Introducing a lexical syllabus for jhsPresentation Transcript
Introducing a Lexical Syllabus TargetingVocabulary for Junior High School Chemda Benisty ETAI International July, 2010
The Lexical Syllabus: Sets numerical lexical targets Includes suggestions to facilitate the transition from receptive knowledge to productive use of target vocabulary
Presentation Outline Some insights from the literature The situation in Israel Syllabus design Presentation of the syllabus Pedagogical recommendations Questions
Some Insights from the Literature
Why Focus on Vocabulary? It is the basis of language and crucial for the functioning of the four skills It is closely tied to comprehension
A New Perception of Vocabulary Vocabulary acquisition includes the learning of lexical chunks Corpus linguistics provides support for this claim
More Research Insights Two main complementary processes for acquiring new vocabulary: Explicit learning Implicit learning
Explicit Learning Deliberate decontextualized attention: Establishes the form meaning link (Schmitt 2008) Facilitates acquisition within a limited time Results in higher gains in acquisition Better for the most frequently used words
Implicit Learning Enhances vocabulary knowledge and theacquisition of new vocabulary while engaging in different language activities:
Depends on 8-15 exposures
Exposures must be in frequent intervals
Research Insights Nine aspects of word knowledge Form: spelling, sound, and word parts Meaning: concepts and referents, and associations Use: grammatical functions, collocations, frequency and register Nation 2005
Research Insights Each aspect impacts both receptive knowledge and productive use Productive learning involves deeper processing of vocabulary Productive learning necessitates deliberate attention
Research Insights Depth of knowledge is as important as vocabulary size. Unfortunately, most learning stops following the provision of a translation (Schmitt, 2008).
The Situation in Israel
The Situation in Israel The Israeli English Curriculum for All Grades(2001) does not incorporate a lexical syllabus.
Consequences Teachers make decisions about vocabulary. Teachers rely on textbooks. Textbooks don’t necessarily have clear criteria for vocabulary selection. Vocabulary is often marginalized in favor of a focus on grammar.
The Need for a Lexical Syllabus To set numerical goals for vocabulary instruction To standardize vocabulary instruction in Israel To inform and improve the quality of vocabulary instruction To enable the assessment of students’ progress
Selection Criteria Learning burden Usefulness for TEFL Relevance to the learners’ world Frequency
Setting Numerical Goals This basic lexis: 2000 word families for less proficient students by the end of JHS Note: This basic high frequency lexis is essential for a variety of spoken and written texts.
Example of an Entry from the GSL ADOPT · adopted · adopting · adoption · adoptions · adopts 1st list
Exclusions from the lists All inflections of verbs, adjectives and nouns Items familiar to learners from elementary school Irrelevant items for Israeli students Exclusions
The Format of the Lexical Syllabus Divided into two lists American English spelling preferred with references to British spelling Headwords alphabetized and bolded Other parts of speech underlined
The Format of the Lexical Syllabus Examples italicized Verbs proceeded by to Multiple meanings differentiated by the use of lower case letters
The Format of the Lexical Syllabus Spoken language given special attention Lexical chunks added to most entries On a disc
Presentation of Lexical Syllabus 1st list 2nd list
Examples (to) categorize (categorise), category: divide sb/ sth into categories, group sb/ sth under categories, put sb/ sth in/ into categories, create categories, categories of
Examples (to) approve/ disapprove: (a) like sb/ sth: strongly/ very much approve of sth/ sb, (b) agree to sth: formally approve, approval/ disapproval: need/ receive/ give/ show full/ final/ written/ formal approval
The Transition from Receptive Knowledge to Productive Use
From Receptive Knowledge to Productive Use Collocations- crucial for developing productive aspects of language Collocational competence contributes to fluency Note: Not all can be explicitly taught; consider level (tracking)
From Receptive Knowledge to Productive Use Allotting time to productive aspects Recycling Pushing learners to produce and make use of newly taught lexical items
From Receptive Knowledge to Productive Use Production contributes to vocabulary acquisition:
Hulstijn and Laufer, 1995, cited in Schmitt, 2008.
From Receptive Knowledge to Productive Use Successful production increases the likelihood of memorization Successful production impacts motivation