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Chapter 1

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Used with Holt Chemistry, created using student suggestions

Used with Holt Chemistry, created using student suggestions

Published in: Technology, Education

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 1 What is Chemistry? —
  • 2. Properties and Changes of Matter 0 Matter — Anything tangible 0 Chemical — Matter that cannot be changed without changing properties 0 Chemical Reaction - Process by which a chemical is changed.
  • 3. Physical States of Matter 0 States of Matter — Physical forms of matter — Macroscopic — Seen with unaided eye — Microscopic — Seen WITH aid
  • 4. Physical States of Matter (con’t) 0 There are 3 states of matter - Solid — Fixed volume and shape - Liquids — Fixed Volume - Gases — No definite Shape or volume 0 Einstein-Bose State and Plasma are two other states that we do not use in this class
  • 5. Water mnlcctlle. 1170 Water molecule. H30 Water‘ nlI)1<: Clli€. . H30 l , 1' 1 l ‘I. Solid Liquid Cns
  • 6. Changes in Matter 0 Physical Change - When a substance changes physical states 0 Chemical Change — Changes the identity of the substance (undergoes a Chemical Reaction)
  • 7. Liquid Gas 4‘V‘4V'' .1 .
  • 8. lron Red food color Physical Mdlleability Red color property . ——. l Chemical Reactivity with oxygen Reactivity with bleach DVOPQVW
  • 9. Changes in Matter (Con’t) 0 Chemical Change - Reactants — Starting materials - Products — Ending materials Mercury (ll) Oxide 9 Mercury + Oxygen
  • 10. Change in Matter (Con’t) 0 Evidence of Chemical Change - The evolution of a gas - The formation of a precipitate - The release of absorption of energy — A color change
  • 11. l; |l(~: .1 tin monglll t: Icnrrl Tl‘Cl"3.
  • 12. Chapter 1 Describing Matter —
  • 13. Matter has mass and volume 0 Volume — Space an object occupies 0 Mass — The amount of matter an object contains 0 Weight — Force produced by gravity acting on mass
  • 14. Units of Measurement 0 SI System - Length — meters (m) - Mass — kilograms (kg) - Time — seconds (s) — Temperature — Kelvins (K) — Amount — mole (mol)
  • 15. ‘ . . . i i -A -v-‘- -"- l tint» ' ‘R -A 951- air ’-‘I LII on lt'. eas, .-. elneill_s (coil l. ) Prefixes — Giga — G (109) — Mega — M (105) — Kilo — k (103) - BASE (1) — Meters, grams, liters, seconds
  • 16. Units of Measurement (con’t) 0 Prefixes - BASE (1) — Meters, grams, liters, seconds - Deci — d (101) - Centi — c (102) — Milli — m (109) — Micro — u(10'9) — Nano — n (109)
  • 17. Units of Measurement (Con’t) 0 Conversion Factor — simple ratio that relates two units that express measurement of the same amount 1 kg — 1 kg = 1000 g can be written as T 1000 g
  • 18. Units of Measurement (Con’t) 0 Derived Units — Created by dividing or multiplying base units 0 Eg — Cm3, g/ mL, m/ s
  • 19. Properties of Matter 0 Physical Properties — Can be determined without changing the substance. — Intensive — independent of sample size — Extensive — Dependent on sample size
  • 20. Properties of Matter (Con’t) 0 Density — mass per volume, used to identify a substance. D= M/V
  • 21. Properties of Matter (Con’t) 0 Chemical Properties — What reactions substances will undergo 0 E. g. Iron will rust in the presence of oxygen or water
  • 22. Chapter 1 How is Matter Classified?
  • 23. Classifying Matter 10 seconds to define an atom. .. GO! Not so easy, is it? Turns out, it hasn’t been easy for any person or culture
  • 24. Classifying Matter 0 We will start with a very basic definition 0 Atom — Smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of than element — Note: This will be reexamined in later chapters!
  • 25. Pure Substances 0 Pure Substance — A single element of compound 0 Element — Atom of a single type 0 Compound — 2 or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
  • 26. Pure Substances 0 Molecule — 2 or more atoms combined in a definite ratio Pure Substance Compound Molecule
  • 27. .: -1.17.21 . ... ... ._. aI: Cm hun dmIJc mulcculc. C02 Br; l Brnmmc mulcculc. u 1:»; F - .9! . ._: IP- ("upper ‘alum. Cu
  • 28. Mixtures 0 Mixture — 2 or more pure substances — Homogenous — uniform composition — Het ---- --- — ' ' '. -- position Mixture Homogenous Heterogeneous Solutions Solid - alloy Liquid
  • 29. Gold Silver Copper 24-karat gold is pure gold. 14-karat gold is an alloy of gold with silver and copper. l4—karal gold is l4l24. or 58.3%. gold.