AN INTRODUCTION TO  SOCIAL SCIENCE                     1
INTRODUCTION The scientific study of organized human groups is  a relatively recent development, but a vast  amount of in...
 Scientific knowledge is a knowledge that  has     been      systematically   gathered,  classified, related and interpre...
 Social science – is taught in diverse ways.     some courses take a global perspective     some an anthropological persp...
Definition Social Sciences are the fields of human knowledge that deal with all aspects of the group life of human beings....
 However, Social Sciences are most concerned  with those basic elements of culture that  determine the general patterns o...
Components of Social Sciences:Anthropology – is the study of relationship  between biological traits and socially acquired...
Sociology – is the systematic study of   relationshipamong people. Sociologists assume that behavior isinfluenced by peopl...
Geography – is the study of the natural environment and how it influence social and cultural development.  Concerns of geo...
 History – is the study of past events. It is a social  science in the sense that it is a systematic attempt to  learn ab...
 Economics – is the study of the ways in which men  and women make a living, the most pressing problem  most human beings...
 Some of the topics includes are: 1. Supply and demand 2. Monetary and fiscal policy 3. Costs 4. Inflation 5. Unempl...
 Political Science – is the study of social arrangments  to maintain peace and order within a given society. It deals wi...
 Psychology – deals with the mind and personality of  the individual. It is a social science because humans  are social c...
 To understand society is to learn not only the  conditions that limit ourselves, but also the  opportunities open to us ...
 The humanities deal special aspects of human culture  and primarily concerned with our attempts to express  spiritual an...
 Increasing our knowledge of human society is as  important as learning more about mathematics,  physics, chemistry or en...
Major steps in Scientific Inquiry Observation: All scientific knowledge relates to  the natural environment and all knowl...
Approaches in Social Sciences Define the problem Review the literature review Develop a theoretical framework and formu...
1. Define the Problem  this one is probably the most important. If you  have carefully defined your terms, you can save  a...
2. Literature Review  knowledge of the relevant literature is essential  because    it    provides    background,     sugg...
3. Develop a Theoretical Framework  make a statement predicting your results and  them clarify what each of the terms in t...
4. Choose a research design  pick a means of gathering data, a survey, an  experiment,      an    observational   study,  ...
5. Collecting the necessary data  Data are what one collects from careful observation.  Your conclusion will be only as go...
7. Drawing conclusions  Now you can prepare a report, summarizing the steps  you have followed and discussing what you hav...
6. Analyzing the results   when all data are in classify facts, identify trends,  recognize relationships and tabulate the...
Typical Method in Social Science The historical method relies heavily on a study of  their (subjects) historical backgrou...
 The comparative and cross-cultural methods  was formerly often employed in the hope of  discovering evolutionary sequenc...
Difference between Theories and                 Concepts Concepts   a generalized idea about people, objects or processes...
 Concepts    are used to simply the way people think   and    communicate.                                               ...
 Concepts are used by social scientists to generalize  about some aspects of human interaction. They are guidelines that...
 Theories  - a set of principles or concepts and generalizations so  arranged that they explain and predict possible  rel...
 Theories    - founded on observation and analysis   using    the vocabulary of concepts    -intent to explain the connec...
- without theories the accumulation of knowledge would be  impossible, just as the   formulation of      theories would  b...
Theories of Social sciences The Theory of Evolution assumes that the  changes in any society are uniform based on  fixed ...
Theory of Evolution Darwin’s Theory of Evolution – is based on 5 key  observation and inferences.1. Species have great fe...
3. Food resources are limited but are relatively   constant most of the time.4. In sexually reproducing species, generally...
 From this it may be inferred. In a world of  stable populations where each individual  must struggle to survive, those w...
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution1. Variation           – There is a variation in every population2. Competition         – Orga...
AUGUST COMTE (1798-1857)Suggested the idea that human thought aredivided to 3 categories:i. Theology - whereby the thought...
ii. Metaphysic   -thoughts that are influenced by     abstract idea which is gathered from     incident and physical pheno...
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)   Assumed of the existence of equal evolutionary    process between biological organisms and ...
   The fittest will survive in the process while    the weak will be eliminated naturally    according to the law of natu...
Lewis Henry Morgan (1818- 1881)   popularized Cultural Evolution Theory   Made assumptions that any society can be divid...
 Savagery - society which lives as nomads and  indulge in hunting and food gathering Barbarisme - society which lives on...
Karl Marx (1818-1883) &Frederick Engels (1820-1895)   Influenced by Morgan’s ideas but more focused    on material change...
CONCLUSION Man kind need to understand and observe  the importance of social sciences Knowledge based society will be be...
 Have a nice day!                     48
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An Introduction To Social Science

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The scientific study of organized human groups is a relatively recent development, but a vast amount of information has been accumulated concerning the social life of human beings.

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An Introduction To Social Science

  1. 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The scientific study of organized human groups is a relatively recent development, but a vast amount of information has been accumulated concerning the social life of human beings. This information has been used in building a system of knowledge (called social sciences) about the nature, growth and functioning of human societies. 2
  3. 3.  Scientific knowledge is a knowledge that has been systematically gathered, classified, related and interpreted. 3
  4. 4.  Social science – is taught in diverse ways. some courses take a global perspective some an anthropological perspective some a psychological perspective some a sociological perspective, and some a historical perspective 4
  5. 5. Definition Social Sciences are the fields of human knowledge that deal with all aspects of the group life of human beings. They are closely related to humanities (deals with literature, music, art, and philosophy) because both deal with humans and their culture. 5
  6. 6.  However, Social Sciences are most concerned with those basic elements of culture that determine the general patterns of human behavior. 6
  7. 7. Components of Social Sciences:Anthropology – is the study of relationship between biological traits and socially acquired characteristics. Sometimes called the study of human.1. Physical anthropology2. Cultural anthropology 7
  8. 8. Sociology – is the systematic study of relationshipamong people. Sociologists assume that behavior isinfluenced by people’s social, political, occupationaland intellectual groupings and by the particularsettings in which they find themselves atone timeor another.3 major choices are: 1. Functionalism 2. Conflict 3. Interactionalism 8
  9. 9. Geography – is the study of the natural environment and how it influence social and cultural development. Concerns of geography are: 1. Ecology 2. Climate 3. Resources 4. Accessibility 5. Demography 9
  10. 10.  History – is the study of past events. It is a social science in the sense that it is a systematic attempt to learn about and verify past events and relate them to one another and to the present. The study of history involves: 1. Identifying 2. Classifying 3. Arranging 10
  11. 11.  Economics – is the study of the ways in which men and women make a living, the most pressing problem most human beings face. Its subject matter is often summarized as: 1. Production 2. Distribution 3. Consumption 11
  12. 12.  Some of the topics includes are: 1. Supply and demand 2. Monetary and fiscal policy 3. Costs 4. Inflation 5. Unemployment Economics seeks to explain, guide and predict social arrangements by which we satisfy economic wants. 12
  13. 13.  Political Science – is the study of social arrangments to maintain peace and order within a given society. It deals with government, and its interest are: 1. Politics 2. Laws 3. Adminsitration 4.International Relations 5. Theory of the nature and functions of the state 13
  14. 14.  Psychology – deals with the mind and personality of the individual. It is a social science because humans are social creatures. It focuses on the individual and physical processes such as: 1. Biological structure 2. Development and maturation 14
  15. 15.  To understand society is to learn not only the conditions that limit ourselves, but also the opportunities open to us for improving the human condition. 15
  16. 16.  The humanities deal special aspects of human culture and primarily concerned with our attempts to express spiritual and aesthetic values and discover the meaning of life. Whereas the social sciences study issues in a systematic, scientific way, the focus of the humanities is more on the emotions and feeling themselves than on the system employed to sharpen that focus. 16
  17. 17.  Increasing our knowledge of human society is as important as learning more about mathematics, physics, chemistry or engineering, for unless we can develop societies in which human beings can live happy, meaningful and satisfying lives (incomparable to benefits from learning how make better automobiles etc). Albert Einstein said that “Politics is more difficult than physics and the world is more likely to die from bad politics than from bad physics. 17
  18. 18. Major steps in Scientific Inquiry Observation: All scientific knowledge relates to the natural environment and all knowledge begins with facts gathered through careful observation. Formulation of problem: Collection and classification of more facts: Generalization: Formulation of the hypothesis: Testing the hypothesis: Retesting and reformulating the theory: 18
  19. 19. Approaches in Social Sciences Define the problem Review the literature review Develop a theoretical framework and formulate hypothesis Choose the research design Collect the necessary data Analyze the results Draw conclusion. 19
  20. 20. 1. Define the Problem this one is probably the most important. If you have carefully defined your terms, you can save an enormous amount of energy. Put simply, if you do not know what you are doing, no matter how well you do it then everything is useless. 20
  21. 21. 2. Literature Review knowledge of the relevant literature is essential because it provides background, suggests approaches, indicates what has already been covered and what hasn’t, and saves you from redoing what has already been done. It is a way of using other people’s observation. 21
  22. 22. 3. Develop a Theoretical Framework make a statement predicting your results and them clarify what each of the terms in the statement means within the framework of your research. 22
  23. 23. 4. Choose a research design pick a means of gathering data, a survey, an experiment, an observational study, secondary materials or a combination. Weigh this choice carefully because your plan is the crux of your research process. 23
  24. 24. 5. Collecting the necessary data Data are what one collects from careful observation. Your conclusion will be only as good as your data, so take great care in collecting and especially in recording your data. If you don’t document what you have done, youmight as well not have done it. 24
  25. 25. 7. Drawing conclusions Now you can prepare a report, summarizing the steps you have followed and discussing what you have found. A good findings will relate your conclusions to the existing body of research, suggest where current assumptions may be modified because of nee evidence and possibly identify unanswered questions for further study. 25
  26. 26. 6. Analyzing the results when all data are in classify facts, identify trends, recognize relationships and tabulate the information so that it can be accurately analyzed and interpreted. 26
  27. 27. Typical Method in Social Science The historical method relies heavily on a study of their (subjects) historical background. It traces the principal past developments that seem to have been directly significant in bringing a social situation about. The case method involves making a more detailed examination and analysis of a particular issue or problem situation. 27
  28. 28.  The comparative and cross-cultural methods was formerly often employed in the hope of discovering evolutionary sequence in the development of human institutions that is patterns of social development or progress that would be universal. 28
  29. 29. Difference between Theories and Concepts Concepts a generalized idea about people, objects or processes that are related to one another, an abstract ways of classifying things that are similar. They are ways of classifying things that are in the same categories 29
  30. 30.  Concepts are used to simply the way people think and communicate. 30
  31. 31.  Concepts are used by social scientists to generalize about some aspects of human interaction. They are guidelines that direct the interpretation and analysis of reality. Concepts are the technical vocabulary of the social sciences, and they have precise meanings that may differ considerably from the generally understood versions. 31
  32. 32.  Theories - a set of principles or concepts and generalizations so arranged that they explain and predict possible relationships among phenomena. In social science, theories are formulation of principles of behavior through which scientists try to increase their knowledge of human interaction. 32
  33. 33.  Theories - founded on observation and analysis using the vocabulary of concepts -intent to explain the connections between and among occurrences in human interaction. 33
  34. 34. - without theories the accumulation of knowledge would be impossible, just as the formulation of theories would be impossible without concepts- Always open to change and even to total rejection if new evidence is presented to challenge them.- In scientific terminology, a theory carries much more weight because it is based on supporting evidence. 34
  35. 35. Theories of Social sciences The Theory of Evolution assumes that the changes in any society are uniform based on fixed rules. Idea of Evolution is often associated with great personalities like Charles Darwin, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx 35
  36. 36. Theory of Evolution Darwin’s Theory of Evolution – is based on 5 key observation and inferences.1. Species have great fertility. They make more offspring than can grow to adulthood.2. Populations remain roughly the same size with modest fluctuations 36
  37. 37. 3. Food resources are limited but are relatively constant most of the time.4. In sexually reproducing species, generally no two individuals are identical. Variations is rampant.5. Much of this variation is heritable. 37
  38. 38.  From this it may be inferred. In a world of stable populations where each individual must struggle to survive, those with the best characteristics will be more likely to survive, and those desirable traits will be passed to their offspring. These advantageous are inherited by following generations, becoming dominant among population through time. This is natural selection. 38
  39. 39. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution1. Variation – There is a variation in every population2. Competition – Organisms compete for limited resources3. Offspring – organisms produce more offspring than can survive4. Genetics - Organisms pass Genetic traits on to their offspring5. Natural Selection – Those organisms with the most beneficial traits are more likely to survive and reproduce. 39
  40. 40. AUGUST COMTE (1798-1857)Suggested the idea that human thought aredivided to 3 categories:i. Theology - whereby the thoughts are influenced by religion and supernatural beliefs. 40
  41. 41. ii. Metaphysic -thoughts that are influenced by abstract idea which is gathered from incident and physical phenomenon.iii. Positivism - man think by using scientific methods to explore the incidents and physical phenomenon around them. 41
  42. 42. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Assumed of the existence of equal evolutionary process between biological organisms and people His idea about the natural social evolution was influenced by Darwin’s idea of “Survival of the Fittest” 42
  43. 43.  The fittest will survive in the process while the weak will be eliminated naturally according to the law of nature Hence, his idea refuses the element of force in human social system 43
  44. 44. Lewis Henry Morgan (1818- 1881) popularized Cultural Evolution Theory Made assumptions that any society can be divided according to 3 levels of survival 44
  45. 45.  Savagery - society which lives as nomads and indulge in hunting and food gathering Barbarisme - society which lives on a particular place and plants for survival Civilization - society which lives on a particular place and starts to use technology 45
  46. 46. Karl Marx (1818-1883) &Frederick Engels (1820-1895) Influenced by Morgan’s ideas but more focused on material changes aspect Evolution happens in the contacts of resource production and mode of production 46
  47. 47. CONCLUSION Man kind need to understand and observe the importance of social sciences Knowledge based society will be better equipped to socializing process A well balanced knowledge about social sciences will ensure the humans existence. 47
  48. 48.  Have a nice day! 48
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