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Communication regards as a transactional process/model. It is a process of delivering message from source/sender to receiver.

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  3. 3. DEFINITION COMMUNICATION• regards as a transactional process/model• as a transactional model communication is: – Dynamic – Ongoing process • No start and end points 3
  4. 4. – Circle (Circular) • Circle process • Process of delivering message from source/sender to receiver • Both sender and receiver have their own role and are influencing each other 4
  5. 5. – Non-repetitive – reaction & response can be repeated but not exactly in the same way as before – A word once spoken cannot be taken back 5
  6. 6. Definition• two-way process, and have behavior impact – Source with intention encoding & sending message through selected channel to receiver aiming to produce certain behavior. 6
  7. 7. Chart 1 : Communication elementsSource Message Channel Receiver Feedback (Source: Mohd Baharudin Othman & Mohd Khairie Ahmad, 2003) 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Source/SenderSource/sender: •Refers to an individual or a group or person that sends information 9
  10. 10. FUNCTIONS:• encoding message • source exchange message into verbal or nonverbal symbol 10
  11. 11. • determine intention/ select communication channel to deliver/convey message• interpret message which delivered by the sender 11
  12. 12. • ensure message is received by the receiver• interpret feedback• will re-encode message in case the receiver fail to 12
  13. 13. Message• derives from encode process• a set of symbol (verbal/non-verbal) or content of information sent by sender of message. 13
  14. 14. • Selected verbal or nonverbal symbol gives a specific meaning to receiver• verbal or non-verbal behavior may enhance the meaning of the given message 14
  15. 15. Channel• A medium used to convey information from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver• Communication channels can be categorized into two main categories: Direct and Indirect channels of communication 15
  16. 16. • example: i. face to face communication, ii. letter iii. magazine iv. radio v. e-mail vi. telephone vii. chatting room) internet 16
  17. 17. • Channel is selected based on: – target audience or message receiver – message type 17
  18. 18. Receiver • Refers to an individual or a group or person that receive information from sender/source of message• Function: – Decode a message: • is the reverse of encoding, which is the process of transforming information from one format into another 18
  19. 19. Feedback• Purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the intention of the sender is understood by the receiver of the message.• Sender and receiver share response 19
  20. 20. • Response from: – sender: involves conscious and unconscious demand towards verbal and non-verbal signal such as face expression, physical signal or behavior changes 20
  21. 21. • receiver: gives feedback to sender by channeling information consciously, clearly and with minimum barrier 21
  22. 22. • Channel is selected based on: – target audience or message receiver – message type 22
  23. 23. TYPE OFCOMMUNICATION1. Mass communication2. Organizational communication3. Group communication4. Dyadic Communication 23
  24. 24. Mass communicationCHARACTERISTICS: i. The size of the target audience is normally big, heterogeneous, and anonymous ii. Message is channel publicly i. Reach big audience and the same time 24
  25. 25. iii. Communicator operates in a complex organization with high operation cost 25
  26. 26. Organizational communication• Interdependence process between individual,exchanging and interpreting message• Main aim: – to achieve organization objective 26
  27. 27. Group communication• Benefits of large group: – Various skill, ability and knowledge – More energy in solving problem or conducting activity – Meeting various members that are different in term of knowledge and personality 27
  28. 28. Small groupCommunication…Weaknesses: possibility of the existence of a subgroup different degrees of involvement in communication Dominated by talkative members 28
  29. 29.  The bigger the group the higher the needs of having a leader Possibility of leader to over rules group function Difficult to achieve consensus among members 29
  30. 30. Dyadic Communication• Also known as interpersonal communication.• source and receiver send and receive information exclusively 30
  31. 31. • is simply a method of communication that only involves two people such as a telephone conversation or even a set of letters sent to and received from a pen-pal. 31
  32. 32. • In this communication process, sender can immediately receive and evaluate feedback from the receiver.• thus, it allows for more specific tailoring of the message and more personal communication that do many of the other media. 32
  34. 34. Lasswell Model (1948)• classic outline of the study of communication• Questions describing communications: – Who? – Says what? – In which channel? – To whom? – With what effect? 34
  35. 35. The Mathematical Theory of Communication Shahnon & Weaver (1949)• Based on mathematic concept• Premises: – Sources produce information which can be communicated verbally, or by written communication, music, picture – Transmitter: interpret message into signal to receiver 35
  36. 36. – example: chatting • Information source: Brain/Presumably a person who creates a message • Transmitter: Voice 36
  37. 37.  Receiver produces feedback by interpreting message Destination: Presumably a person who consumes and processes the message 37
  38. 38. Chart 3: The MathematicalTheory of CommunicationInformation transmitter receiver destinationsource signal Received message signal message Noise source 38
  39. 39. Shahnon & Weaver (1949)• Introducing concepts of: – Entropy : A measure of the loss of information in a transmitted message – Redundancy: Repetition of parts or all of a message to circumvent transmission errors / redundant or excessive 39
  40. 40. – If there are obstacles in communication channel, thus there would be a higher need to redundancy, to reduce entropy• Communication can be enhanced when Entropy & redundancy are equal 40
  41. 41. Model Schramm (1954) • Introducing three (3) communication models Source Encoder Signal Decoder Destination1 First model: communication is assumed as an interaction between two people 41
  42. 42. Second Model: main assumption; communication is effective when information are shared between sender and receiver Field of experience Field of experience2 source encoder signal decoder destination 42
  43. 43. Message Encoder Decoder3 Interpreter Interpreter Decoder Message Encoder Third Model: both, sender and receiver interact by encoding, interpreting, re-coding, sending and receiving information/message 43
  44. 44. Newcomb Symmetry ModelTheodare Newcomb (1953)• states that communication as an aspect of social psychology which study interaction among persons. 44
  45. 45. • Regards as an easy model – Assume: • A sending information to B about something, which is X • A behavior towards B and X is interdependence • X: regards as an object to approach or to avoid 45
  46. 46. SOMETHING (X)INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL A B Graph 5: Newcomb Symmetry Model 46
  47. 47. Communicationbarriers1. Vocabulary2. Relationship between words3. Selective observation4. Failure in giving feedback5. Bipolar thinking6. Bypassing: giving information in one short7. Judgment tendency 47
  48. 48. COMMUNICATION & COMMUNITY• COMMUNICATION BASIC ROLE: 1. convey message to individual, group and community in order to gain: • Knowledge • Experience • information 48
  49. 49. • Communication function in increasing development growth• Mass Media Communication.• Changes: introducing new values 49
  50. 50. new behavior in line with modernization introducing new skillnew knowledge 50
  51. 51. - Knowledge source - Gives new sight by exposing the audience about experience2. Enhance the degree of aspiration or the need to be developed 51
  52. 52. 4. Tendency to involve in policy-making process5. Reform power structure in a traditional community by providing knowledge to the public 52
  53. 53. 6. Help people to find new values or norms as well as harmonization in certain period of time7. Enhance patriotism value8. Help public to realize their right and their importance in community 53
  54. 54. 9. Enable to plan and to conduct development programs which in line with people10. Making economic, social and political development as continuous process 54
  55. 55. Schramm states there are three main functions of communication in social changes: i. Convey national agenda or nation building aspiration to public 55
  56. 56. ii. Chances to the public to involve in d decision-making processiii. Educating workforce that are suitable with nation needs in line 56