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  • 1. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 i The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM (as of March 12, 2012)
  • 2. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE I. The K to 12 Basic Education Program Background and Rationale 1 Introduction 1 Historical Development of the Basic Education Program 6 Outcome Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program 8 Process Goals of the K to 12 Education Program 8 II. The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum 9 Goal 9 The Learning Areas 13 Co-Curricular and Community Involvement Programs 13 Core Content 14 Distinctive Features and Guiding Principles 15 Structure of the Curriculum 21 Kindergarten 22 Elementary 22 Secondary 23 Alternative Learning System 24 III. Glossary of Terms 29 IV. References 33 V. Committees on K to 12 Curriculum 34
  • 3. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 iii List of Figures FIGURE PAGE Figure 1 National Achievement Test Results SY 2005- 2010 1 Figure 2 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) 2003 2 Figure 3 Average of TIMSS Scores, Philippines 2 Figure 4 Typical Progression of a Cohort of Pupils Based on a Cohort of Grade 1 Pupils from SY 1995-1996 to College Graduates SY 2008- 2009, both Public and Private 3 Figure 5 Unemployed vs. Available Skill-Based Jobs 5 Figure 6 The K to 12 Graduate 10 Figure 7 The K to 12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Framework 12 Figure 8 The Learning Areas of the K to 12 Curriculum 13 Figure 9 Structure of the K to 12 Curriculum 21 Figure 10 K to 12 Curriculum in both Formal Education and Alternative Learning System 24 Figure 11 Core Learning Areas/Domains from K to 12 25 List of Tables TABLE PAGE Table 1 Total Basic Education Cycle of Asian Countries 4 Table 2 Historical Bases of the Additional Years of Education, SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2011 4 Table 3 Unemployment Rate in the Philippines, 2010. 5 Table 4 Basic Education Curricular Reforms 6 Table 5 Common Competencies in the Grade 7 and 8 TLE Exploratory Courses and Specialization in Grade 11 and 12 26 Table 6 Proposed Subjects for Grades 11 and 12 27 Table 7 The Components of the K to 12 Curriculum at a Glance 28
  • 4. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 1 The K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM I. BACKGROUND and RATIONALE Introduction The K to 12 Basic Education Program is the flagship program of the Department of Education in its desire to offer a curriculum which is attuned to the 21st century. This is in pursuance of the reform thrusts of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda, a package of policy reforms that seeks to systematically improve critical regulatory, institutional, structural, financial, cultural, physical and informational conditions affecting basic education provision, access and delivery on the ground. The Department seeks to create a basic education sector that is capable of attaining the country’s Education for All objectives and the Millennium Development Goals by the year 2015 and President Benigno Aquino III’s ten-point basic education agenda by 2016. These policy reforms are expected to introduce critical changes necessary to further accelerate, broaden, deepen and sustain the Department’s effort in improving the quality of basic education. The challenges of the Department are great but are not insurmountable. Education outcomes in terms of achievement, participation and completion rates point to the urgent need to improve the quality of basic education in the country. The National Achievement Test results for SY 2005-2010 show that many students who finished basic education do not possess sufficient mastery of basic competencies. (See Figure 1) Figure 1. National Achievement Test Results, SY 2005-2010 Students’ performance in international tests such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is as dismal. In Grade IV Math and Science, TIMSS, 2003, the Philippines ranked 23rd in performance out of 25 countries. For high school Math, the Philippines ranked 34th out of 38 countries. In high school Science, it ranked 43rd out of 46 participating countries.1 In TIMMS, 2008 for Advanced Math, the Philippines ranked 10th out of 10 1 National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003.December 2004
  • 5. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 2 countries, even with only the science high schools participating.2 (See Figures 2 and 3) Figure 2. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) 2003 2 I.V.S. Mullis, M.O. Martin, D.F. Robitaille, & P. Foy, (2009). Chestnut Hill, MA. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Advanced 2008. Figure 3. Average of TIMSS Scores, Philippines Another major challenge of the Department of Education is retaining those in school, particularly those at risk of falling out of the system. Those who are at risk of dropping out are those who encounter difficult circumstances in life – poverty, cases of teenage pregnancies, student laborers, children whose parents were poorly schooled, slum dwellers, families who live in areas with peace and order problems and learners with various forms of disabilities . Figure 4 shows that of the 100 students who enrolled in Grade 1, only 65 students reached First Year high school and 46 of which
  • 6. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 3 graduated HS. Of these 46 HS Graduates, only 20 reached college level and 16 earned college degrees. Figure 4.Typical Progression of a Cohort of Pupils Based on a Cohort of Grade 1 Pupils from SY 1995-1996 to College Graduates SY 2008-2009, both Public and Private The sad state of basic education in the country can be partly attributed to the congested basic education curriculum. The basic education curriculum is meant to be taught in twelve (12) years, yet it is delivered in ten (10) years. The research findings of the comparative study of the curricula of Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines conducted by SEAMEO INNOTECH, affirmed that indeed the Philippine basic education curriculum is congested, especially the Mathematics, Language and Science subjects. The relatively weak performance of Filipino students in Mathematics and Science in the TIMMS signifies that the Philippines must catch up with the rest of the world. Besides, trade liberalization, the growing global market, international agreements such as the Bologna and Washington Accords have kept countries focused on the comparability of educational degrees. Filipino graduates need to develop a competitive advantage over others in the ASEAN region and in the world. Unfortunately, the 10-year basic education system handicaps overseas Filipino professionals competing in the world market. The Bologna Process3 requires 12 years of education for university admission and practice of profession in European countries. On account of the Bologna Process4 , starting 2010, undergraduate degrees in the Philippines are no longer recognized in most European countries. The Washington Accord5 prescribes a minimum of 12 years of basic education as an entry to recognition of engineering professionals. Obviously, the short basic education cycle is a deterrent in pursuing recent initiatives like the APEC and ASEAN mutual recognition projects. APEC or Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation is an international forum of 21 member economies that acts collectively to advance their common interests. APEC is committed to a policy of reducing barriers to trade and of being a vehicle for promoting economic cooperation within the Asia- Pacific Region. (Source: SEAMEO INNOTECH Study) 3 Batomalaque, Antonio. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines for International Cooperation. University of San Carlos.; Marinas, Bella and Ditapat, Maria. Philippines: Curriculum and Development. UNESCO International Bureau of Education 4 Batomalaque, Antonio. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines for International Cooperation. University of San Carlos.; Marinas, Bella and Ditapat, Maria. Philippines: Curriculum and Development. UNESCO International Bureau of Education 5 International Engineering Alliance. The Washington Accord. http://www.washingtonaccord.org/Washington-Accord/FAQ.cfm (Accessed 11 September 2010)
  • 7. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 4 The Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries in the world (the other two being Djibouti and Angola of Africa) with a 10-year pre-university program. (Refer to Table 1) Until the 1930s, the Philippines actually had 11 years of basic education: seven years of primary and four years of secondary schooling. The Commonwealth government even then, did not feel that 11 years provided adequate preparation for tertiary education or the work place. It decided to reduce the primary cycle to six years, which was duly done, and added two years to high school, which did not happen (de Jesus, Edilberto. Philippine Daily Inquirer, 01/08/2010). In 1949, the proposal to expand basic education was revived.6 Since then the call for extension of the Philippine basic education duration persisted as presented in Table 2. The poor quality of basic education as reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work contributes to the relatively high unemployment rate among the young and the educated. See Table 3. 6 Esther Care and Ethel Valenzuela, Analysis of Basic Education of the Philippines:Implications for the K to 12 Education Program, Jan. 2012. Country Total Basic Education Cycle Total Duration of Pre- University Education Brunei 11/12 13/15 Cambodia 12 13 Indonesia 12 13 Lao PDR 12 14 Malaysia 12 14/15 Myanmar 11 12 Philippines 10 10 Singapore 11 12/14 Thailand 12 12 Timor-Leste 12 12 Vietnam 12 14/15 Source: SEAMEO-INNOTECH, 2011 Year Source Recommendation 1949 UNESCO Mission Survey Restore Grade VII in primary education 1953 Education Act Revise the Primary school system by adding one year (Grade VII) 1960 Swanson Survey Restore grade 7 in Primary education 1970 PCSPE Extend secondary education by one year to better prepare students who have no plans to take up university education 1991 EDCOM Report Retain the 10-year basic education phase while institutionalizing career counseling in Primary and secondary schools in preparation for higher education 1998 Philippines Education Sector Study (World Bank and ADB) Prioritize student learning through curricular reforms, the provision of textbooks, the use of the vernacular in lower Primary grades, and the institution of a longer basic education cycle 2000 PCER Implement a compulsory one-year pre-baccalaureate stage as prerequisite for students interested in enrolling in higher education degree programs 2006 Philippine EFA 2015 National Action Plan Lengthen the educational cycle by adding two years to formal basic education (one each for Primary and high school) 2008 Presidential Task Force on Education Extend pre-university education to a total of 12 years, benchmarking the content of the eleventh and twelfth years with international programs Compul ory Learning Areas sted in enrolling in higher education degree programs 2006 Philippine EFA 20 career paths/ choices Exploratory Courses for Academic Specialization • Journalism • Mother Tongue • & Foreign Languages VI. Technical- Vocational Languages VII. Math for Specific Purposes • Life Sciences/ Physical Sciences • Literature • Contemporary Issues (local and global) • Career Pathways - Entrepreneurship -Tech Voc - Academic Table 1. Total Basic Education Cycle of Asian Countries Table 2. Historical Bases of the Additional Years of Education, SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2011
  • 8. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 5 Table 3 shows that of the total unemployed in 2010, 80.6% are between the ages 15 to 34 years, with 51.5% from the 15-24 years old sub-group. Aside from being young, most of the unemployed are at least high school graduates. Figure 5 also shows that there is huge number of skills-based jobs available (650,000++) and also a huge number of unemployed high school graduates (972,458). This implies a mismatch between graduates’ skills and job demands. Table 3. Unemployment Rate in the Philippines, 2010. Figure 5. Unemployed vs. Available Skill-Based Jobs (Source: NSO, 2009 and 2010)
  • 9. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 6 Historical Development of the Basic Education Program The historical development of the Philippine basic education program proves the Department’s continuing effort at improving the quality and relevance of basic education. In terms of curriculum development, Table 47 shows that since 1945, the elementary curriculum underwent three (3) revisions while that of the secondary curriculum underwent four (4) before the K to 12 curriculum. This is because the introduction of the 2-2 Plan, 2-year college preparatory and 2-year vocational curriculum, was relevant only to the secondary. Table 4. Basic Education Curricular Reforms 7 Prepared by Avelina T. Llagas , former Director of the Bureau of Secondary Education, DepEd Like the K to 12 curriculum, the curricular revisions were backed up by research findings and recommendations. The issue of curriculum congestion which resulted to the learners’ lack of mastery of basic competencies was the reason behind the introduction of the decongested New Elementary Education Curriculum (NEEC) and New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) in 1983 and 1989, respectively, and the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. For relevance, the 2-2 plan was introduced for the secondary schools in 1958 which was revised in the offering of electives for secondary students in 1973, to give students choice on career path. In the 2-2 Plan, both general and vocational secondary schools offered the basic or common curriculum of academic courses with one unit of Practical Arts in the first two years. In the last two years, the general secondary schools offered a pre-college academic curriculum with one unit of vocational elective each year while the vocational secondary schools offered more specialized vocational courses with one unit of academic elective each year. 8 The 2-2 Plan was a differentiated curriculum leading either to a college or a technical course. Similar to that of the K to 12 curriculum, one of the guiding principles of the 2-2 Plan was that “the curriculum of each school should provide vocational courses which are geared to the occupations, resources and industries of the community or region where the school is located.”9 It was seen to be a very responsive curriculum. However, it was met with strong opposition especially from the private sector which requested for its deferment due to lack of money, facilities, equipment for vocational education and lack of guidance counselors10 . The pitfalls of the 2-2 Plan implementation could be attributed to “insufficient preparation before the plan was implemented and the continued high ’prestige’ 8 Board of National Education, General Policies on Education, 1967-1972, 9 Board of National Education, General Education Policies : A Report , 1959-1961 10 Board of National Education, General Education Policies : A Report , 1959-1961
  • 10. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 7 value of the college preparatory course in the eyes of parents and students.11 To respond to the need on improving curriculum relevance to increasing diverse contexts of learners as a result of globalization and in addition to the issue of an overcrowded curriculum that haunted basic education, the Department of Education restructured the NEEC (1983) and the NSEC (1989) into the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). The 2002 BEC, the forerunner of the K to 12 curriculum, is a decongested curriculum consisting of five (5) core learning areas from as many as ten (10). It had the following objectives:  Connect related subjects  Increase the time allotted for Science, English, and Mathematics;  Reduce congestion of subjects;  Improve attitude towards work to increase productivity ;  Increase individual's ability to cope in a fast changing world;  Increase the importance of the arts, music, sports, dance, and other aspects of Philippine culture; and  Develop nationalism among Filipino learners for responsible citizenry After the introduction of the 2002 BEC, the Bureau of Elementary Education conducted a thorough review of the competencies to enhance the vertical articulation of competencies. In 2010, the Bureau of Secondary Education implemented the 2002 BEC based on the Understanding by Design (UbD) framework for meaningful and integrative teaching. This was called 2010 SEC. This curriculum design is focused on teaching for understanding and on 11 Board of National Education, General Education Policies : A Report , 1959-1961 essential and big ideas. It makes use of the “backward design” which necessitates determining targets and goals and assessment first before identifying and planning learning activities to ensure clarity of targets. The issue on lack of mastery of concepts and skills partly due to a congested curriculum did not end even with the already decongested 2002 BEC. This means that the clamor for quality basic education cannot be responded to by mere curriculum decongestion. Thus the K to 12 Basic Education Program is not only concerned with curriculum decongestion but also with other critical concerns like addressing shortages of educational inputs, improving the quality of teachers, and strengthened stakeholder participation. The K to 12 Basic Education Program is a comprehensive program in the sense that the support systems to ensure its implementation – the family and other stakeholders, instructional, administrative and society as a whole are given the needed attention.
  • 11. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 8 Outcome Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program The K to 12 Basic Education Program seeks to realize the following: 1. Philippine education standards to be at par with international standards 2. more emotionally mature graduates equipped with technical and/or vocational skills who are better prepared for work, middle level skills development and higher education 3. significantly addressed shortages or gaps in educational inputs (teacher items, school head items, classrooms, instructional materials) 4. broadened and strengthened stakeholder support in the improvement of basic education outcomes 5. improved internal efficiency 6. improved system of governance in the Department 7. improved quality of teachers Process Goals of the K to 12 Basic Education Program 1. Decongest and reform the basic education curriculum in coordination with CHED, TESDA and other education stakeholders 2. Develop culture-sensitive, culture-responsive and developmentally-appropriate print and non-print online learning resources for K to 12 3. Conduct in-service training for teachers relative to the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum 4. Focus on integrated instruction to equip learners with skills for future employment, critical and creative thinking and life skills 5. Universalize kindergarten by 2012 6. Institutionalize school-based management for school empowerment 7. Institute reform in assessment framework and practice for learner-centered basic education 8. Address basic input shortages in classrooms, teachers, textbooks 9. Promote good education governance in the entire Department 10. Pursue legislation to institutionalize K to 12 Basic Education Program 11. Formulate transition management plan for the K to 12 implementation 12. Identify K to 12 model schools per region and per specialization tracks that will model senior high school by SY 2012-2013.
  • 12. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 9 II. THE K TO 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM Goal As Figure 6 shows, the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum is geared towards the development of a holistically developed Filipino with 21st century skills who is ready for employment, entrepreneurship, middle level skills development and higher education upon graduation from Grade 12.
  • 13. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 10 Figure 6. The K to 12 Graduate
  • 14. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 11 The K to 12 graduate is equipped with the following 21st century skills: 1) information, media and technology skills, 2) learning and innovation skills, 3) effective communication skills, and 4) life and career skills. Information, media and technology skills include 1) visual and information literacies, media literacy, basic, scientific, economic and technological literacies and multicultural literacy and global awareness. The learning and innovation skills are 1) creativity and curiosity; 2) critical thinking problem solving skills and risk taking. To develop effective communication skills, the following skills must be taught: 1) teaming, collaboration and interpersonal skills; 2) personal, social, and civic responsibility and interactive communication, and local, national and global orientedness. The life and career skills are: 1) flexibility and adaptability; 2) initiative and self-direction; 3) social and cross-cultural skills; 4) productivity and accountability, 5) leadership and responsibility, and 6) ethical, moral and spiritual values. The ideal K to 12 graduate is one who manifests patriotism and nationalism, love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, observance of rights and duties of citizenship, strong ethical and spiritual values, moral character and personal discipline, critical and creative thinking, scientific and technological knowledge, and vocational efficiency”12 . The ideal K to 12 graduate is one who has discovered his/her potential in a child-centered and value-driven teaching-learning environment, one who is enabled to create his/her own destiny in a global community, one who is prepared to become a responsible citizen and an enlightened leader who loves his/her country and is 12 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 3. (2) proud to be a Filipino.13 The overarching goal of the K to 12 Curriculum is achieved when every K to 12 graduate demonstrates the desired outcomes as illustrated below: 13 DepEd’s vision statement, http://www.deped.gov.ph
  • 15. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 12 Figure 7. The K to 12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Framework
  • 16. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 13 The Learning Areas The cluster of subjects of the K to 12 curriculum – Languages, Math and Science, Arts and Humanities, and Technology and Livelihood Education – cuts across the grade levels from K to Grade 12 to nurture the learner’s holistic development. There is no demarcation line among the cluster of subjects – to indicate that the curriculum is organized to cut across subject lines and to put across the concept that the whole curriculum is life itself. The Language subjects are Mother Tongue, Filipino and English. The Arts and Humanities subjects are Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, Araling Panlipunan, Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH). The other subjects are Science, Math and Technology and Livelihood Education. There are changes in the nomenclature of some subjects. Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga for the secondary and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao for the elementary are now renamed Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. Science and Health is called Science. Health is joined to MAPEH. The learning areas in the K to 12 curriculum can be grouped into two: 1) core compulsory learning areas and 2) areas of specialization. These are enumerated in the discussion of elementary and secondary education. Co-Curricular and Community Involvement Programs Co-curricular programs and community involvement programs are an extension of the core subject areas and the teaching and learning process. They are an integral part of the school curriculum that enhances the holistic development of the learner. The co- curricular programs in a large sense also serve as a laboratory of life where what is learned in the classroom context can be applied in practical terms yet be used as a further teachable opportunity. Co-curricular and community involvement programs are irreplaceable opportunities for the learner to reinforce and put into practice the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes learned. Co-curricular programs and community involvement programs are an extension of the core subject areas and the teaching and learning process. They are an integral part of the school curriculum that enhances the holistic development of the learner. The co- curricular programs in a large sense also serve as a laboratory of life where what is learned in the classroom context can be applied in practical terms yet be used as a further teachable opportunity. Co-curricular and community involvement programs are irreplaceable opportunities for the learner to reinforce and put into practice the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes learned. Figure 8. The Learning Areas of the K to 12 Curriculum
  • 17. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 14 INFORMATION, MEDIA, AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS  LEARNING INNOVATION SKILLS  In Grade 1, oral Filipino is taught in 1st Semester and oral English in the Second Semester For Grades 7 and 8 only  LIFE AND CAREER SKILLS  EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS  G e n e r a l A c a d e m i c P r o g r a m Subjects LEARNING DOMAIN  Values Education  Physical Health & Motor Development  Social & EmotionalDevelop ment  Cognitive Development  Creative Arts  Language LiteracyCommunic ation  Mother Tongue  Filipino   English  Mathematics  Science  Araling Panlipunan  Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao  MAPEH Languages o -English o -Filipino Literature Mathematics Science Contemporary Issues • English • Filipino • Mathematics • Science • Araling Panlipunan • MAPEH • Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao • EPP • English • Filipino • Mathematics • Science • Music, Arts, PE & Health (MAPEH ) • Araling Panlipunan • Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao • Technology & Livelihood Education TLEExploratoryCourses  Academic Specialization o Mathematics o Science o Languages o Journalism o Sports and Arts  Technical- Vocational  Others NONENONENONE Specialization in TLE Development of knowledge, skills, attitude and values: mastery and application basic skills Development and mastery of complex knowledge and skills, development of attitudes and values. Consolidation of complex knowledge and skills, development of attitudes, values, aptitudes and interest. Consolidation of complex knowledge and skills, development of attitudes, values as a result of a strong liberal education; adequate preparation for the world of work entrepreneurship, middle level skills development and higher education.
  • 18. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 15 Distinctive Features and Guiding Principles 1. It is learner-centered. – The learner is the very reason of the entire curriculum system. Who the learner is in his/her totality, how he/she learns and develops and what his/her needs are were highly considered in the making of the K to 12 curriculum framework. The holistic learning and development of the learner is its primary focus. Teacher creates a conducive atmosphere where the learner enjoys learning, takes part in meaningful learning experiences and experiences success because he/she is respected, accepted and feels safe even if in his/her learning exploration he/she commits mistakes. He/she learns at his/her own pace in his/her own learning style. He/she is empowered to make choices and to become responsible for his/her own learning in the classroom and for a lifetime. The learner-centered K to 12 curriculum gives prime importance to developing self-propelling and independent lifelong learners. 2. It is inclusive. – The vision statement of DepEd states, “We affirm the right of every Filipino child especially the less advantaged to benefit from such system.”14 [referring to the existing educational system.] It reaches out to all kinds of learners regardless of ability, condition, age, gender, ethnicity, and social status. It is built on the principle that every child has a right to education and that the education system needs to be flexible to accommodate the learning needs of all learners. The emphasis is on making schools learner- friendly, mainstreaming learners with disability into general schools, and creating a non-discriminatory education system where all learners have equal opportunity to learn. 14 DepEd’s vision statement, http://www.deped.gov.ph 3. It is developmentally appropriate. – The K to 12 curriculum considers the various developmental stages of learners. Selection of activities is informed by age-appropriateness, individual differences, and social and cultural diversity. 4. It is standard-based and competency-based. – What learners should know and be able to do and the levels of proficiency at which they are expected to demonstrate what they know and can do are clearly stated in the form of standards unpacked into competencies. With a standards- and competencies-based curriculum, learners understand what are expected of them, parents are clear on what are expected of their children, teachers are guided on what to teach and how to teach, and the DepEd is provided with a common reference tool for national assessment. With standards, competencies are connected to ensure integrated and meaningful teaching instead of isolated, disconnected and meaningless teaching. 5. It is research-based. – The new features of the K to 12 curriculum are backed up by hard data. The use of Mother Tongue as a medium of instruction from K to Grade 3 is supported by a research finding that children learn better and are more active in class and learn a second language even faster when they are first taught in a language they understand. The strengthening of ICT-integration in the basic education curriculum in order to meet the 21st century skills required by employers, the use of the spiral progression approach in the teaching of Math and Science, and the development of alternative delivery modes to provide equal opportunity for all are backed up by the recommendations of the DepEd-commissioned researches conducted by SEAMEO INNOTECH and University of Melbourne.
  • 19. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 16 Other research recommendations that were integrated in the K to 12 curriculum are the use of the expanding spiral progression approach in the teaching of Science, Mathematics, Araling Panlipunan, MAPEH and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao and the deliberate teaching of the investigatory process in Science as a separate topic by Grade 7. 6. It is relevant and responsive. – The K to 12 curriculum is aligned with national education and development goals enunciated in the laws of the country and to the ten-point education agenda of the President. It also responds to the Millennium Development Goals and Education for All. As the curriculum framework shows, the K to 12 curriculum is designed to respond to the need for a nationalistic and productive citizenry who contributes to the building of a progressive, just, and humane society and whose personal discipline is grounded on ethical, moral and spiritual values. The curriculum likewise addresses the demands of global citizenship and partnership for development that ensures environmental sustainability. In short, the K to 12 curriculum responds to the learning needs of the learner of the 21st century and the local, national and global community. 7. It is value-driven. – The curriculum offers a subject in Values Education with the descriptive title Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. This is one of the core and compulsory subjects from Grades 1 to 10. Values and Character Education is also one of the 6 domains in Kindergarten. In the K to 12 curriculum, every teacher is a Values Education teacher as all subject matter is a potent vehicle for values integration. In the K to 12 curriculum, the learner learns and develops in a value-driven environment where everyone is respected and is valued for he/she is. 8. It is culture-responsive and culture-sensitive. – To be truly inclusive, the K to 12 curriculum respects cultures and experiences of various ethnic groups and uses these as resources for teaching and learning. Teachers are expected to provide lessons that cater to a culturally diverse population and honor the cultural heritage of all learners. Given the multi-cultural characteristics of Philippine schools, the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) makes the curriculum truly culture-responsive. Learning mother tongue language helps learners retain their ethnic identity, culture, heritage and values. To make it responsive to Muslim learners, the K to 12 curriculum continues to offer Madrasah education with subjects in Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education (ALIVE) as a vital component of the basic education system. 9. It is decongested. – To allow for mastery of competencies and to give more emphasis to the development of student understanding and on learning how to learn, repetitions of competencies were weeded out. The new curriculum was redesigned in line with the standards and competencies desired of a K to 12 graduate. 10. It is seamless. – The K to 12 curriculum consists of a continuum of competencies which provides transition from one grade level to another without unnecessary duplication. The continuum of standards and competencies from the elementary to secondary level is ensured by the unified curriculum framework for each learning area from elementary to high school. The standards and competencies are developed following expanding spiral progression model. This means that learning is built upon prior knowledge, skills, values and attitude of students to ensure vertical continuity.
  • 20. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 17 11. It is flexible. – The flexibility of the curriculum is in keeping with the constitutional mandate of schools “to encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs” (Article XIV, Section 2(1). 12. It is ICT-based. – ICT is taught in the junior high school as one of the Technology and Livelihood Education courses and is now integrated starting Grade 1 not Grade 4 as it is done in the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. The K to 12 curriculum promotes the use of technology for an engaging, effective, and efficient instruction. 13. It is global. -– The K to 12 curriculum is benchmarked with curricula of other countries. It meets international standards not merely by adding two years to the 10 years of basic education but also by ensuring that the standards of the 12-year basic education is equivalent to the 12-year basic education offered in other countries. Graduates of the K to 12 curriculum will be recognized as such in other countries. It expands the local orientedness of the learner to national and global concerns. It enables learners to relate local, national and global events and concerns and builds patterns of interconnectedness which help them make sense of their own lives and the world. 14. It is integrative and contextualized. – For holistic learning, subjects are taught using the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach. Learners do not learn isolated facts and theories divorced from their lives. Learning involves change in knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. Learning is organized around the 4 fundamental types of learning: 1) “learning to know”, 2) “learning to do”, 3) “learning to be”, and 4) “learning to live together”15 . The K to 12 curriculum emphasizes the significant role that co-curricular activities and community involvement play in the holistic development of the learner. They are genuine opportunities for contextualized learning. The co- curricular activities and community involvement programs enable learners to build on their classroom learning and apply the knowledge and skills learned. In Technology and Livelihood Education, areas are so chosen to avoid duplication, make connection across the areas and to include other cross-curriculum elements (mensuration, technical drawing, use of hand tools, occupational health & safety and tools/equipment maintenance) in order to ensure greater cohesiveness in the curriculum as a whole. For flexibility, the K to 12 curriculum provides a balance of a common core of compulsory academic courses and electives to meet needs of learners and community in the 21st century. As early as Grade 9, the learner is offered multiple career pathways for technology and livelihood education continued on Grades 11 and 12 where he/she is offered other specializations such as academics, sports and the arts in addition to technical and vocational education. Schools are encouraged to localize the curriculum to respond to their teaching-learning needs. They can likewise enrich the curriculum without sacrificing the established content and performance standards and competencies to make the curriculum responsive to their needs. This is in response to RA 9155, Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 which states that “The 15 UNESCO’s Report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st century.
  • 21. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 18 State shall encourage local initiatives for improving the quality of basic education. The State shall ensure that the values, needs and aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of education for children, out-of-school youth and adult learners. Schools and learning centers shall be empowered to make decisions on what is best for the learners they serve.” The K to 12curriculum lends itself to alternative delivery modes of instruction which support self-paced study options such as Open High School Program, computer-aided instruction, modular teaching, Drop-Out Reduction Program (DORP) and Alternative Learning System (ALS), and multi-grade classes as these programs target learners who have unique needs not addressed by the formal school system. 15. It is broad-based. – K to 12 curriculum provides for a broad general education that will “assist each individual in the peculiar ecology of his own society, to (a) attain his potentials as a human being; (b) enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society; and (c) acquire the essential educational foundation of his development.”16 16. It is enhanced. – The K to 12 curriculum is a product of the collaborative effort of curriculum specialists, subject specialists, practitioners and education stakeholders representing NGOs, business and industry, public and private higher education institutions, educational associations, government agencies such as CHED, TESDA, NEDA, DSWD and DOLE. This curriculum was crafted based on the suggestions from sectoral representatives, college readiness standards formulated by CHED, recommendations from researches, and feedback from practitioners. The K to 12 curriculum takes pride in the unified 16 Education Act of 1982. frameworks for elementary and high school for all the learning areas. The K to 12 curriculum builds on the previous curricular reforms. The 1957 2-2 Plan for secondary education and 1958 revised elementary education curriculum provided for the preparation of students in the world of the academe or the world of work. However, it limited the students to only two choices – college or vocational education. The K to 12curriculum affords the student more choices after graduation, at least four (4) – employment, entrepreneurship, middle level skills development, or higher education. The K to 12 curriculum outshines the past curricula in addressing the demands of a knowledge-based economy for local, national and global development. It provides multiple pathways for further studies and career development aligned to international standards and manpower requirement of the 21st century. Unlike the past curricula, the K to 12 curriculum includes an integrated and play-based Kindergarten curriculum as a commitment of the Philippines to EFA. It includes MTB-MLE which is built on the basic idea to use the child's first language in teaching – learning so the child is provided with a firm foundation for on- going education in Filipino and English, the two major languages of education in the Philippines.17 Like its forerunners, the K to 12 curriculum is decongested not interms of the number of subjects (2002 BEC) but in terms of competencies. Makabayan as a learning area in the 2002 BEC is split into Music, Art, P.E. Health, Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, and Araling Panlipunan in the K to 12 curriculum but are taught using the integration approach. 17 Board of National Education, General Policies on Education, 1967-1972,1951-1961 & 1958-1960
  • 22. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 19 Pedagogical Approaches The pedagogical approaches are integrative, constructivist, inquiry-based, reflective and collaborative. Constructivist. Teaching of all the subjects is anchored on the belief that the learner is not an empty receptacle who is mere recipient of instruction. Rather, the learner is an active constructor of knowledge and a maker of meaning. The role of the teacher becomes one of a facilitator, a “guide on the side” rather than a dispenser of information, the “sage on stage”. The student becomes the active “meaning-maker” not the teacher imposing meaning. This means that learners construct their own knowledge and understanding of what is taught out of their experiences. Inquiry-based. The curriculum ensures that the learners have the opportunity to examine concepts, issues and information in various ways and from various perspectives. It provides them opportunities to develop skills of creative and critical thinking, informed decision- making, and hypothesis building and problem-solving. The learners are encouraged to become active investigators by identifying a range of information, understanding the sources of information and evaluating the objectivity of information. They are thus better able to draw meaningful conclusions which are supported by evidence. Rather than examining an issue from any one perspective, the learners are challenged to explore other possibilities by applying higher order thinking skills in their decision-making endeavours. To develop the 21st century skills of critical and creative thinking, the use of the inquiry approach in teaching is a must. With inquiry method, teaching departs from simply memorizing fact laden instructional materials (Bruner, 1961). In Inquiry learning, progress is assessed by how well learners develop experimental and analytical skills rather than how much knowledge they possess. The teacher’s role is to plan and facilitate the exploration of the ideas and skills required in the curriculum. Reflective. Reflective teaching means making the learners look at what they do in the classroom, think about why they do it, and think about if it works. Reflective teaching encourages learners to engage in a process of self-observation and self-evaluation. By collecting information about what goes on in their classroom, and by analyzing and evaluating this information, they identify and explore their own practices and underlying beliefs. This may then lead to changes and improvements in their learning. Collaborative. Learning is a social activity and so must be collaborative. Learning is intimately associated with connection with other human beings- classmates, teachers, peers, family as well as community. The teaching-learning process is a rich opportunity to teach what it means to “live together”, the fourth pillar of learning. The teaching-learning process should be interactive and must promote teamwork. Integrative. Subject matter is taught using interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches. Science is taught in relation to Math
  • 23. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 20 and vice versa. The content in Science, Health, Art, and Physical Education may become a reading material in English or the content in Araling Panlipunan and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao serves as reading material in Filipino. What is taught in Science is reinforced by the lessons in Health. With the thematic approach, within each subject itself, the connectedness of topics taught is shown. Co- curricular activities and community involvement complement teaching-learning in the classroom. They are real life opportunities for contextualized and integrative learning. Learning is contextual. Learning cannot be divorced from their lives. Learners do not learn from isolated facts and theories separate from the rest of their lives. Every end of the quarter is an opportunity to integrate learning by way of a culminating activity. Assessment The K to 12 curriculum has a balanced assessment program. Assessment in the K to 12 curriculum is, in the words of Cronbach, comprehensive and involves multifaceted analysis of performance that uses a variety of techniques which has primary reliance on observations of performance and integration of diverse information. It makes appropriate use of both traditional and authentic assessment tools. It practices self-assessment (assessment as learning), formative assessment (assessment for learning) and summative assessment (assessment of learning.) Self-assessment (assessment as learning) develops in the learner personal responsibility for learning. It begins as he/she becomes aware of the goals of instruction and the criteria for performance. He /she sets his/her personal learning goals based on standards set, monitors his/her progress by regularly undertaking informal and formal self-assessment and by actively reflecting on his/her progress (metacognition)in relation to his/her personal goals. The self- assessment process gives the learners an opportunity to assess themselves, reflect on results , why they did well or why they did not do well and learn from their experiences. In formative assessment, the teacher and learner use assessment primarily to improve learning and teaching. Assessment for learning is about assessing progress, analyzing and giving feedback on the outcomes of assessment positively and constructively. It is given at the beginning of teaching (diagnostic) or in the process of teaching (formative) to guide instruction and teacher decision-making. Before teachers introduce a new lesson teachers pre-assess the entry knowledge and skills of the learners by way of a pre-test. If the learners do not possess the prerequisite knowledge and skills, teacher adjusts instruction. Formative assessment is an on-going assessment which includes, review and observation in a classroom to check if learners are learning. The results of formative assessment are recorded for tracking learners’ progress, not for grading purposes. In the K to 12 curriculum, the assessment process involves the use of a wide array of traditional and authentic assessment tools and techniques for a valid, reliable and realistic assessment of learning. Traditional and authentic assessments complement each other. They are not mutually exclusive. Assessment is based on multiple information sources (e.g. pre- tests, written tests, portfolios, and works in progress, teacher
  • 24. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 21 observation, and conversation). Verbal or written feedback to the learner is primarily descriptive. Feedback emphasizes strengths, identifies challenges, and points to next steps. A balanced assessment for the K to 12 curriculum also means putting emphasis on assessing understanding and skills development rather than on accumulation of content. This is one of the recommendations of the research conducted by the University of Melbourne. Teacher also checks learning at the end of a unit or term to determine how much has been learned. This is referred to as assessment of learning (summative assessment). It is designed to measure the learner achievement at the end of a unit or term to gauge what he/she has learned in comparison with established standards. The assessment results are the bases of grades or marks which are communicated to learners and parents. National assessment, a form of summative assessment, will be conducted in four key stages, namely: 1. end of Grade3, key stage 1; 2. end of Grade 6, key stage 2; 3. end of Grade 10, key stage 3; and 4. End of Grade 12, key stage 4. In addition to the usual assessment conducted at the end of each level of schooling – elementary, junior high school and senior high school – summative assessment in the national level is conducted at the end of Grade 3, to determine the impact of the use of Mother Tongue as medium of instruction. The assessment in Grade 12 is conceived to accomplish several purposes, to assess achievement of the K to 12 standards and to serve the purposes of a college entrance examination. Except for assessment at the end of Grade 3, all assessments apply to the alternative learning system. There are other assessments given to learners. These are the Occupational Interest Inventory for Secondary Students given in Grade seven and the National Career Assessment Examination given in Grade 8. Structure of the Curriculum K to 12 Curriculum includes Kindergarten, six years of elementary and six years of high school which is divided into stages: four years of junior high school and two years of senior high school. It follows the K-6-4-2 model. (See Figure 7). Figure 9. Structure of the K to 12 Curriculum.
  • 25. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 22 Kindergarten Universal Kindergarten caters to children aged 5. With the passage of R.A. 10157, otherwise known as the Kindergarten Education Act, an act institutionalizing pre-school education, Kindergarten is mandatory by SY 2012-2013. Recognizing the central role of play in young children’s learning and development, Kindergarten teachers use spontaneous play as a natural way of teaching - learning in all domains of development: physical, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive. There are no formal subjects in Kindergarten. Instead, there are six domains, namely: 1) values education, 2) physical health and motor development, 3) social and emotional development, 4) cognitive development, 5) creative arts and 6) language literacy and communication. The teaching of Kindergarten employs the integrative approach to ensure that no learning domain is taught in isolation. Teaching–learning activities are play-based considering the developmental stage of Kindergarteners. Elementary Education Elementary education is compulsory and free. It provides basic education to pupils aged six to eleven and it consists of six years of study. Elementary education includes Grades 1 to 6. After completing the six-year elementary program, learners receive a certificate of graduation. The elementary curriculum provides various learning experiences that will enable learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and habits essential for lifelong learning. The core compulsory subjects in the elementary are 1) English, 2) Filipino, 3) Mathematics, 4) Science, 5) Araling Panlipunan, 6) Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, 7) Music, Art, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) and 8) Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan. Not all subjects are taught beginning Grade 1. Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan is taught beginning Grade 4. Science is offered only starting Grade 3, however, science concepts and processes are integrated in the teaching of Languages, Physical Education and Health, Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, and Araling Panlipunan. The skills and steps of the investigatory process which are deliberately taught in Grade 7 Science are also taught in Araling Panlipunan when the learners are asked for example to determine the authenticity of primary and secondary sources. Science content such as the human body and its development is also discussed in Health, Physical Education and Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. Science topics like climate change, environmental sustainability are favorite topics for writing and discussion in the Language classes. All these and more prove that science is all over the curriculum even before it is taught formally as a separate subject in Grade 3. Mother Tongue as a subject is taught from Grades 1 to 3. Oral Filipino and oral English are introduced in Grade 1, in the first semester and in the second semester, respectively.
  • 26. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 23 Secondary Education Secondary education is free but not compulsory. It is meant to build on the foundation knowledge, skills and attitudes developed in the elementary level and to discover and “enhance the aptitudes and interests of the student as to equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling.”18 With the K to 12 curriculum, it consists of 4years of junior high school, Grades 7 to 10, and 2 years of senior high school, Grades 11 to 12. (Refer to Figure 9). In junior high school, the learner takes 8 core compulsory subjects as follows: 1) English, 2) Filipino, 3) Mathematics, 4) Science, 5) Araling Panlipunan, 6) Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, 7) Music, Art, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH), and 8) Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). The TLE subjects that are offered are based on the Training Regulations from Technical Education and Skills Development Authority to enable the learner to obtain the National Certificate required by industry. The TLE subjects in Grades 7 and 8 are exploratory. This means that the Grade 7 and 8 learner is given the opportunity to explore from a maximum of 4 TLE mini courses in Grade 7 and another 4 in Grade 8 which the school offers depending on community needs and school resources. In the exploratory courses, the learner is taught 5 basic competencies common to all TLE courses. The basic competencies are 1) mensuration and calculation, 2) use of tools and equipment, 3) interpretation of plans/drawing, 4) occupational health and safety in the workplace, and 5) maintenance of tools and equipment. (See Table 5). In Grades 7 and 8, the learner does not 18 Education Act of 1982, Sec. 22 yet obtain a Certificate of Competency (COC). The exploratory courses are a prelude to the earning of a COC in Grade 9 and a NC I/II in Grade 10. In Grade 9, the learner chooses one course to specialize in from among the exploratory courses that he/she was oriented to in Grades 7 and 8. In this level, the learner obtains a Certificate of Competency. In Grade 10 he/she pursues the TLE specialization course that he/she has chosen in Grade 9 for him/her to obtain at least a National Certificate Level I or Level II (NC-I/NC-II) depending on the TLE course chosen. Senior high school, the apex of secondary education, consists of Grades 11 and 12. In this level, the learner goes through a proposed core of not more than 7 compulsory subjects and a required specialization for the learner’s career pathway chosen from among 1) entrepreneurship, 2) tech-voc, and 3) academics. Specialization in academics includes course offerings in 1) science, 2) math 3) languages, foreign and Philippine languages, 4) journalism, 5) sports and the 6) arts. The proposed core compulsory subjects for Grade 11 are: 1) English, 2) Filipino, 3) Math, 4) Philosophy, 5) Life Sciences, and 6) Contemporary Local Issues. For Grade 12, the proposed core compulsory subjects are: 1) English, 2) Filipino, 3) Philippine Literature, 1st semester, 4) World Literature, 2nd semester, 5) Math, 6) Physical Sciences, and 7) Contemporary Global Issues. The subjects in senior high school are mostly the general education subjects in the first two years of college brought down to the basic education level. The specialization courses equip the senior high school learner with knowledge and skills in the career path of
  • 27. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 24 his/her choice. Those who choose to go to college will take any specialization in academics. Those who opt to go for tech-voc specialization will pursue the TLE specialization began in Grade 9. If the learner chooses tech-voc as a specialization in Grades 11 and 12, he/she continues the TLE specialization that he/she started in Grade 9 and pursued in Grade 10. This enables him/her to acquire NC-II. The vertical and horizontal transfers in Grades 11 and 12 presented in Table 5 refer to the advancement in the level of certification either upward like a ladder (vertical) or sideward like a bridge. An example of a vertical ladder is obtaining NC-II for Building Wiring Electricity after getting NC-I for Building Wiring Electricity. Horizontal transfer means going into different fields of training at the same qualification level. An example is Building Wiring Electricity NC-II to Carpentry NC-II. Alternative Learning System For an integrated system of basic education, the K to 12 curriculum structure includes an alternative learning system which is a parallel learning or delivery system to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. It caters to specific learner needs and requirements, because apart from dropouts who are mostly from poor households, there are special groups not reached by the formal education system: the indigenous peoples, Muslim communities, victims of armed conflict, child and youth laborers, differently-abled, inmates, homeless and street children, single parents, etc. For ALS to be truly parallel with the formal system and for ALS graduates not to be marginalized, it focuses on the teaching of the same standards and competencies of the formal system. (See Figure 10). It shall be delivered through graded and non-graded modules, print or non-print which will also be made available on- line. An accreditation and equivalency test for both academic and technical skills is an important component of the program. Figure 10. K to 12 Curriculum in both Formal Education and Alternative Learning Systems
  • 28. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 25 Figure 11. Core Learning Areas/Domains from K to 12  For 24 TLE courses, refer to Table 5
  • 29. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 26 Table 5. Common Competencies in the Grade 7 and 8 TLE Exploratory Courses and Specialization in Grade 11 and 12
  • 30. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 27 Table 6. Proposed Subjects for Grades 11 and 12
  • 31. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 28 Table 7. The Components of the K to 12 Curriculum at a Glance
  • 32. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 29 GLOSSARYOF TERMS 1. Certificate of Competency – a document issued TESDA to individuals who were assessed as competent in a single unit or cluster of related units of competency 2. Competence – This is a combination of knowledge, skills and values and attitudes (KSVAs) which are used to achieve outcomes in real life scenarios. 3. Competency – This refers to a specific task performed with mastery. It allows the identification of difficulty levels. It also refers to the ability to perform activities within an occupation or function to the standards expected by drawing from one’s knowledge, skills and attitudes. 4. Content – This is the scope and sequence of topics and skills covered in each strand/domain/theme/component. 5. Content Standards – Statements of what the learner should be able to know and be able to do. 6. Core Content – This refers to the focus of teaching-learning process in the learning areas. For K to 12 curriculum , these are communication and literacies, critical thinking and problem solving ,ethical, moral and spiritual values, creativity and innovation, life and career competencies, development of self and sense of community, national and global orientedness. 7. Core Learning Area Standard – This is a broad statement that shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate after learning a particular learning area across K to 12 in relation to the desired outcomes and overall goal. 8. Demonstrate understanding – This is shown in the learners’ ability to do the following: a) Explain – provide thorough and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts, and data. b) Interpret – tell meaningful stories, offer apt translations, provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make subjects personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models. c) Apply – effectively use and adapt what they know in diverse contexts. d) Have perspective – see and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture. e) Empathize- find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior indirect experience. f) Have self-knowledge – perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; they are aware of what they do not understand and why understanding is so hard. 9. Effective communication skills – It is the ability to: 1) articulate one’s thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts; 2) listen effectively to decipher meaning, including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions; 3) use communication for a range of purposes (e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate and persuade); and 4) communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multi-lingual). 10. Flexibility and adaptability – It is the ability to adapt to change, varied roles, jobs, responsibilities, schedules and context and to understand, negotiate and balance diverse views and beliefs to reach workable solutions, particularly in multi-cultural environments.
  • 33. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 30 11. Global Competence – This means having an open mind while actually seeking to understand cultural norms and expectations of others, leveraging this gained knowledge to interact, communicate and work effectively outside one’s environment (Hunter, 2004). 12. Globally Competent Learner – He/she is one who is able to understand the interconnectedness of peoples and systems to have a general knowledge of history and world events, to accept and cope with the existence of different cultural values and attitudes and, indeed, to celebrate the richness and benefits of this diversity (American Council on International Education). 13. Grade Level Standard – This is a statement that shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate after learning a particular learning area in each Grade level based on the key stage standard. The key stages are K-3, 4-6, 7-10 and 11-12. 14. Holistically developed Filipino – He/she is one who possesses a healthy mind and body, has solid moral and spiritual grounding, has essential knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to continuously develop himself/herself to the fullest, engages in critical thinking and creative problem solving, contributes to the development of a progressive, just, and humane society, is proud to be a Filipino and who appreciates cares for humanity, the world and the environment. 15. Information Literacy – Accessing information efficiently and effectively, evaluating information critically and competently, using information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand; managing the flow of information from a wide variety of sources, and applying a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information 16. Initiative and self-direction – It is the ability to manage goals and time, work independently and to direct oneself for learning. 17. Key stage – This refers to stages in the curriculum where assessment of learning is critical. These are key stage 1, end of Grade 3; key stage 2, end of Grade 6; key stage 3, end of Grade 10; and key stage 4, end of Grade 12. 18. Key Stage Standard – This is a statement that shows the degree or quality of proficiency that the learner is able to demonstrate in each key stage after learning a particular learning area in relation to the core learning area standard. The key stages are K-3, 4-6, 7-10 and 11-12. 19. Leadership and responsibility – It refers to the ability to: 1) Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to influence and guide others toward a goal; 2) leverage strengths of others to accomplish a common goal, 3) inspire others to reach their very best via example and selflessness; 4) demonstrate integrity and ethical behavior in using influence and power, and 5) act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind. 20. Learning and Innovation Skills – It is adequately mastering basic competencies and using these basic competencies creatively for lifelong learning. It is acting on creative ideas to make a tangible and useful contribution to the local and global community. 21. Life and career skills – These refer to the following abilities: 1) flexibility and adaptability, 2) initiative and self- direction, 3)
  • 34. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 31 social and cross-cultural skills, 4) productivity and accountability, and 5) leadership and responsibility. 22. Media Literacy – It is the ability to sift through and analyze the messages that inform, entertain and sell to learners every day. It is the ability to question what lies behind media productions — the motives, the money, the values and the ownership — and to be aware of how these factors influence message content. 23. National Certificate – It is a certification issued to individuals who achieved all the required units of competency for a national qualification as defined under the Training Regulations. 24. National Certificate Level – It refers to the four (4) qualification levels defined in the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework where the worker is: a. NC-I performs a routine and predictable tasks; has little judgment; and, works under supervision; b. NC-II performs prescribe range of functions involving known routines and procedures; has limited choice and complexity of functions, and has little accountability; c. NC-III performs a wide range of skills; works with some complexity and choice; contributes to problem solving and work processes; and, shows responsibility for self and others; and d. NC-IV performs a wide range of applications; have responsibilities that are complex and non-routine; provides some leadership and guidance of others; and, performs evaluation and analysis of work practices and the development of new criteria and procedures.19 25. Performance Standards – Statements of what the learner is going to do with what he/she has learned in terms of knowledge and skills. They are statements of the degree or quality of proficiency with which the learner is able to demonstrate his/her mastery of knowledge and skills and internalization of values and attitudes in relation to content standards. 26. Productivity and accountability – It is the ability to manage time and projects effectively, produce quality results and be accountable for results. 27. Skill – It is the coordinated performance of related tasks with a certain degree of facility. 28. Social and cross-cultural skills – These refer to skills needed to interact effectively with others and work effectively in diverse teams. 29. Spiral Curriculum – Big ideas, important tasks and ever deepening inquiry must recur in ever increasing complexity through engaging problems and applications; “form follows function”; If the goal (function of curriculum) is increased understanding, then a more spiral-like logic (form) may be necessary. 30. Standard – In its broadest sense, it is something against which other things can be compared for the purpose of determining accuracy, estimating quantity or judging quality. It is a broadly stated expectation of what one should know and be able to do. 19 TESDA Circular No.23, s. 2008 – Implementing Guidelines on PTQCS)
  • 35. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 32 31. Technological literacy – It is the ability to use computers and other technology to improve learning, productivity and performance. 32. 21st Century Skills – These are the special abilities that learners need to develop so that they can be prepared for the challenges of work and life in the 21st century.
  • 36. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 33 VI. REFERENCES Batomalaque, Antonio. Basic Science Development Program of the Philippines for International Cooperation. University of San Carlos.; Marinas, Bella and Ditapat, Maria. Philippines: Curriculum and Development. UNESCO International Bureau of Education Board of National Education, General Policies on Education, 1967- 1972, 1951-1961 & 1958-1960 Care, Esther Care and Ethel Valenzuela, Analysis of Basic Education of thePhilippines:Implications for the K to 12 Education Program, Jan. 2012. de Jesus, Edilberto. Philippine Daily Inquirer, January 8, 2010. Education Act of 1982 Mullis, I.V., M.O. Martin, D.F. Robitaille, & P. Foy, (2009). Chestnut Hill, MA. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Advanced 2008. National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003.December 2004 UNESCO’s Report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st century. 1987 Philippine Constitution http://www.deped.gov.ph International Engineering Alliance. The Washington Accord. http://www.washingtonaccord.org/Washington-Accord/FAQ.cfm (Accessed 11 September 2010
  • 37. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 34 VII. COMMITTEES ON K TO 12 CURRICULUM Steering Committee Members Name Institution Chairperson Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Department of Education Co-Chairs Dr. Patricia Licuanan Sec. Joel Villanueva Commission on Higher Education Technical Skills and Development Authority Members Senator Edgardo Angara (represented by Dr. Dan Rola and/or Dr. Chat Sebastian) Senate Congressman Salvador Escudero (represented by Ms. Maria Josefina J. Roque-Ricafort) House of Representatives Dir. Erlinda M. Capones (sometimes represented by Ms. Rhona Caoli- Rodriguez) National Economic Development Authority Mr. Valencio R. delos Reyes, Jr. Department of Labor and Employment USec. Alicia R. Bala (sometimes represented by Ms. Cynthia Diano and/or Ms. Anely A. Burgo) Department of Social Welfare and Development Ms. France Castro ACT Ms. Zenaida Lao Mr. Redentor Quilala Parent Teacher Association Representative Ms. Tiffany Uy Student Government Representative Dr. Lauro B. Tacbas Dr. Jimmy Soria PASUC Dr. Chito Salazar (sometimes represented by Mr. Wadel Cabrera) Philippine Business for Education Dr. Jose Campos COCOPEA Advisers Dr. Isagani Cruz Academe (Private) Dr. Ester Ogena Academe (Public) Rep. Mariano Piamonte Partylist Representative Mr. Edicio dela Torre E-Net Fr. Gregorio Bañaga, Jr. Academe (Private) Technical Working Group Chairpersons USec.Yolanda Quijano DepED, TWG on Curriculum USec. Francisco Varela DepED, TWG on Research USec. Rizalino Rivera DepED, TWG on Communications USec. Albert Muyot DepED, TWG on Legislation ASec. Tonisito Umali DepED, TWG on Transition Management Dr. Lolit Andrada DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG on 11 and 12, Transition Management sub-TWG on SHS system readiness assessment Dr. Socorro Pilor DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG
  • 38. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 35 on instructional materials Dr. Paraluman Giron Curriculum Sub-TWG on K to 10 Dr. Nelia Benito DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG on Assessment Dr. Beatrice Torno DepED, Curriculum sub-TWG on teacher education Dr. Milagros Valles DepED, Transition Management sub-TWG on SHS modeling Technical Working Group on Research Name Institution Chairperson USec. Francis Varela DepED Members Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Dir. Erlinda M. Capones (represented by Ms. Rhona Caoli-Rodriguez) NEDA Dr. Vincent Fabella JRU Mr. Jess Mateo DepED, Planning Office Dr. Rosario Manasan Consultant Dr. Aniceto Orbeta Consultant K to 12 Secretariat Magdalena Mendoza DAP Technical Working Group on Transition Management Name Institution Chairperson ASec. Tonisito Umali DepED Members Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA Dr. Reynaldo Vea COCOPEA? Dr. Vincent Fabella JRU Dr. Amelou Reyes PWU/ FAPE Dr. Carol Porio FAPE Dr. Arnie Azcarraga DLSU Engr. Alex Escano MFI USec.Francis Varela DepED, TWG on Research USec. Rizalino Rivera DepED, TWG on Communications ASec. Jess Mateo DepED, Planning Office Dr. Brenda Corpuz Curriculum Consultant Dir. Lolit Andrada DepED, sub-TWG on SHS system readiness assessment Dir. Milagros Valles DepED, sub-TWG on SHS Modeling K to 12 Secretariat Magdalena Mendoza DAP
  • 39. The K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM Working Document| Not yet for citation or circulation DRAFT COPY| As of 12 March 2012 36 Technical Working Group on Curriculum Name Institution Chairperson USec. Yolanda Quijano DepED Members Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA Dr. Lolit Andrada DepED, sub-TWG on 11 and 12 Dr. Socorro Pilor DepED, sub-TWG on instructional materials Dr. Paraluman Giron Sub-TWG on 1 to 10 Dr. Nelia Benito DepED, sub-TWG on Assessment Dr. Beatrice Torno DepED, sub-TWG on teacher education Dr. Brenda Corpuz Curriculum Consultant Dr. Dina Ocampo UP, Languages (English, Filipino, Mother Tongue) Convenor Dr. Maris Diokno UP, Araling Panlipunan Convenor Dr. Ian Garces AdMU, Math Convenor Dr. Merle Tan UP NISMED, Science Convenor Dr. Dennis Faustino St. Mary’s, Music and Art Convenor Dr. Larry Gabao PNU, Physical Education Convenor Dr. Evelina Vicencio UE, Health Convenor Dr. Fe Hidalgo UST, Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Convenors Dr. Imelda Taganas TESDA, EPP-TLE Convenor Technical Working Group on Communications Name Institution Chairperson USec. Rizalino Rivera DepED Members Dir. Tina Ganzon DepED Mr. Napoleon Imperial CHED ASec. Jess Mateo DepED, Planning Office Mr. Kenneth Tirado DepED Communications Mr. Raul Limbo Mr. Wadel Cabrera Philippine Business for Education Ms. Dorris Ferrer CEAP ASec. Tonisito Umali TWG on Transition Management K to 12 Secretariat Magdalena Mendoza DAP