The formation of western europe


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The formation of western europe

  1. 1. The Formation of Western Europe<br />Ch. 14<br />
  2. 2. The Age of Faith<br />Church begins to restructure itself and started building projects<br />Monasteries led the spiritual revival<br />Problems in the church:<br />Priests married and had families<br />Bishops practiced simony (selling positions in the church)<br />Lay Investiture (kings appointing church officials)<br />
  3. 3. Reform and Church Organization<br />Church is restructured to resemble a kingdom, with the pope at its head<br />Papal Curia – pope’s group of advisors who developed canon law and held church court<br />Church collected taxes in the form of tithes<br />
  4. 4. New Religious Orders<br />Friars, like monks, take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience but did not live in monasteries. <br />Dominicans – one of the earliest orders of friars – emphasized education and study<br />Franciscans – founded by Francis of Assisi – order of Friars that treated all creatures as if they were his spiritual brothers and sisters<br />
  5. 5. Church Architecture<br />Small churches are replaced by large churches called cathedrals.<br />Viewed as a representation of the City of God<br />Gothic cathedrals are very tall and had stained glass windows meant to inspire worship<br />Famous cathedral – Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris – ceiling more than 100 feet tall<br />
  6. 6. Goals of the Crusades<br />Pope Urban II calls for a “holy war” or Crusade to gain control of the Holy Land<br />Goals:<br />Stop Muslim attacks in Byzantine Empire<br />Reunite Eastern and Western Christians<br />Get rid of knights who were fighting each other at home<br />Opportunity to make money through trade<br />
  7. 7. First and Second Crusades<br />Tremendous support for First Crusade<br />Promise of heaven if you die in Crusade<br />Most are French<br />Ill-prepared for war <br />Capture Jerusalem after a month of fighting<br />Second Crusade:<br />Hoped to recapture Edessa, which was lost to the Turks, and were defeated<br />Jerusalem falls to Muslim leader, Saladin<br />
  8. 8. Third Crusade<br />Try to recapture Jerusalem<br />Led by three powerful monarchs:<br />Richard the Lion- hearted<br />Philip II<br />Frederick I<br />Richard the Lion-Hearted vs. Saladin<br />Both brilliant warriors<br />Agreed to a truce after many battles<br />Jerusalem remain under Muslim control but Christians can travel freely there<br />
  9. 9. The Crusading Spirit Dwindles<br />4th Crusade fails – knights loot Constantinople instead of going to Jerusalem<br />Less about capturing Jerusalem and more about knights becoming rich<br />Do not really conquer much land<br />
  10. 10. The Children’s Crusade<br />12 Year old Stephen of Cloyes leads 30,000 children to try to capture Jerusalem<br />Most die of starvation or drown<br />Nicholas of Cologne took 20,000 toward Rome to meet the Pope<br />Many freeze to death<br />Pope says to go home and wait until they are older<br />
  11. 11. A Spanish Crusade<br />Muslims control most of Spain <br />Reconquista was a long effort by the Spanish to get the Muslims out of Spain<br />Isabella and Ferdinand are new Christian rulers who use the Inquisition to increase power and unify Christians <br />Heretics brought to court<br />Many tortured and burned at the stake<br />
  12. 12. Effects of the Crusades<br />Expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia<br />Lessened the power of the pope<br />Weakened feudal nobility and increased power of kings<br />Fall of Constantinople weakens Byzantine Empire<br />Hatred between Muslims and Christians especially in the Holy Land<br />
  13. 13. A Growing Food Supply<br />Needed more food because populations were increasing<br />Started using horses instead of oxen<br />Use 3 field system instead of 2 field system<br />Farm on 2/3 of land instead of ½<br />More food = healthier people = longer lives<br />
  14. 14. Guilds<br />Guild = organization of people who work in the same type of job<br />Goal: improve economic and social conditions of their members<br />Craft Guilds – glassmakers, winemakers, tailors<br />Merchant guilds – involved in trade<br />
  15. 15. Fairs and Trade<br />Most trade took place in towns<br />Fairs held several times a year where people traded their goods <br />Cloth was the most common trade item<br />Trade spreads across Europe and foreign goods become available<br />
  16. 16. Business and Banking<br />Necessary because of the increase in trade between different regions:<br />Different currencies<br />Merchants had to borrow money to buy goods<br />Banking becomes a big business, especially in Italy<br />This is the Commercial Revolution<br />
  17. 17. Changes because of Commercial Revolution:<br />Towns grow into cities<br />Lifestyles change:<br />People paid more<br />More money for building businesses<br />King’s power increases<br />
  18. 18. Urban Life<br />As trade grows, towns grow, populations grow<br />Problems in Towns:<br />Narrow crowded streets<br />No Sanitation<br />Housing lacks light, clean water, air = fire hazard<br />New Merchant Class<br />Middle Class<br />Burghers – merchants and town dwellers<br />Fight for more rights<br />
  19. 19. Revival of Learning<br />Muslim libraries in Spain had many works of Ancient Greece <br />Universities started when scholars met together in groups <br />Oxford, Paris were 2 locations of universities<br />Brought new ideas and forms of learning to Europe<br />Some writers use vernacular, or everyday language of their homeland<br />
  20. 20. Philosophers<br />Thomas Aquinas – argued that religion could be proven by logic<br />Combined ancient Greek thought with Christian thought<br />Scholastics used their knowledge of Aristotle to debate issues<br />These teachings influenced law and government<br />
  21. 21. England Absorbs Waves of Invaders<br />Early Invasions:<br />Vikings<br />Danish King Canute conquered England and united Anglo-Saxons and Vikings<br />The Norman Conquest<br />William the Conqueror from Normandy claims the English crown and invades England<br />Won the Battle of Hastings against Harold, the Anglo Saxon<br />
  22. 22. Henry II<br />Took over after William the Conqueror died<br />Married Eleanor of Aquitaine who was French and took over Aquitaine<br />Mother to2 kings: Richard the Lion-Hearted and King John<br />Ruled England from 1154 to 1189<br />Began using a jury in court<br />Common Law – a single body of law<br />
  23. 23. Magna Carta<br />Henry’s son John ruled England<br />Was a failure as a military leader – lost Normandy<br />Was cruel and raised taxes to pay for wars<br />His nobles revolted and forced him to sign the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215<br />Limited the power of the king<br />No taxation without representation<br />Trial by Jury<br />
  24. 24. Edward I and Parliament<br />Edward I needed to raise taxes for war $<br />Had to asked representatives from different groups to meet<br />Knights, bishops, lords, and burgesses formed the group<br />Group is called Parliament = legislative group<br />Over time it helped limit royal power, like the Magna Carta did<br />
  25. 25. France<br />France struggled to increase power and get the English kings out<br />Capetian family ruled<br />United France and France became its own kingdom<br />Phillip II<br />Greatly increased French territory – got Normandy back from England<br />
  26. 26. Estates- General<br />France had 3 Estates<br />1st Estate = Church leaders<br />2nd Estate = great Lords<br />3rd Estate = common people<br />When representatives from each estate met together it was called the Estates General<br />Helped increase royal power against nobility, and never limited the power of the king<br />
  27. 27. Pope and King Collide<br />Pope Boniface VIII attempted to enforce papal authority on kings<br />Wrote an official document stating that kings must always obey popes<br />King Phillip IV of France has the pope put in prison<br />Popes could never again force monarchs to obey<br />
  28. 28. Avignon and the Great Schism<br />The Pope (Clement V) decided to live in Avignon, which is in France, instead of Rome<br />This move weakened the Church<br />The cardinals chose a new Pope, from Italy. He was not a good leader, so they picked another Pope.<br />So, there were 2 Popes<br />1 from France and 1 from Italy<br />This split the Catholic Church<br />This is known as the Great Schism, meaning division<br />
  29. 29. Scholars Challenge Church Authority<br />John Wycliffe challenges the weakened church<br />He preached that Jesus was the true head of the Church, NOT the Pope<br />He also believed the Bible alone was the final authority for Christian life, Not the Pope<br />Jan Hus taught that the Bible was a higher authority than the Church<br />He was excommunicated and burned at the stake<br />
  30. 30. Bubonic Plague<br />Began in Asia, traveling in rats on trade ships<br />First place in Europe to get the Plague = Italy<br />Known as the Black Death because of the dark colored boils on the skin<br />Quickly spread to the rest of Europe<br />1/3 of the population of Europe died during the plague<br />Ripped apart European society and culture<br />
  31. 31. Plague Cont’d<br />Kills 25 million Europeans<br />Effects of the Plague:<br />Town populations fall<br />Tade declines. Prices rise<br />Jews blamed for bringing on the plague<br />Church suffers because their prayers did not stop the plague <br />Peasants revolt<br />
  32. 32. Hundred Years’ War<br />Century of war between England and France<br />French king dies with no heir<br />Edward III (English King) claims the throne is his and this starts the war<br />Victory bounces between the two for 100 years and finally the French drive the English out of France<br />
  33. 33. Warfare Changes<br />The longbow was used in the Hundred Years’ War<br />Could penetrate armor<br />Could be fired extremely fast<br />English invention which helps the English win battles<br />Archers replace the knights as war heroes<br />
  34. 34. Results of Hundred Years’ War<br />Nationalism – pride in your country<br />People fought for country, not kings<br />Power of French monarch increased<br />English had another war : War of the Roses<br />End of the Middle Ages<br />
  35. 35. Joan of Arc<br />During the Hundred Years’ War, a rumor spread that a young girl would save the French from the English<br />At age 13 Joan began hearing voices of saints that told her to rescue France<br />Joan led the French army in its first victory at Orleans<br />She was captured by English allies and charged as a witch<br />She was burned at the stake on May 30, 1431<br />