Basic Human Rights
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of rights </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of rights </li></ul><ul><li>D...
Introduction  <ul><li>Basic human right is a concept that can be related to every race, religion, belief, culture and coun...
Introduction   <ul><li>What is right? </li></ul><ul><li>Without that rights, individuals are controlled by their master.  ...
Introduction  <ul><li>Examples:  </li></ul><ul><li>If one has a right to live, this means that others do not have the libe...
The definition of right. <ul><li>Donelly (1985) highlighted two (2) concepts of right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>politics and ...
The definition of right. <ul><li>The definition of right (A.C Kapur): </li></ul><ul><li>Rights come from society and withi...
The definition of right.   <ul><li>The definition of right (in Islam) </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabic word, “hak” or “haqq” m...
The definition of right. <ul><li>Haqq used in Quranic language has the same meaning with “obligation”. </li></ul><ul><li>A...
The classification of right. <ul><li>Generally, there are two (2) classifications of rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive ri...
The classification of right. <ul><li>Positive rights: </li></ul><ul><li>●  rights which are guaranteed by a country (gover...
The classification of right. <ul><li>Negative rights: </li></ul><ul><li>●  Two (2) central beliefs: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  ...
The classification of right.   <ul><li>Individual rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Western human rights stress on individualisms ...
The classification of right. <ul><li>Natural rights got criticism because it denies the importance of society; human socia...
The classification of right.   <ul><li>Collective rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Marxism or socialism prioritized the roles of ...
The classification of right. <ul><li>In the tradition of Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucius, an individual is seen a...
The classification of right. <ul><li>Individual and collective rights are essential for whole people’s benefits and theref...
Development of Basic human rights <ul><li>The concept of basic human rights- an evolutional process or gradual process. </...
Development of HR: natural rights <ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>●  The first person to develop natural theory ( nat...
Development of HR: Natural rights of Locke and Hobbes <ul><li>Two (2) philosophies: </li></ul><ul><li>Locke’s philosophies...
Development of HR: social contract <ul><li>Civil society has come up with a form of social contract between individuals an...
Development of HR: individualism <ul><li>The individualism right concept has much influenced many events and philosophies....
Development of HR: liberalism vs collectivism <ul><li>The clash between individualism doctrine (liberalism) and collectivi...
Development of HR: Universal HR <ul><li>The influences of individualism and socialism.  </li></ul><ul><li>●  Early efforts...
Socialism and Universal HR <ul><li>The Soviet Union which promotes socialism does not acknowledge the universal declaratio...
Universal human rights.   <ul><li>The rights that are mentioned in the Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights cannot ...
The generation of basic human rights.   <ul><li>There are three (3) generations of basic human rights: </li></ul><ul><li>1...
The generation of basic human rights.   <ul><li>First generation (Generation of civil and political rights) </li></ul><ul>...
The generation of basic rights.   <ul><li>Liberal Democratic Approach- nine (9) things have been highlighted: </li></ul><u...
The generation of basic rights.   <ul><li>5. Across parties and inter-relations in elections. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The fre...
The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>Second generation (economic, social and cultural rights) </li></ul><ul><li>●  bega...
The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>It is based on Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights, article 22-27 which in...
The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>Third generation (solidarity) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of four (4) rights which ...
The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>According to Weston, there are six (6) forms of basic human rights of the third ge...
Basic freedom and democracy <ul><li>Basic freedom is a kind of right that every citizen or person under a democratic rule ...
Basic freedom.   <ul><li>Robert A. Dahl explained: </li></ul><ul><li>●  democracy does not merely depend on one form of co...
Basic freedom.   <ul><li>C.F Strong explained: </li></ul><ul><li>●  democracy is a form of government that depends on the ...
Basic freedom.   <ul><li>John Locke in his writing, “Second Treatise on Civil Government” (1690), </li></ul><ul><li>●  con...
Basic freedom.   <ul><li>Joseph Raz in his book, “The Moarality of Freedom” (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>●  the identification...
Basic freedom. <ul><li>John Stuart Mill saw freedom from the perspective of the relationship between individuals and their...
Basic freedom.   <ul><li>Those of Marxism see freedom as a way to: </li></ul><ul><li>●  to free those who are oppressed by...
Basic freedom.   <ul><li>Amartya Sen laid down five (five) important mechanism about the meaning of freedom: </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>3. Social opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Social arrangement made by the society in order to get education, good he...
<ul><li>4. Truthfulness assurance </li></ul><ul><li>People are free to deal with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent ...
In conclusion… <ul><li>The development of ideas concerning basic human rights are manifested from liberalism thoughts unti...
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Basic Human Rights

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Basic human right is a concept that can be related to every race, religion, belief, culture and country. Basic human right is aspiration of every individual to achieve happiness in their live.

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Basic Human Rights

  1. 1. Basic Human Rights
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of rights </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of rights </li></ul><ul><li>Development of basic Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Development of HR: Universality of Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Development of HR: Three Generations of HR </li></ul><ul><li>Basic rights and Democracy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Basic human right is a concept that can be related to every race, religion, belief, culture and country. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic human right is aspiration of every individual to achieve happiness in their live. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of basic human rights shows the need to for: </li></ul><ul><li>● safety in life </li></ul><ul><li>● better self-protection </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>What is right? </li></ul><ul><li>Without that rights, individuals are controlled by their master. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more than demands, it is a value a person needs in order to protect himself so that he can keep his life and improve it as well as develop his personality (Hakim Stayton). </li></ul><ul><li>● Rights imply obligation of another individual and community not to inhibit actions of individuals and even need to help them. </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s right to do something indicates that there are another person’s as well as society’s responsibilities to support what is being done by each of them. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>If one has a right to live, this means that others do not have the liberty to murder him. </li></ul><ul><li>If one has a right within a society to a free education, this means that other members of that society have an obligation to pay taxes in order to pay the costs of that educational right. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The definition of right. <ul><li>Donelly (1985) highlighted two (2) concepts of right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>politics and moral significations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a right is seen as a moral truth that “its is not a good thing to do” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a right is also seen as appropriateness as in the demand ‘I have the rights to .. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Milne (1986) classified rights into three (3) categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom – woman rights on property in Negeri Sembilan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral- obligation to individual and community </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The definition of right. <ul><li>The definition of right (A.C Kapur): </li></ul><ul><li>Rights come from society and within society </li></ul><ul><li>Every right has certain responsibility. Your rights is my obligation/duty. </li></ul><ul><li>A right is not a claim. It is embedded socially. </li></ul><ul><li>A right must be in line with public interest. </li></ul><ul><li>A country does not build up rights -> it only preserves and coordinates rights which are socially used. </li></ul><ul><li>A right must be clear and precise, especially in defining it. </li></ul><ul><li>A right tends to develop. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The definition of right. <ul><li>The definition of right (in Islam) </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabic word, “hak” or “haqq” means: </li></ul><ul><li>● “ real fact” or “truth” </li></ul><ul><li>● in terms of shariah (hukm): “truth” or anything which is related to facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmad Jalal Hammad on the other hand saw “right” (hak), “strength”, and “claim” as of other definitions that are more prominent than “haqq”. </li></ul><ul><li>Mohd Imarah: human rights in Islam are not only propagated but must be implemented and protected in individual, society and government levels. It is a sin to violate them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The definition of right. <ul><li>Haqq used in Quranic language has the same meaning with “obligation”. </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Darini summarized the definition of “haqq” as: </li></ul><ul><li>● a specific reward or the enforcement of control over something or a claim to other party which allowed by the shariah whose objective is to get certain interest. </li></ul><ul><li>● the most important thing is that it must guarantee the interest and welfare of Muslims collectively. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The classification of right. <ul><li>Generally, there are two (2) classifications of rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive rights and negative rights </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights and collective rights (which one first individual or collective) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The classification of right. <ul><li>Positive rights: </li></ul><ul><li>● rights which are guaranteed by a country (government) </li></ul><ul><li>● expectations about what one can do or receive or how one will be treated. </li></ul><ul><li>● rights for welfare matters such as education, economy, employment, and social safety. </li></ul><ul><li>● they need the interference of the government or state. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The classification of right. <ul><li>Negative rights: </li></ul><ul><li>● Two (2) central beliefs: </li></ul><ul><li>1. People can have a right to something they do not actively claim or for which the state would not back them up. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Those rights are derived from some sources other than the power of enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedoms to voice up opinions, to own properties, to live, to join organizations, and freedom to practice certain religion. </li></ul><ul><li>These freedoms are absolute rights of every individual. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The classification of right. <ul><li>Individual rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Western human rights stress on individualisms during revival era/enlightenment and religious war 17 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Locke explained: </li></ul><ul><li>● an individual has inseparable rights as a human being and </li></ul><ul><li>● the government should respect those rights </li></ul><ul><li>Locke: Natural rights for life, freedom/independence and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Individualists’ tradition has become the inspiration for the formation of civil rights and political rights for the formation of civil and political rights: freedom of religion, expression, to vote. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The classification of right. <ul><li>Natural rights got criticism because it denies the importance of society; human social responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>In 19-20 th century, the strongest criticism to natural laws theories came from legal positivism doctrine; the source of laws is positive and living laws, although they are against human rights principles. According to legal positivism, rights only exist with enactment and enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 19 th century, civil freedom developed and it was related to the rights to involve in politics such as: </li></ul><ul><li>● the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>● the right to vote indicates that an individual should be given the right to participate in the state’s decision-making processes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The classification of right. <ul><li>Collective rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Marxism or socialism prioritized the roles of the state towards contributing any form of public interest to people. </li></ul><ul><li>Third-world countries are said to have upheld basic human rights collectively because: </li></ul><ul><li>● cultures, customs, and religions are tied down to society. </li></ul><ul><li>● this allows matters related to society or collectivity to be stressed on. </li></ul><ul><li>● compared to individual rights separately. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The classification of right. <ul><li>In the tradition of Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucius, an individual is seen as tied down to his society. </li></ul><ul><li>Societies in Asia stress on Asian values: </li></ul><ul><li>● They regard community and family as the most important instruments in a country. </li></ul><ul><li>● The authorities or leaders are respected. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The classification of right. <ul><li>Individual and collective rights are essential for whole people’s benefits and therefore both rights should be balanced. </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations (UN) has acknowledged these two rights to diversify the characteristics and positions of human rights. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Development of Basic human rights <ul><li>The concept of basic human rights- an evolutional process or gradual process. </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of thoughts about human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>● Paine: since the existence of human beings </li></ul><ul><li>● Other scholars: since Greek and Rome ages which were brought by those of Greek Stoicism who stressed on natural law concept. </li></ul><ul><li>● Religion: Islam-> The Qur’an has defined it since the 17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>● Donelly (1989) and western philosophers -> There are no human rights in religions but they are regarded as duties entitled to the ruler and every individual. </li></ul><ul><li>■ A religion plays the role to strengthen human rights </li></ul>
  19. 19. Development of HR: natural rights <ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>● The first person to develop natural theory ( natural law) </li></ul><ul><li>● This theory is seen as the source of doctrine on human rights: </li></ul><ul><li>-> every human being has natural right to live freely and to own properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>● rejected the right to own properties </li></ul><ul><li>● focused on happiness </li></ul>
  20. 20. Development of HR: Natural rights of Locke and Hobbes <ul><li>Two (2) philosophies: </li></ul><ul><li>Locke’s philosophies: </li></ul><ul><li>● Human rights are so effective. </li></ul><ul><li>● Every member of the society respects those rights. </li></ul><ul><li>● Example: France Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hobbesian philosophies: </li></ul><ul><li>● Individual rights gain less respects </li></ul><ul><li>● They depend on the needs of individuals themselves </li></ul><ul><li>● They encourage monarchy system and statism </li></ul>
  21. 21. Development of HR: social contract <ul><li>Civil society has come up with a form of social contract between individuals and the state. </li></ul><ul><li>A state can only be given the right to enforce the natural rights, not the state’s rights. </li></ul><ul><li>The failure of the country to preserve the rights opens the door for people to start up revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>■ (Weston 1984: 258) </li></ul><ul><li>Social contract-> two parties are supposed to complement each other with what was agreed upon and thus they need to respect it. </li></ul><ul><li>Locke had introduced individualistic theories to challenge absolute power of the kings and the sovereignty of the Parliament. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Development of HR: individualism <ul><li>The individualism right concept has much influenced many events and philosophies. </li></ul><ul><li>France Revolution: focused on three (3) things related to natural rights which are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>2. Equality </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fraternity </li></ul><ul><li>American Revolution: every human being is created with equal gift from the Creator along with undeniable rights such as the rights to live, to have freedom and to be happy. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Development of HR: liberalism vs collectivism <ul><li>The clash between individualism doctrine (liberalism) and collectivism (socialism). </li></ul><ul><li>Marx- individual rights are abstract (regarding bourgeois rights) </li></ul><ul><li>● Capitalist system consists of two (2) classes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. employer class: bourgeois </li></ul><ul><li>2. employee class: proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>● An individual will know his rights when the objectives of communism are met. </li></ul><ul><li>● Through revolution, the proletariats defeated the bourgeoisies. </li></ul><ul><li>● In the end, socialism was formed. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Development of HR: Universal HR <ul><li>The influences of individualism and socialism. </li></ul><ul><li>● Early efforts to form universal basic human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>● For example, by forming the organization of United Nations (UN). </li></ul><ul><li>● Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights was made in 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>■ as a minimal standard that should be obtained by every international society formed in 1948. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Socialism and Universal HR <ul><li>The Soviet Union which promotes socialism does not acknowledge the universal declaration because it does not agree on it: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The guarantee of basic freedom for every human being is linked to the sovereignty of a certain state. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The guarantee of basic human rights will be practiced in the fields of economy, social and national atmosphere which usually can be found in every country. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A definition to represent the citizens’ duties to the country, people and government. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Universal human rights. <ul><li>The rights that are mentioned in the Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights cannot be accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights that upheld by a large number of developing countries or third-word countries such as the rights to be free to practice certain religion, individual freedom and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries in Asia and Africa do not acknowledge universal standard of basic human rights in the Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>They show that there is a clash between universalism and relativism. </li></ul><ul><li>● Basic Human Rights are not yet universal. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The generation of basic human rights. <ul><li>There are three (3) generations of basic human rights: </li></ul><ul><li>1. First generation (liberte - liberty) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Second generation (egalite – equality) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Third generation (fraternite – solidarity) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The generation of basic human rights. <ul><li>First generation (Generation of civil and political rights) </li></ul><ul><li>● Focuses on civil and political rights </li></ul><ul><li>● During the 17 th and 18 th centuries that were related to English Revolution, American Revolution and France Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>● Resulted from: </li></ul><ul><li>-> the thoughts of political individualism and liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>-> economic and social doctrines, laissez faire </li></ul><ul><li>● Negative basic human rights (the freedom to do something) </li></ul><ul><li>● Stresses on non-interference efforts by the government </li></ul>
  29. 29. The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>Liberal Democratic Approach- nine (9) things have been highlighted: </li></ul><ul><li>The power is left in the hands of chosen officers. </li></ul><ul><li>The restriction of executive power by the constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures, ethnicity, religion and minority groups are not prevented from voicing up their importance in political processes and from using their cultures and languages. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>5. Across parties and inter-relations in elections. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The freedom to involve in societies and pluralism, the existence of alternative information sources. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Individuals have freedom to believe, to express their views, to present their discussions, to give speeches, to produce/publish, to gather, to demonstrate and to make petition. </li></ul><ul><li>8. People with respect to politics are treated equally in terms of law. </li></ul><ul><li>9. The implementation of law to protect people. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>Second generation (economic, social and cultural rights) </li></ul><ul><li>● began during early 19 th century through socialistic tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>● they were more related to economic, social and cultural rights. </li></ul><ul><li>● came out of dissatisfactions over the development of capitalism which was based on individual freedom concept that this concept allows exploitation on working-class people and colonized society. </li></ul><ul><li>● they were more towards positive rights. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>It is based on Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights, article 22-27 which include: </li></ul><ul><li>● the rights for social safety, the rights to work and the rights for the guarantee from being unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>● the rights to rest and take a break including remunerative vacation, good health, the peace in oneself and his family. </li></ul><ul><li>● the rights for education, and </li></ul><ul><li>● the rights to get protection from being scientific, literature and artistic products. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs the roles of the government because there are claims of different of material needs. </li></ul><ul><li>● this leads to the focus on equality concept. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>Third generation (solidarity) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of four (4) rights which are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. right for development </li></ul><ul><li>2. right for healthy environment and balanced ecology </li></ul><ul><li>3. right for peace, and </li></ul><ul><li>4. right for inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Vasak explained: </li></ul><ul><li>● this generation can be considered new, meaning it might be questioned to the state. </li></ul><ul><li>● but it can only be realized through collective actions by all the members in the society, either individuals, their state, the government, private sector or international society at large. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The generation of basic rights. <ul><li>According to Weston, there are six (6) forms of basic human rights of the third generation (article 28 in the Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights). </li></ul><ul><li>● it requires every person to follow social values (tata) in order for the mentioned rights in the declaration can be executed. </li></ul><ul><li>● three (3) of the rights affected the nationalism resurrection of the third-world countries and revolution. Right to determine eco-pol-soc-culture; scientific; heritage </li></ul><ul><li>● the rest of three (3) rights are the rights for peace, healthy environment and balanced ecology as well as right for humane aid. </li></ul><ul><li>● all six (6) rights are collective rights, NOT individual rights. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Basic freedom and democracy <ul><li>Basic freedom is a kind of right that every citizen or person under a democratic rule should have. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy is a system that gives chances to people to involve themselves in decision making and policy making. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Basic freedom. <ul><li>Robert A. Dahl explained: </li></ul><ul><li>● democracy does not merely depend on one form of competition and political involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>● anyway, democracy also includes basic freedom up to certain level. </li></ul><ul><li>● freedom to voice up opinions, to express views, for press, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>● this allows people to form or to show their political tendencies for meaningful things. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Basic freedom. <ul><li>C.F Strong explained: </li></ul><ul><li>● democracy is a form of government that depends on the majority consent and disapproval. </li></ul><ul><li>● the people can also take part in the ruling matters through their representatives and people with sovereignty. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Basic freedom. <ul><li>John Locke in his writing, “Second Treatise on Civil Government” (1690), </li></ul><ul><li>● considers some of the rights for basic freedom as natural </li></ul><ul><li>● among the rights for basic freedom are rights not to be murdered, to be made slave, to be tortured, or to be in the state of poverty by the ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>● the ruler is also responsible to preserve individual basic freedom because civil society and its government are formed based on the principles of public interest. </li></ul><ul><li>-> human beings must be ready and willing to obey the ruler and accept any majority decision so that their properties can be protected. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Basic freedom. <ul><li>Joseph Raz in his book, “The Moarality of Freedom” (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>● the identification of basic freedom relies on how the government sees and evaluates public interest. </li></ul><ul><li>● freedom must have the reason to give privileged protection for individuals’ benefits and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>● at the same times, it must preserve public interest that is an aspect of public society’s culture. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Basic freedom. <ul><li>John Stuart Mill saw freedom from the perspective of the relationship between individuals and their country. </li></ul><ul><li>● an individual should be lived freely </li></ul><ul><li>● a state should involve in individual freedom according to two (2) reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1. an individual’s action is not a responsibility of other people as along as the action is only for his own advantage and it does not involve other people. </li></ul><ul><li>2. an action that can be questioned its interest for other people. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Basic freedom. <ul><li>Those of Marxism see freedom as a way to: </li></ul><ul><li>● to free those who are oppressed by economy. </li></ul><ul><li>● economic equality can be achieved when there is a revolution done by the proletariats to stop the oppression of the bourgeoisies. </li></ul><ul><li>● absolute freedom can only be gained if people support communism. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Basic freedom. <ul><li>Amartya Sen laid down five (five) important mechanism about the meaning of freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Political freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Known as civil right. </li></ul><ul><li>A chance for people to decide who to be the ruler and the ruling principles. </li></ul><ul><li>● Example: freedom to choose different parties, freedom to involve in societies. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Economic opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>A chance given to individuals to enjoy the economic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic rights given. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>3. Social opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Social arrangement made by the society in order to get education, good health etc. </li></ul><ul><li>To get better life and the involvement in political and economic activities. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>4. Truthfulness assurance </li></ul><ul><li>People are free to deal with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent bribes, and to increase accountability etc. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Safety guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>To provide social safeguard in order to avoid famine, destitution etc. </li></ul>
  45. 45. In conclusion… <ul><li>The development of ideas concerning basic human rights are manifested from liberalism thoughts until a declaration was formed which was called Universal Declaration of Basic Human Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Without denying beliefs and religions, individual rights and basic freedom brought by liberal thoughts succeed to institutionalize those basic human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though humans’ cruelty and vindictiveness cannot be controlled totally all over the world, efforts to uphold basic human rights should be continued for the harmony of the next generation. </li></ul>
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