Cognitive Development in Infancy 1
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Cognitive Development in Infancy 1

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This informational slideshow covers all important aspects of cognitive development in infancy, ranging from how a child learns to make sense of the world to how a child learns to produce language.

This informational slideshow covers all important aspects of cognitive development in infancy, ranging from how a child learns to make sense of the world to how a child learns to produce language.

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    Cognitive Development in Infancy 1 Cognitive Development in Infancy 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Cognitive Development in Infancy BY CHELSEA MILES, HOLLY BRYSON AND CLAIRE ALLEN 04:255 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND THE LEARNING PROCESS JANUARY, 2013 Clipart
    • 1. Piaget’s OverviewApproach toCognitiveDevelopment2. Information-ProcessingApproaches toCognitiveDevelopment3. The Roots of All Information from Feldman Text UnlessLanguage Otherwise Stated http://www.tower.com/child-development-robert-s-feldman- hardcover/wapi/121155178?download=true&type=1
    • Piaget’s Approach toCognitive Development Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Learning Objective Questions What are the fundamental features of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? How has Piaget’s theory been supported and challenged by later research? Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development  Infants do not acquire knowledge from facts communicated by others, nor through sensation and perception  Knowledge is the product of direct motor behaviour Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Key Elements of Piaget’s Theory Based on the stage  To move to the next approach to development stage, physical maturation Series of 4 universal and exposure to relevant stages which occur in a experiences must occur fixed order from birth to  Important to consider adolescence changes in the content but 4 Stages: quality of knowledge  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete Operational  Formal Operational Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Key Elements of Piaget’s Theory Schemes: organized  Assimilation: process by mental structure and which people understand patterns an experience based on At first schemes are based their current stage of on physical or sensorimotor cognitive development and activities and evolve into way of thinking mental functions where  Accommodation: changing there is reflective thought the existing way of Two principles underlie the thinking, understanding or growth in children’s behaving in response to an schemes: assimilation and encounter with a new accommodation stimulus or event
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development The Sensorimotor Period Begins at birth and  Tertiary Circular continues till child is about Reactions age 2  Beginnings of thought 6 Substages:  Development is gradual  Simple Reflexes rather than a harsh stair  First Habits and Primary model Circular Reactions  Periods of transition where a child will exhibit  Secondary Circular behaviour from both their Reactions current stage and the  Coordination of higher stage they will Secondary Reactions enter next
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Substage 1: Simple Reflexes  Spans the first month of life  Inborn reflexes are at the center of both the physical and cognitive development, which determines their interactions with the world  Babies gain information and knowledge about the world around them based on reflex interactions  Reflexes also begin to Clipart accommodate for new
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Substage 2: First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions Occurs from 1 month to 4  Primary Circular months of age Reactions: infant’s Infants begin to coordinate repetition of interesting or separate actions into enjoyable activities, just single, integrated activities for the enjoyment of doing them If an activity catches a  Babies are focusing on baby’s interest, they will repeat it to continue activities that involve their experiencing that activity own bodies
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions 4 to 8 months  Major difference is Behaviour becomes more whether baby’s actions are purposeful and infants focused on his/her own begin to act of their body (primary) or actions environment relating to the world Secondary Circular outside them (secondary) Reactions: schemes  Babies become much more regarding repeated actions vocal that brings about a desired  Babies begin to imitate the consequence noises made by others
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 8 months to 12 months  Object Permanence: the Before this stage, realization that people and behaviour involved direct objects exist even when actions on objects they cannot be seen Goal-Directed Behaviour:  While this principle behaviour in which several develops, it will take time schemes are combined and before the concept will be coordinated to generate a fully understood single act to solve a problem Children begin to anticipate upcoming events Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions 12 to 18 months  During this stage the main Tertiary Circular focus is on the unexpected Reactions: the deliberate and rather than just variation of actions that repeating an enjoyable bring desired consequences activity, emphasis is on that Rather than just repeating an event is to be explained enjoyable activity, they and understood begin to carry on mini experiments to see the consequences Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive DevelopmentSubstage 6: Beginnings of Thought  18 months to 2 years old  Capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought  Mental Representation: an internal image of a past event or object  Children are able to imagine where objects are that they are unable to see Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Substage 6: Beginnings of Thought Due to their ability to create internal pictures, their understanding of causality also become much more sophisticated The ability to pretend also develops in this stage Deferred Imitation: an act in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have Clipart witnessed a similar act
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Appraising Piaget: Support Piaget was masterful  Broad outlines sketched reporter of child behaviour out of the sequence of and his description of cognitive development and growth during infancy is the increasing cognitive extremely accurate accomplishments that Thousands of studies have occur in infancy are supported Piaget’s view generally accepted to be that children learn by accurate acting on the objects in their environment Clipart
    • Piaget’s Approach to Cognitive Development Appraising Piaget: Challenges  Stage concept that is the basis of Piaget’s theory  Notion that cognitive development is grounded in motor activities  Belief that infants are incapable of developing object permanence before the age of 1  Work seems to describe children from Clipart developed, western countries better than those of non-western cultures
    • Information-ProcessingApproaches to Cognitive Development ClipartClipart
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Learning Objective Questions How do infants process information? What are the memory capabilities of infants? How is infant intelligence measured? Clipart
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Information processing approach: Seeks to identify the way in which individuals take in, use and store information The infant’s ability to organize and manipulate information demonstrates the level of cognitive Clipart development
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Encoding, Storage and Retrieval  Encoding: process in which information is recorded in a from usable to the memory  Storage: placement of information into the brain  Retrieval: ability to locate the information, bring it into awareness and use it Clipart
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Encoding, Storage and Retrieval  Automatization: degree to which an activity requires attention  Automatic: little to no attention (ex. walking, eating)  Controlled: large amount of attention required (ex. studying) Clipart
    • Memory and Infants 1. Do infants have a memory? Why? Why not? 2. Do you remember anything from when you were a baby? 3. Do you think it is possible?
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Memory Capabilities in Infancy Infants do have memory capabilities Habituation: lessened response to a repeated stimulus Rovee-Collier Experiment As we grow our memory increases, recall increases, and we can remember information longer http://www.tusculum.edu/faculty/home/tharlow/DE V%20Residential/Working%20folder%20clutter%20 Dr. Jan Nijhuis: Fetus removal/Chapter_5BDev_SK.html Research
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Why Can’t We Remember Our Infancy?  Infantile Amnesia: lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age  New information can keep us from recalling old memories  Forget memories as we get older  Memories are susceptible to mis-recollection Clipart Memory Video
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Two systems involved in long-term memory: Explicit Memory: conscious and can be recalled intentionally (Cerebellum and brain stem) Implicit Memory: not conscious of it but affects performance and behaviour (hippocampus) http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consum p/groups/cr_common/@cah/@gen/documents/i mage/crukmig_1000img-12313.jpg
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Intelligence What is intelligence? No specific definition of intelligence Difficult to measure intelligence in infants
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Arnold Gesell  Formulated earliest measure of infant development  Developmental Quotient (DQ): overall developmental score that relates to performance in 4 domains:  Motor Skills  Language Use  Adaptive Behaviour Clipart  Personal-Social
    • Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development Nancy Bayley Bayley Scales of Infant  Mental abilities: Development: perception, memory, Widely used measure for learning, problem solving, infants and language Evaluates infant  Motor abilities: fine and development from 2-42 gross motor skills months  Provides a DQ score  Average score for infants is 100. Clipart
    • Sample Items from Bayley Scales (Feldman, 2012, Pg. 154)
    • Information-Process Approaches toIndividual Differences in Intelligence  Research shows that the speed with which infants process information may correlate with later intelligence (academic)  Test speed of processing by using:  1. A habituation test: faster the baby turns away = speed of processing  2. Visual recognition test: Clipart the memory and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen
    • Why Formal Education is Lost on Infants Many parents believe that by exposing their babies to educational toys and media it will enhance their infant’s cognitive growth Educational videos such as Baby Einstein and Brainy Baby promise to stimulate and enhance cognitive development Do they work?  Evidence suggests that they don’t and in some cases their use may backfire and hamper learning  Assume infants learn the same way as children do through structured activities with specific learning goals  Infants merely explore their surroundings in an unplanned way
    • Infant Media Exposure and Toddler Development Article“Overall exposure and exposure to older child/adult–oriented content were associated with lower levels ofcognitive and language development at age 14 months.Findings from this longitudinal study provide strongsupport for the American Academy of Pediatricsrecommendation of no media exposure before age 2years (Berkule et al, 2010).” Clipart
    • Infant Media Exposure and Toddler Development ArticleThree potential reasons for media-associated negativeeffects on very young childrens development:1.Reductions in parent-child interactions, including reduced spoken language, conversation, and engagement with the child. Specifically reduced shared reading and playing together with toys. These are activities critical to young childrens development.2.Interferes with childrens play activities.3.Characteristics of videos such as rapid scene changes have been thought to have direct, negative effects on the developing brain (Berkule et al, 2010)
    • Why Formal Education Is Lost on Infants Baby Einstein Refunds Refunds to millions of  parents who had bought the videos because parents said they were ineffective in promoting cognitive development They have some benefits however:  When parents watch videos with children http://www.freecodesour ce.com/movie- they engage more often posters/B00005YUPP-- baby-einstein-baby- with their children and shakespeare-world-of- in more positive ways poetry-movie-poster.html
    • Baby Einstein Discussion Do you think that purchasing educational toys and media forinfants is worth a try, despite the lack of scientific research?Why do you think parents generallydo not seem to be concerned about the lack of scientific evidence?
    • The Roots of Language Clipart
    • The Roots of Language Learning Objective Questions What processes do children learn to use language? How do children influence adults’ language? Clipart
    • The Roots of Language Baby’s First Words  The first and most noticeable expression of language  However, infants begin to understand the language used by others many months earlier  This helps them make sense of the world around themClipart
    • The Roots of Language The Fundamentals of Language: From Sounds to Symbols Language: the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, provides the basis for communication  It is closely tied to the way we think and understand the world It enables us to reflect on people and objects and to Clipart express our thoughts to others
    • The Roots of Language Formal Characteristics of Language Each characteristic must be mastered as linguistic competence is developed 1. Phonology: refers to the basic sounds of language, called phonemes, that can be combined to produce words and sentences http://itp.nyu.edu/~kh1243/blizzog/h Ex. “a” in “mat” represents a tml5/1322 phoneme – the English Language contains 40
    • The Roots of Language Formal Characteristics of Language  2. Morphemes: the smallest language unit that has meaning. Some morphemes are complete words while others add information necessary for interpreting a word (“ish”)  3. Semantics: the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentencesClipart
    • The Roots of Language The Fundamentals of Language When studying the development of language we need to distinguish between: Linguistic Comprehension: the understanding of speech AND Linguistic Production: the use of language to communicate Clipart
    • The Roots of LanguageThe Fundamentals of LanguageClipart
    • The Roots of Language Early Sounds and Communication Sounds that infants make play a very important role in linguistic development:  Cooing  Crying  Gurgling  Murmuring Clipart
    • Comprehension Precedes Production (Feldman, 2012, Pg. 158)
    • The Roots of Language Early Sounds and Communication Pre-linguistic Communication: communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitation, and other non-linguistic means Mimics the back-and-forth of communication and teaches the child about turn-taking Clipart
    • The Roots of Language Babbling: making speech like but meaningless sounds, starts at the age of 2 or 3 months and continues until around the age of 1 yearTo Twins Babbling Back and Forth
    • The Roots of LanguageEarly Sounds and Communication  Babbling is found universally and is accomplished in the same way throughout all cultures  While babbling, infants produce all of the sounds found in every languageClipart
    • The Roots of Language Early Sounds and Communication Deaf children who are exposed to sign language babble with their hands instead of their voices Their gestural babbling is similar to the verbal babbling of children who can speak Clipart
    • The Roots of Language Early Sounds and Communication  Broca’s Area: areas of the brain activated during the production of hand gestures are similar to the areas activated during speech production  Suggests that spoken language may have evolved from gestural language(Feldman, 2012)
    • The Roots of LanguageEarly Sounds and Communication  As the child develops, babbling moves from simple to more complex sounds  By the age of 6 months, babbling reflects the sounds of the language that is spoken by those around the child  Other indications of pre- linguistic speech: reaching or crying for something that results in receiving what isClipart wanted - communication
    • The Roots of Language First Words First words typically are spoken at approximately 10-14 months Can occur as early as 9 months Linguists argue about what constitutes an infant’s first word
    • The Roots of Language First Words Once an infant starts to produce words, vocabulary increases at a very rapid rate By 15 months a child has, on average, a 10 word vocabulary One word stage ends around 18 months Clipart
    • The Roots of Language First Words  Early vocabularies typically regard objects and things, both animate and inanimate  Most often people or objects who constantly appear and disappear (“Mama”)  Explosion of language:  Between 16-24 months  Vocabulary increasesClipart from 50 to 400 words
    • The Roots of Language First Words First words are usually Holophrases: one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used Ex. “ma” may be used to mean “Where’s Mom?” or “I want to be picked up by Mom” Clipart
    • First Words(Feldman, 2012, Pg. 160)
    • The Roots of Language First Words Culture has an effect on first words:  North American English- speaking infants – more apt to use nouns  Chinese Mandarin – more apt to use verbs  By 20 months there are outstanding similarities cross-culturally in words Clipart spoken
    • First Word DiscussionCan you remember your first word/words? Discuss this at your table groups!
    • The Roots of Language First Sentences The explosive increase in vocabulary is accompanied by another triumph:  Linking together individual words into sentences that express a single thought  Two-word phrases occur 8-12 months after infants say their first word Clipart
    • The Roots of Language First Sentences Most early sentences don’t represent demands or require a response Often merely comments and observations about events Two-word combinations tend to be constructed in same way as adult sentences: subject verb object Clipart
    • The Roots of Language First Sentences  Telegraphic Speech: speech in which words not critical to the message are left out  Instead of “Josh threw the ball” infants may say:  “Josh ball”  “Josh threw”
    • Telegraphic Speech (Feldman, 2012, Pg. 161)
    • The Roots of Language First Sentences Underextension: the overly restrictive use of words, common among children just mastering spoken language Ex. Inability to generalize the label of “blankie” to blankets in general Clipart
    • The Roots of Language First Sentences  Overextension: the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning  Ex. Referring to buses, trucks and tractors as “cars”  Demonstrates that the child is beginning to develop general mentalClipart categories and concepts
    • The Roots of Language First Sentences  Infants show differences in the style of language they use  Referential Style: language is used primarily to label objects (American)  Expressive Style: language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others (Chinese)Clipart
    • The Roots of Language The Origins of Language Development Learning Theory Approach: the theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning Language is a learned skill Children learn to speak by being rewarded for making sounds that estimate speech Clipart
    • The Roots of Language Nativist Approaches Nativist Approach: the  Universal Grammar: all theory that a genetically the world’s languages share determined, innate a similar underlying mechanism directs language structure development  Noam Chomsky: people are born with an innate capacity to use language, which develops when a child matures Clipart
    • Nativist Approaches Language-Acquisition Device (LAD): a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language Language is unique to human beings Made possible by a genetic predisposition to both comprehend and produce words and sentences (Feldman, 2012, Pg. 162)
    • The Roots of Language The Interactionist Approaches Interactionist Perspective: suggests that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined dispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language  Innate and social factors Clipart
    • The Roots of Language Speaking to Children Infant-Directed Speech: a type of speech directed toward infants, characterized by short, simple sentences Sometimes includes humorous sounds that are not even words Directed speech changes as the child becomes older Grandma Talking To Baby - longer and more complex sentences
    • Infant-Directed Speech (Feldman, 2012, 163)
    • Is Infant-Directed Speech Similar in All Cultures? Developmental Diversity and Your Life The way the words are  Why use this language? spoken are quite similar  Infants seem to prefer All exaggerate and infant-directed speech elongate sounds over adult-directed speech Even deaf mothers use a  Perceptual systems may form of infant-directed be more responsive to speech such language  Use sign language at a  Facilitates infant slower pace and language development frequently repeat the signs
    • Is Infant-Directed Speech Similar in All Cultures? Gender Differences From the time of birth, the language parents use with their children differs depending on the child’s sex By the age of 32 months, girls hear twice as many diminutives (ex. “kitty” instead of “cat”) as boys hear Boys hear firmer, clearer language while girls are exposed to warmer phrases (Feldman, 2012, Pg. 164)
    • Are You an Informed Consumer of Development? What Can You Do to Promote Infants’ Cognitive Development? Provide infants the  Literacy skills and opportunity to explore the creates a lifelong reading world habit Be responsive to infants on  American Academy of both a verbal and a non- Pediatrics - starting at 6 verbal level months daily Read to your infants: they  Keep in mind that you don’t will respond to your tone of have to be with an infant voice and the intimacy 24 hours a day provided  Don’t push infants and don’t expect too much too soon
    • Cognitive Development Game Time!
    • References Berkule, S., Brockmeyer, C., Dreyer, B.P., Fierman, A.H., Mendelsohn, A.L., & Tomopoulous, S. (2010). Infant Media Exposure and Toddler Development. JAMA Pediatrics, Volume 164. No. 12. Feldman, R.S. (2012). Child Development 6th Ed. Pearson Education: New Jersey. Rettner, R. (July 20, 2009). Fetuses have Memories. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/5585-fetuses-memories.html The Brandon Public Library Images PowerPoint Clipart Baby Mobile: http://www.tusculum.edu/faculty/home/tharlow/DEV%20Residential/Workin g%20folder%20clutter%20removal/Chapter_5BDev_SK.html Brain: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consump/groups/cr_common/@cah/ @gen/documents/image/crukmig_1000img-12313.jpg
    • References Baby Einstein Photos: http://www.freecodesource.com/movie- posters/B00005YUPP--baby-einstein-baby-shakespeare-world-of-poetry- movie-poster.html Phonemes Chart: http://itp.nyu.edu/~kh1243/blizzog/html5/1322 Videos Memory and Infants: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=il0u2s_WGXA Grandma Talking to Baby: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=epL4UiG4TdE Two Twins Babbling Back and Forth: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JmA2ClUvUY
    • Clipart