Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 What is Chemistry? —
  2. 2. Properties and Changes of Matter 0 Matter — Anything tangible 0 Chemical — Matter that cannot be changed without changing properties 0 Chemical Reaction - Process by which a chemical is changed.
  3. 3. Physical States of Matter 0 States of Matter — Physical forms of matter — Macroscopic — Seen with unaided eye — Microscopic — Seen WITH aid
  4. 4. Physical States of Matter (con’t) 0 There are 3 states of matter - Solid — Fixed volume and shape - Liquids — Fixed Volume - Gases — No definite Shape or volume 0 Einstein-Bose State and Plasma are two other states that we do not use in this class
  5. 5. Water mnlcctlle. 1170 Water molecule. H30 Water‘ nlI)1<: Clli€. . H30 l , 1' 1 l ‘I. Solid Liquid Cns
  6. 6. Changes in Matter 0 Physical Change - When a substance changes physical states 0 Chemical Change — Changes the identity of the substance (undergoes a Chemical Reaction)
  7. 7. Liquid Gas 4‘V‘4V'' .1 .
  8. 8. lron Red food color Physical Mdlleability Red color property . ——. l Chemical Reactivity with oxygen Reactivity with bleach DVOPQVW
  9. 9. Changes in Matter (Con’t) 0 Chemical Change - Reactants — Starting materials - Products — Ending materials Mercury (ll) Oxide 9 Mercury + Oxygen
  10. 10. Change in Matter (Con’t) 0 Evidence of Chemical Change - The evolution of a gas - The formation of a precipitate - The release of absorption of energy — A color change
  11. 11. l; |l(~: .1 tin monglll t: Icnrrl Tl‘Cl"3.
  12. 12. Chapter 1 Describing Matter —
  13. 13. Matter has mass and volume 0 Volume — Space an object occupies 0 Mass — The amount of matter an object contains 0 Weight — Force produced by gravity acting on mass
  14. 14. Units of Measurement 0 SI System - Length — meters (m) - Mass — kilograms (kg) - Time — seconds (s) — Temperature — Kelvins (K) — Amount — mole (mol)
  15. 15. ‘ . . . i i -A -v-‘- -"- l tint» ' ‘R -A 951- air ’-‘I LII on lt'. eas, .-. elneill_s (coil l. ) Prefixes — Giga — G (109) — Mega — M (105) — Kilo — k (103) - BASE (1) — Meters, grams, liters, seconds
  16. 16. Units of Measurement (con’t) 0 Prefixes - BASE (1) — Meters, grams, liters, seconds - Deci — d (101) - Centi — c (102) — Milli — m (109) — Micro — u(10'9) — Nano — n (109)
  17. 17. Units of Measurement (Con’t) 0 Conversion Factor — simple ratio that relates two units that express measurement of the same amount 1 kg — 1 kg = 1000 g can be written as T 1000 g
  18. 18. Units of Measurement (Con’t) 0 Derived Units — Created by dividing or multiplying base units 0 Eg — Cm3, g/ mL, m/ s
  19. 19. Properties of Matter 0 Physical Properties — Can be determined without changing the substance. — Intensive — independent of sample size — Extensive — Dependent on sample size
  20. 20. Properties of Matter (Con’t) 0 Density — mass per volume, used to identify a substance. D= M/V
  21. 21. Properties of Matter (Con’t) 0 Chemical Properties — What reactions substances will undergo 0 E. g. Iron will rust in the presence of oxygen or water
  22. 22. Chapter 1 How is Matter Classified?
  23. 23. Classifying Matter 10 seconds to define an atom. .. GO! Not so easy, is it? Turns out, it hasn’t been easy for any person or culture
  24. 24. Classifying Matter 0 We will start with a very basic definition 0 Atom — Smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of than element — Note: This will be reexamined in later chapters!
  25. 25. Pure Substances 0 Pure Substance — A single element of compound 0 Element — Atom of a single type 0 Compound — 2 or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
  26. 26. Pure Substances 0 Molecule — 2 or more atoms combined in a definite ratio Pure Substance Compound Molecule
  27. 27. .: -1.17.21 . ... ... ._. aI: Cm hun dmIJc mulcculc. C02 Br; l Brnmmc mulcculc. u 1:»; F - .9! . ._: IP- ("upper ‘alum. Cu
  28. 28. Mixtures 0 Mixture — 2 or more pure substances — Homogenous — uniform composition — Het ---- --- — ' ' '. -- position Mixture Homogenous Heterogeneous Solutions Solid - alloy Liquid
  29. 29. Gold Silver Copper 24-karat gold is pure gold. 14-karat gold is an alloy of gold with silver and copper. l4—karal gold is l4l24. or 58.3%. gold.

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