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Chapter 20
 

Chapter 20

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Used with Holt Chemistry

Used with Holt Chemistry

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    Chapter 20 Chapter 20 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 20 Carbohydrates and Lipids
    • Carbohydrates and Living Systems
      • A monosaccharide (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate.
      • A disaccharide (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) is a sugar formed from two monosaccharides.
      • A polysaccharide is one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars.
    • Carbohydrates and Living Systems
      • Polysaccharides include starch, glycogen, and cellulose.
      • Potatoes have a lot of starch , the polysaccharide that plants use for storing energy.
      • Many animals make use of a similar energy-storage carbohydrate called glycogen .
      • Cellulose is the polysaccharide that most plants use to give their structures rigidity.
    • To a chemist, sugar is the name given to all monosaccharides and disaccharides.
    • Each molecule of sucrose, the sugar used to sweeten food, is made up of a glucose and a fructose unit.
    • Carbohydrates
      • Just as two monosaccharides combine to form a disaccharide, many can combine to form a long chain called a polysaccharide.
      • Polysaccharides may be represented by the general formula below.
      — O—(C 6 H 10 O 4 )—O—(C 6 H 10 O 4 )—O—(C 6 H 10 O 4 )...
    • Carbohydrates
      • Polymerization is a series of synthesis reactions that link many monomers together to make a very large, chainlike molecule.
      • Polysaccharides and other large, chainlike molecules found in living things are called biological polymers .
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    • Carbohydrate Reactions
      • Polysaccharides are changed back to sugars during hydrolysis reactions.
      • In these reactions, the decomposition of a biological polymer takes place along with the breakdown of a water molecule, as shown in the equation below.
    •  
    • Lipids
      • A lipid is a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water, including fats and steroids.
      • Lipids generally can have a polar, hydrophilic region at one end of the molecule. For example, oleic acid, shown below is found in the fat of some animals.
    •  
    • Lipids
      • Lipids are used in animals for energy storage as fats .
      • Cell membranes are made up of lipids called phospholipids .
      • Steroids , such as cholesterol, are lipids used for chemical signaling.
      • Waxes , such as those found in candles and beeswax are also lipids.
    •  
    • Chapter 20 Proteins
    • Amino Acids and Proteins
      • A protein is a biological polymer that is made up of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes other elements.
      • Our bodies are mostly made out of proteins.
      • All proteins are biological polymers made up of amino acid monomers.
      • An amino acid is any one of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins.
    •  
    • Amino Acids and Proteins
      • Amino refers to the −NH2 group of atoms.
      • Acid refers to the carboxylic acid group, −COOH.
      • There are 20 natural amino acids. All 20 have the same basic structure.
    • The R represents a side chain.
    •  
    • Amino Acids and Proteins
      • The reaction by which proteins are made from amino acids is similar to the condensation of carbohydrates.
      • The biological polymer that forms during the condensation of amino acids is called a polypeptide.
      • The link that joins the N and C atoms of two different amino acids is called a peptide bond.
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    • Amino Acids and Proteins
      • The sequence of amino acids—the primary structure—helps dictate the protein’s final shape.
      • A substitution of just one amino acid in the polypeptide sequence can have major effects on the final shape of the protein.
      • A hereditary blood cell disease called sickle cell anemia gives one example of the importance of amino-acid sequence.
    •  
    • Enzymes
      • An enzyme is a type of protein that speeds up metabolic reactions in plant and animals without being permanently changed or destroyed.
      • Almost all of the chemical reactions in living systems take place with the help of enzymes .
    • Enzymes
      • Enzymes work like a lock and key. That is, only an enzyme of a specific shape can fit the reactants of the reaction that it is catalyzing.
      • Only a small part of the enzyme’s surface, known as the active site , is believed to make the enzyme active.
      • In reactions that use an enzyme, the reactant is called a substrate .
    •  
    • Chapter 20 Nucleic Acids
    • Information Storage
      • All hereditary information is stored chemically in compounds called nucleic acids.
      • Nucleic acids are an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information.
    • Nucleic-Acid Structure
      • Like polysaccharides and polypeptides, nucleic acids are biological polymers. They are made up of monomers called nucleotides.
    •  
    • Information Storage
      • The nucleic acid DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.
      • The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose, which has a ring in which four of the atoms are carbon and the fifth atom is oxygen.
      • Deoxyribose is connected to a phosphate group and any one of four nitrogenous bases.
    • Information Strorage
      • The nucleic acid DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the material that contains the information.
      • The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose, which has a ring in which four of the atoms are carbon and the fifth atom is oxygen.
      • Deoxyribose is connected to a phosphate group and any one of four nitrogenous bases.
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    • Information Storage
      • All genetic information is encoded in the sequence of the four bases, which are abbreviated to A, G, T, and C.
      • Just as history is written in books using a 26-letter alphabet, heredity is written in DNA using a 4-letter alphabet.
    •  
    • Gene Technology
      • Because no one else has the same sequence of DNA bases as you, your DNA pattern gives a unique “fingerprint” of you.
      • A DNA fingerprint is the pattern of bands that results when an individual’s DNA sample is fragmented, replicated, and separated.
      • In DNA fingerprinting, scientists compare autoradiographs, which are images that show the DNA’s pattern of nitrogenous bases.
    •  
    • Gene Technology
      • It takes a lot of DNA to make a DNA fingerprint, so scientists must replicate DNA to get a large sample.
      • Scientists use polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, to replicate a sequence of double-stranded DNA.
      • In PCR, scientists add DNA monomers, an enzyme, and primers (short lengths of single-stranded DNA with a specific sequence) to the sample of DNA.
      • Heating and cooling repeatedly replicates the DNA.
    •  
    • Gene Technology
      • Each cell of a very young embryo can grow into a complete organism. These cells are undifferentiated.
      • Undifferentiated cells have not yet specialized to become part of a specific body tissue and include stem cells in animals and meristem cells in plants.
      • When they are cultured artificially they grow into complete organisms, clones, that are genetically identical to their “parent.”
    •  
    • Gene Technology
      • Scientists can insert genes from one species into the DNA of another.
      • Recombinant DNA is DNA molecules that are created by combining DNA from different sources
      • When recombinant DNA is placed in a cell, the cell is able to make the protein coded by the foreign gene.
      • For example, recombinant DNA placed in bacteria cells allow the bacteria to make human insulin.
    • Chapter 20 Energy and Living Systems
    • Obtaining Energy
      • Energy is needed for every action of every organ in our bodies. All living things need energy.
      • Plants get energy through photosynthesis, the process by which they use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
      • Other living things rely on plants for energy.
      • The flow of energy throughout an ecosystem relates to the carbon cycle, which follows carbon atoms as they make up one compound and then another.
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    • Obtaining Energy
      • The carbon cycle involves two general reactions: photosynthesis and respiration.
      • The reactants needed for respiration—glucose and oxygen—are produced in photosynthesis.
      • The reactants needed for the photosynthesis—carbon dioxide, water, and energy—are produced in the respiration, although the energy is in a different form.
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    • Using Energy
      • Glucose is changed into a more readily available source of energy through respiration.
      • In biological chemistry, respiration is the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates.
      • In respiration (also called cellular respiration ), oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide.
      • For every molecule of glucose that is broken down, six molecules of O 2 are consumed. Six molecules of CO 2 and six molecules of H 2 O are produced.
    • Using Energy
      • While photosynthesis takes in energy, respiration gives off energy.
      • The thermodynamic values for the equation below show that the reaction is very exothermic
      • ( ∆H = −1273 kJ)
      • C6H12O6( aq ) + 6O2( g ) -> 6CO2( g ) + 6H2O( l )
      • Respiration produces chemical energy (not heat energy) in the form of special organic molecules.
    • Using Energy
      • Adenosine triphosphate, ATP, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes.
      • ATP is composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups.
      • Adenosine diphosphate, ADP, is the low-energy forms of a ATP.
      • The main structural difference between ATP and ADP is that ATP has an extra phosphate group, −PO 3 − .
    •  
    • Using Energy
      • There are three kinds of work fueled by the ATP -> ADP conversion:
        • Synthetic work involves making compounds that do not form spontaneously.
        • Mechanical work changes the shape of muscle cells, which allows muscles to flex and move.
        • Transport work involves carrying solutes across a membrane.