith violence because that is the environment they are use to being around. Children also seeknurturing and love from their parents and when they feel neglected it could lead to a child acting
38. THE BULLY WITHINout in the way of being a bully. There are some parents that are experiencing a deep level ofdepression and it can affect the behavior of their children. Low parental warmth and parentaldepression are known to be related with behavioral troubles in childhood and these behavioraldifficulties might increase adolescent’s risks for becoming a bully (Bowes, Arseneault,Maughan, Taylor, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2009).School FactorsBullying behaviors if they go unchecked can influence the entire environment of a school; threatsand intimidation associated with bully behaviors can make a negative atmosphere for all students(Hoover & Hazler, 1991). It has been said by many studies that bullying primarily takes place ina school environment. Schools are a factor that many researchers believe is where bullyingcould begin for an adolescent. School is where children discover social classes, popularity andthe desire for power amongst their peers. School is a community where there are social normsfor adolescents and in this environment they are trying to establish where they fit in. According to a study performed by Hamarus & Kaikkonen (2008) their findings showedthat bullying often results from the pursuit of power, status or popularity. An adolescent wantsto be apart of the “in crowd” and in the school environment a student can result to bullying to gettheir way. Researchers all agree that bullying is a learned behavior. Adolescents do not wake upone day and say they want to be a bully; there is some type of stimulus that initiates anadolescent’s behavior. When and adolescent is unable to fit in with the social groups in theschool they can be labeled as a antisocial student by their classmates. Renda, Vassallo, & Edwards (2011) believe that antisocial behavior plays a major role inan adolescents becoming a bully and a receptiveness to criminality and violence. They believethat young people that have bullied others have been found to be at risk of engaging in
39. THE BULLY WITHINsuccessive anti-social and criminal behavior because of their upbringing (Renda, Vassallo, &Edwards, 2011). These claims by researchers can be true but they can also be biased becauseeveryone that has been labeled a bully has not engaged in criminal activity. There areadolescents that become antisocial because they have been bullied way too much.Neighborhood FactorsThere have been studies that have found that school problems, including bullying, are prevalentin disadvantaged areas, suggesting that certain neighborhoods are associated with children’sinvolvement in bullying (Bowes, Arseneault, Maughan, Taylor, Caspi & Moffitt, 2009). Manypeople believe that if one lives in a dangerous or bad neighborhood that they could havecharacteristics of becoming a bully. Espelage, Bosworth & Simon (2000) believe thatenvironmental factors such as neighborhood disorganization or economic distress around youthcan also apply to bullying. In a neighborhood one can have problems or altercations with their neighbors that couldbe associated with bullying. There are many young people that have come from roughbackgrounds and neighborhoods and have been able to achieve great things but this depends onthe will power of the adolescent. Growing up in a neighborhood were your safety is importantcan definitely mold a person to become a bully because they constantly have to defendthemselves and may not know how to “turn off” this defensive behavior when they are outside oftheir neighborhood. Of course this does not mean it is ok for a person to take advantage ofsomeone but there needs to be a way where one can try and help that adolescent know that thisbehavior is dangerous for themselves and the people they are bullying. According to Bowes,Arseneault, Maughan, Taylor, Caspi & Moffitt (2009) one possible explanation forneighborhoods being a factor in becoming a bully is that hostile interactions in local
40. THE BULLY WITHINcommunities prove children with examples of bullying behaviors that they can reproduce amongtheir peers.ConclusionJointly all these findings suggest that one of the major factors leading to an adolescent becominga bully is their upbringing in the home. Adults might play a substantial role in the developmentof bullying behaviors (Espelage, Bosworth, & Simon, 2000). Parents need to be educated onbullying and how a parent can be the cause of a child’s bullying behavior and how to correct thisbehavior. The effects of attending a school you may not fit into, parents that are abusive, dailypeer pressure, and growing up in a difficult neighborhood are likely to make one bully others.These studies point out that it can be difficult for an adolescent to control their behavior based ontheir environment and upbringing. It is important for families, schools, and other communityorganizations to help adolescents learn how to manage, and possibly change, the pressure to hurttheir peers in order to fit in (Espelage, 2002). Managing adolescent’s internalizing andexternalizing difficulties, in addition to working with families to minimize the impact of stressfulfamily contexts on adolescent’s behavior, may help in reducing the number of children thatbecome bullies (Bowes, Arseneault, Maughan, Taylor, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2009).
41. THE BULLY WITHIN ReferencesBaldry, A.C., & Farrington, D.P. (2005). Protective factors as moderators of risk factors in adolescence bullying. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 263 -284. doi: 10.1007/s11218-005-5866-5Bauer, N.S., Herrenkohl, T.I., Lozano, P., Rivara, F.P., Hill, K.G., Hawkins, J.D. (2006). Childhood bullying involvement and exposure to intimate partner violence. Pediatrics, 118, 235-242.Bowes, L., Arseneault, L., Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T.E. (2009). School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with childrens bullying involvement: a nationally representative longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, (48) 5, 545-553Bruyn, E. H., Cillessen, A. H. N., & Wissink, I. B. (2009). Associations of peer acceptance and perceived popularity with bullying and victimization in early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, doi: 10.1177/0272431609340517Espelage, D. L. (2002). Bullying in early adolescence: the role of the peer group. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign IL.Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 326-333.Hamarus, P., & Kaikkonen, S. (2008). School bullying as a creator of pupil peer pressure. Educational Research, 50(4), 333-345. doi: 10.1080/00131880802499779Hoover, J. H., & Hazler, R.J. (1991). Bullies and victims. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 25, 212-219.
42. THE BULLY WITHINKonishi, C., & Hymel, S. (2009). Bullying and stress in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(3), 333-356. doi: 10.1177/0272431608320126Lindberg, C. (2010). New Oxford American Dictionary. (3rd ed.)Mandel, J. (2005). Social life in middle and high school: dealing with cliques and bullies. New York University Child Study Center, 10(1), 1-4.Renda, J., Vassallo, S., & Edwards, B. (2011). Bullying in early adolescence and its association with anti-social behaviour, criminality and violence 6 and 10 years later. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21, 117-127. doi: 10.1002/cbm.805Schein, E.H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-BassSolberg, M.E., & Olweus, D. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 239-268