Chapter 8 Describing Chemical Reactions
Making Chili <ul><li>1 lb browned hamburger </li></ul><ul><li>16 oz can tomato sauce </li></ul><ul><li>2 – 16 oz cans of r...
Chemical Reactions <ul><li>A chemical reaction  is the process by which one or more substances change into one or more new...
Chemical Reactions <ul><li>How to make chili </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients + heat    chili </li></ul><ul><li>How to make ...
 
Evidence of a chemical change
Evidence of a chemical change
Evidence of a chemical change
Chemical v. Physical <ul><li>chemical change –  new substance forms with properties that differ from original substance </...
Constructing a Chemical Rxn <ul><li>A chemical equation  shows the chemical formulas and relative amounts of all reactants...
Constructing a Chemical Rxn <ul><li>Word Equation </li></ul><ul><li>methane + oxygen    carbon dioxide + water </li></ul>...
Constructing a Chemical Rxn Other symbols
 
Chapter 8 The Great Balancing Act
 
Think… <ul><li>Law of Conservation of Mass  states that mass cannot be created or destroyed by a chemical or physical chan...
 
Balancing Equations <ul><li>The number of atoms for each element must be the same on the reactants’ side and on the produc...
 
 
Sample Problem <ul><li>Balance the equation for the reaction of iron (III) oxide with hydrogen to form iron and water. </l...
Sample Problem <ul><li>Aluminum reacts with arsenic acid, HAsO 3 , to form H 2  and aluminum arsenate. Write a balanced eq...
Summarize the steps <ul><li>1. NEVER CHANGE CHEMICAL FORMULAS! </li></ul><ul><li>2. Draw a table that shows the number of ...
Chapter 8 Reaction Types
The 5 Reaction Types
Synthesis Reactions In a  synthesis reaction  a single compound forms from two or more reactants.  Two elements form a bin...
 
Decomposition Reactions In a  decomposition reaction  a single compound breaks down, often with the input of energy, into ...
 
 
Sample Problem <ul><li>Predict the product(s) and write a balanced equation for the reaction of potassium with chlorine. <...
Double-Displacement Reactions <ul><li>In a  double-displacement  reaction   two compounds in aqueous solution appear to ex...
 
 
Displacement Reactions In a   displacement reaction   a single element reacts with a compound and displaces another elemen...
 
 
 
Sample Problem <ul><li>Determining Products by Using the Activity Series  Magnesium is added to a solution of lead(II) nit...
Combustion Reactions A  combustion reaction  is a reaction of a carbon based compound with oxygen. Combustion of propane C...
 
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Chapter 8

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Holt Chemistry Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Describing Chemical Reactions
  2. 2. Making Chili <ul><li>1 lb browned hamburger </li></ul><ul><li>16 oz can tomato sauce </li></ul><ul><li>2 – 16 oz cans of red kidney beans </li></ul><ul><li>1 lb chopped onion </li></ul><ul><li>3 chopped green peppers </li></ul><ul><li>3 cloves fresh garlic </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup chili powder </li></ul><ul><li>2 tbsp olive oil </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chemical Reactions <ul><li>A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances change into one or more new substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactants are the original substances in a chemical reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Products are the substances that are created in a chemical reaction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chemical Reactions <ul><li>How to make chili </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients + heat  chili </li></ul><ul><li>How to make water </li></ul><ul><li>2 H 2 + O 2  2 H 2 0 </li></ul>Reactants Products
  5. 6. Evidence of a chemical change
  6. 7. Evidence of a chemical change
  7. 8. Evidence of a chemical change
  8. 9. Chemical v. Physical <ul><li>chemical change – new substance forms with properties that differ from original substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boiling point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>melting point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>physical change - changes of state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>melting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freezing </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Constructing a Chemical Rxn <ul><li>A chemical equation shows the chemical formulas and relative amounts of all reactants and products. </li></ul><ul><li>A word equation contains the names of the reactants and products. </li></ul><ul><li>Equations must be balanced . </li></ul>
  10. 11. Constructing a Chemical Rxn <ul><li>Word Equation </li></ul><ul><li>methane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water </li></ul><ul><li>Formula Equation </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul>
  11. 12. Constructing a Chemical Rxn Other symbols
  12. 14. Chapter 8 The Great Balancing Act
  13. 16. Think… <ul><li>Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass cannot be created or destroyed by a chemical or physical change </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, ALL chemical equations must be balanced . That is, having the same number of atoms on both sides of the arrow </li></ul>
  14. 18. Balancing Equations <ul><li>The number of atoms for each element must be the same on the reactants’ side and on the products’ side. </li></ul><ul><li>A coefficient multiplies the number of atoms of each element in the formula that follows. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O: 2 hydrogen atoms, 1 oxygen atom </li></ul><ul><li>2 H 2 O: 4 hydrogen atoms, 2 oxygen atoms </li></ul>
  15. 21. Sample Problem <ul><li>Balance the equation for the reaction of iron (III) oxide with hydrogen to form iron and water. </li></ul>
  16. 22. Sample Problem <ul><li>Aluminum reacts with arsenic acid, HAsO 3 , to form H 2 and aluminum arsenate. Write a balanced equation for this reaction. </li></ul>
  17. 23. Summarize the steps <ul><li>1. NEVER CHANGE CHEMICAL FORMULAS! </li></ul><ul><li>2. Draw a table that shows the number of atoms before and after the arrow </li></ul><ul><li>3. Change the equation so that the number of each element are the same before and after the equation. Do this by adding COEFFICIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>4. Redo the table to match change, and repeat as needed. </li></ul>
  18. 24. Chapter 8 Reaction Types
  19. 25. The 5 Reaction Types
  20. 26. Synthesis Reactions In a synthesis reaction a single compound forms from two or more reactants. Two elements form a binary compound C + O 2  CO 2 2C + O 2  2CO Two compounds form a ternary compound CaO( s ) + H 2 O( l )  Ca(OH) 2 ( s ) CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l )  H 2 CO 3 (aq )
  21. 28. Decomposition Reactions In a decomposition reaction a single compound breaks down, often with the input of energy, into two or more elements or simpler compounds. Decomposition of water electricity heat CaCO 3 ( s ) CaO( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) A metal carbonate decomposes to form a metal oxide and carbon dioxide. 2H 2 O( l ) O 2 ( g) + 2H 2 ( g )
  22. 31. Sample Problem <ul><li>Predict the product(s) and write a balanced equation for the reaction of potassium with chlorine. </li></ul>
  23. 32. Double-Displacement Reactions <ul><li>In a double-displacement reaction two compounds in aqueous solution appear to exchange ions and form two new compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the products must be a solid precipitate, a gas, or a molecular compound, such as water. </li></ul><ul><li>HCl( aq ) + NaOH( aq )  HOH( l ) + NaCl( aq ) </li></ul>
  24. 35. Displacement Reactions In a displacement reaction a single element reacts with a compound and displaces another element from the compound. 2Al( s ) + 3CuCl 2 ( aq )  2AlCl 3 ( aq ) + 3Cu( s ) Aluminum displaces copper.
  25. 39. Sample Problem <ul><li>Determining Products by Using the Activity Series Magnesium is added to a solution of lead(II) nitrate. Will a reaction happen? If so, write the equation and balance it. </li></ul>
  26. 40. Combustion Reactions A combustion reaction is a reaction of a carbon based compound with oxygen. Combustion of propane C 3 H 8 + 5O 2  3CO 2 + 4H 2 O Combustion of ethanol CH 3 CH 2 OH + 3O 2  2CO 2 + 3H 2 O
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