Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Communication
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Communication

842

Published on

Communication regards as a transactional process/model. It is a process of delivering message from source/sender to receiver.

Communication regards as a transactional process/model. It is a process of delivering message from source/sender to receiver.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
842
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
31
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. COMMUNICATION 1
  • 2. SMILE: A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE 2
  • 3. DEFINITION COMMUNICATION• regards as a transactional process/model• as a transactional model communication is: – Dynamic – Ongoing process • No start and end points 3
  • 4. – Circle (Circular) • Circle process • Process of delivering message from source/sender to receiver • Both sender and receiver have their own role and are influencing each other 4
  • 5. – Non-repetitive – reaction & response can be repeated but not exactly in the same way as before – A word once spoken cannot be taken back 5
  • 6. Definition• two-way process, and have behavior impact – Source with intention encoding & sending message through selected channel to receiver aiming to produce certain behavior. 6
  • 7. Chart 1 : Communication elementsSource Message Channel Receiver Feedback (Source: Mohd Baharudin Othman & Mohd Khairie Ahmad, 2003) 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Source/SenderSource/sender: •Refers to an individual or a group or person that sends information 9
  • 10. FUNCTIONS:• encoding message • source exchange message into verbal or nonverbal symbol 10
  • 11. • determine intention/ select communication channel to deliver/convey message• interpret message which delivered by the sender 11
  • 12. • ensure message is received by the receiver• interpret feedback• will re-encode message in case the receiver fail to 12
  • 13. Message• derives from encode process• a set of symbol (verbal/non-verbal) or content of information sent by sender of message. 13
  • 14. • Selected verbal or nonverbal symbol gives a specific meaning to receiver• verbal or non-verbal behavior may enhance the meaning of the given message 14
  • 15. Channel• A medium used to convey information from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver• Communication channels can be categorized into two main categories: Direct and Indirect channels of communication 15
  • 16. • example: i. face to face communication, ii. letter iii. magazine iv. radio v. e-mail vi. telephone vii. chatting room) internet 16
  • 17. • Channel is selected based on: – target audience or message receiver – message type 17
  • 18. Receiver • Refers to an individual or a group or person that receive information from sender/source of message• Function: – Decode a message: • is the reverse of encoding, which is the process of transforming information from one format into another 18
  • 19. Feedback• Purpose of feedback is to change and alter messages so the intention of the sender is understood by the receiver of the message.• Sender and receiver share response 19
  • 20. • Response from: – sender: involves conscious and unconscious demand towards verbal and non-verbal signal such as face expression, physical signal or behavior changes 20
  • 21. • receiver: gives feedback to sender by channeling information consciously, clearly and with minimum barrier 21
  • 22. • Channel is selected based on: – target audience or message receiver – message type 22
  • 23. TYPE OFCOMMUNICATION1. Mass communication2. Organizational communication3. Group communication4. Dyadic Communication 23
  • 24. Mass communicationCHARACTERISTICS: i. The size of the target audience is normally big, heterogeneous, and anonymous ii. Message is channel publicly i. Reach big audience and the same time 24
  • 25. iii. Communicator operates in a complex organization with high operation cost 25
  • 26. Organizational communication• Interdependence process between individual,exchanging and interpreting message• Main aim: – to achieve organization objective 26
  • 27. Group communication• Benefits of large group: – Various skill, ability and knowledge – More energy in solving problem or conducting activity – Meeting various members that are different in term of knowledge and personality 27
  • 28. Small groupCommunication…Weaknesses: possibility of the existence of a subgroup different degrees of involvement in communication Dominated by talkative members 28
  • 29.  The bigger the group the higher the needs of having a leader Possibility of leader to over rules group function Difficult to achieve consensus among members 29
  • 30. Dyadic Communication• Also known as interpersonal communication.• source and receiver send and receive information exclusively 30
  • 31. • is simply a method of communication that only involves two people such as a telephone conversation or even a set of letters sent to and received from a pen-pal. 31
  • 32. • In this communication process, sender can immediately receive and evaluate feedback from the receiver.• thus, it allows for more specific tailoring of the message and more personal communication that do many of the other media. 32
  • 33. MODELS OFCOMMUNICATION 33
  • 34. Lasswell Model (1948)• classic outline of the study of communication• Questions describing communications: – Who? – Says what? – In which channel? – To whom? – With what effect? 34
  • 35. The Mathematical Theory of Communication Shahnon & Weaver (1949)• Based on mathematic concept• Premises: – Sources produce information which can be communicated verbally, or by written communication, music, picture – Transmitter: interpret message into signal to receiver 35
  • 36. – example: chatting • Information source: Brain/Presumably a person who creates a message • Transmitter: Voice 36
  • 37.  Receiver produces feedback by interpreting message Destination: Presumably a person who consumes and processes the message 37
  • 38. Chart 3: The MathematicalTheory of CommunicationInformation transmitter receiver destinationsource signal Received message signal message Noise source 38
  • 39. Shahnon & Weaver (1949)• Introducing concepts of: – Entropy : A measure of the loss of information in a transmitted message – Redundancy: Repetition of parts or all of a message to circumvent transmission errors / redundant or excessive 39
  • 40. – If there are obstacles in communication channel, thus there would be a higher need to redundancy, to reduce entropy• Communication can be enhanced when Entropy & redundancy are equal 40
  • 41. Model Schramm (1954) • Introducing three (3) communication models Source Encoder Signal Decoder Destination1 First model: communication is assumed as an interaction between two people 41
  • 42. Second Model: main assumption; communication is effective when information are shared between sender and receiver Field of experience Field of experience2 source encoder signal decoder destination 42
  • 43. Message Encoder Decoder3 Interpreter Interpreter Decoder Message Encoder Third Model: both, sender and receiver interact by encoding, interpreting, re-coding, sending and receiving information/message 43
  • 44. Newcomb Symmetry ModelTheodare Newcomb (1953)• states that communication as an aspect of social psychology which study interaction among persons. 44
  • 45. • Regards as an easy model – Assume: • A sending information to B about something, which is X • A behavior towards B and X is interdependence • X: regards as an object to approach or to avoid 45
  • 46. SOMETHING (X)INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL A B Graph 5: Newcomb Symmetry Model 46
  • 47. Communicationbarriers1. Vocabulary2. Relationship between words3. Selective observation4. Failure in giving feedback5. Bipolar thinking6. Bypassing: giving information in one short7. Judgment tendency 47
  • 48. COMMUNICATION & COMMUNITY• COMMUNICATION BASIC ROLE: 1. convey message to individual, group and community in order to gain: • Knowledge • Experience • information 48
  • 49. • Communication function in increasing development growth• Mass Media Communication.• Changes: introducing new values 49
  • 50. new behavior in line with modernization introducing new skillnew knowledge 50
  • 51. - Knowledge source - Gives new sight by exposing the audience about experience2. Enhance the degree of aspiration or the need to be developed 51
  • 52. 4. Tendency to involve in policy-making process5. Reform power structure in a traditional community by providing knowledge to the public 52
  • 53. 6. Help people to find new values or norms as well as harmonization in certain period of time7. Enhance patriotism value8. Help public to realize their right and their importance in community 53
  • 54. 9. Enable to plan and to conduct development programs which in line with people10. Making economic, social and political development as continuous process 54
  • 55. Schramm states there are three main functions of communication in social changes: i. Convey national agenda or nation building aspiration to public 55
  • 56. ii. Chances to the public to involve in d decision-making processiii. Educating workforce that are suitable with nation needs in line 56
  • 57. THANK YOU AND WASSALAM 57

×