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  1. 1. May 5, 2011The InnovationSecrets of Steve Jobs y opInsanely Different Principles for CBreakthrough Success s erCarmine Gallo adAdapted by permission of McGraw-Hill from The Innovation LeSecrets of Steve Jobs by Carmine Gallo. ©2011 by Carmine ngGalloISBN: 978-0-07-174875-9 ni ar LeIntroduction ndIn The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs, business Pursuing Passions in Order lajournalist Carmine Gallo describes the seven prin- to Change the World gociples that form the philosophical core of master Steve Jobs has always pursued his passions, whether cainnovator, Steve Jobs. Although there is only one or not this seemed like the best choice at the time. HeSteve Jobs, studying and following these principles dropped out of Reed College in 1972 because he was hican inspire creativity and the ability to ‘think differ- not passionate about school, and wanted to focus on Cent’ in any profession or workplace. Among these what he was passionate about: computers. He sleptprinciples are the importance of following one’s heart on the floors of his friends’ dormitories and droppedand pursuing one’s passion, as well as the importance in on classes that interested him. After eventuallyof seeking out new experiences. Innovations occur by moving back in with his parents in Silicon Valley, hemaking connections between unexpected things, and and his childhood friend, Steve Wozniak, continuedthis ability is rooted in a life filled with a wide range to pursue their common interest in computers. Woz-of experiences. Simplicity is also crucial, because any- niak designed programs and computer technologything which is more complicated than it needs to be without pay, simply because that is what he loved towill attract a narrower audience. Also important is the do. Jobs and Wozniak cofounded Apple Computersability to communicate the importance and utility of based in Job’s parents’ house, becoming millionaires aone’s innovation, or tell its story, effectively. few years later, and then billionaires a few years after that.Business Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine GalloPrinciple #1: Do What You LoveThe story of Apple Computers illustrates the first prin-ciple of innovation: people should do what they love. Key ConceptsFor successful innovation to occur, individuals must Seven principles forming the philosophical corepursue what they are most passionate about. Pas- of the innovations of Steve Jobs include:sion drives people to work harder, longer, and betterbecause they truly care about what they are doing and 1. Do What You Love. For effective innovation toenjoy doing it in and of itself. Jobs and Wozniak did occur, individuals need to pursue what theynot start Apple Computers because they wanted to are most passionate about.get rich; they started it because they loved computers 2. Put a Dent in the Universe. True innovationand wanted to do something which involved comput- should seek to improve the world.ers every day. This necessitated making a living via y 3. Kick Start Your Brain. To be innovative, indi-computers. op viduals need to try new experiences to openIn 1985, Steve Jobs was fired from his own company, their mind to unforeseen possibilities. CApple Computers, during a power struggle with the 4. Sell Dreams, Not Products. Advertising sthen CEO, John Sculley. Jobs was humiliated and should show how the product can make life ercrushed. But his passion for electronics was still there, better, rather than overloading viewers withand he pursued it actively. During the next decade, he ad excessive flashy visuals and text.started several new electronics companies, includingPixar. During that decade, Pixar produced Toy Story, Le 5. Say No to 1,000 Things. Simplicity is attrac-which was, and still is, one of the most successful and tive to individuals of all ages, genders and ngcritically acclaimed animated films of all time. nationalities. Remove anything detracting from a product or service’s purpose. niSteve Jobs has been able to capture his intense passionfor electronics and turn it into innovative electronic 6. Create Insanely Great Experiences. Retail stores arand digital entertainment, solutions, and products. and service locations should center around LeWhile it is possible for anyone to become innovative the needs and desires of the customer.if they do what they love; few people will ever come nd 7. Master the Message. Individuals shouldup with an idea that is truly revolutionary and useful explain their product or service in three con- lawithout passion for their work. The opportunity for cise points to ensure that their audience willinnovation is always there for those who focus on go remember what was stated.doing what they could not imagine living life without. caFor anyone who has not found a passion, he recom- g g g gmends that they keep looking. He believes time spent Information about the author and subject: hidoing what one is not passionate about to be wasted Ctime which would have been better spent discovering Information about this book and other business titles:one’s true love. To find a passion, try something new www.mhprofessional.comand different, or ask a friend who has transitionedinto a career they love about their own story of dis-covery. Related summary in the BBS Library:Throughout his discussion on the importance of Innovate the Pixar Waypassion, Gallo cites several individuals who truly Business Lessons from the World’s Mostexemplify the first principle of innovation. James Creative Corporate PlaygroundDyson is a British inventor who had a particular fixa- Bill Capodagli and Lynn Jacksontion on creating the world’s first bagless vacuum.Bagless vacuums retain suction better than thosewhich utilized bags. Dyson’s wife supported themBusiness Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 2
  3. 3. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine Gallofinancially through her work as a teacher while he and to improve the quality of everyday people’s lives.tried to create the bagless vacuum. After five years One of the most illuminating examples cited withinand 5,126 failed attempts, he successfully finished the Gallo’s discussion of the second principle of innovationvacuum. He took his invention to Britain’s top vacuum is the story of Rob Campbell. Campbell’s particularcompanies, but no one wanted to buy his invention tale conveys the ways in which Jobs’ unique vision forbecause they were making a large profit from selling the future of computers was able to attract so manyvacuum bags. Dyson did not let this discourage him. similarly talented and passionate individuals. In 1977Instead, he started his own company, Dyson, and Campbell was a small-time software programmer instarted selling his vacuum in Asia, where it became Denver, Colorado and had just programmed the firstwildly popular. He then introduced the vacuum general accounting program for the Apple II com-into his home market of Great Britain, and Dyson puter. He started looking for a permanent positionVacuums became the bestselling vacuum cleaner in at one of the companies he had been doing freelance ythe United Kingdom. Because Dyson, like Jobs, was optruly passionate about what hewas doing, his thousands of fail- …Jobs is not a one-man show. He knows what he doesn’t know. Cures did not discourage him, nor Jobs ‘sees over the horizon’ and hires people – the best in the swas he discouraged by the rejec- business- who are inspired to make the dream a reality. ertions he received from the large advacuum corporations. work for, and approached three companies, includ-Principle #2: Put a Dent in the Universe ing Apple. Campbell asked each company what their Le vision for the personal computer was. The first com-Steve Jobs has not only been passionate about comput- pany stated that computers were the new fad and they ngers; he has also foreseen how the personal computer would be able to make a lot of money off of them. Thecould change the world for the better. This leads to the ni second company stated that getting involved in thesecond principle of Steve Jobs’ innovation success: put ar technology industry would help to raise their com-a dent in the universe. At the time of Apple’s found- pany’s stock. Steve Jobs of Apple, however, outlined Leing, computers were used in a relatively small number the many ways that he saw the personal computerof businesses. The idea of using a computer in a home improving the world of the future. Medical records ndfor personal use was completely foreign. Jobs wanted would be able to be pulled up faster, people would beto create an effective and useful personal computer la able to communicate with each other more easily, the amount of paper used in business would be signifi- go About the Author cantly reduced, thus helping the environment, people ca would be able to work from home. This was the vision that Campbell wanted to be a part of, and it is a key hi Carmine Gallo is a former television anchor and business correspondent. He is currently a part of why Steve Jobs has been able to come up with C columnist for Bloomberg BusinessWeek and Mon- such groundbreaking products, year after year., and he has written two books, The Jobs had a big, positive vision about what the per- Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs and The Presenta- sonal computer could bring into the world, and this tion Secrets of Steve Jobs. He has also appeared vision helped him attract some of the most intelli- on CBS, CNBC, NBC, BNET,, and gent and talented people in the computer industry. Gallo has been featured in the Wall No single individual, no matter how smart, talented Street Journal, the New York Times and Investor’s or charismatic, can create innovation on their own. Business Daily. He currently resides in San Fran- Groundbreaking innovation is a team effort, and cisco, California where he lives with his wife people are drawn to those who have inspirational and two daughters. ideas. Passionate people want to make a difference in the world, and if they are shown that a companyBusiness Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 3
  4. 4. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine Galloshares their belief, then they will want to work for tions and policies.that company. This desire to create a better world is a Try New Things, Then Sell Peoplesignificant reason why Apple has been able to recruit Dreams, Not Productssuch talented individuals and make such popular andgroundbreaking products. Steve Jobs has always actively sought out new experi- ences, and in doing so, has opened his mind to newThis big vision also helped raise the capital needed to ways of thinking. After dropping out of Reed College,make the vision become reality. When Apple sought he periodically returned to Oregon to spend timeprivate investments in 1977 to take their company at a Zen-influenced commune that made an incometo the next step, Jobs highlighted in his presentation by growing apples. At the commune he conversedthe various ways that the average person would be with a wide variety of individuals, learning aboutable to use the personal computer. He suggested that many different topics. Jobs also visited India in theit would improve learning efficiency, save time and 1970s in order to have a new, different and exciting ymoney, allow for increased leisure time, increase the op life experience. When Apple began to grow, he hiredvariety of entertainment, allow for better security of artists, musicians and poets to work for the company Cpersonal information, allow for better financial deci- in order to ensure that they had a diverse amount ofsions and create personal enjoyment. A key aspect s creative input within the organization. It is becauseof his vision for the personal computer was that er of his desire to try the new and unknown that he hasanyone would be able to use it, no matter their techni- been, and continues to be, able to draw connections adcal, mathematical, or engineering abilities—and this between things that others cannot.meant that its future users had no desire to purchase Leone at the present moment. This is another hallmark Principle #3: Kick Start Your Brainof true innovation: creating something that people do The substance of the third principle of innovation is ngnot even know they need. that individuals should try new things. The brain fol- ni lows established mental patterns…One reason behind Jobs’ ability to generate idea after idea is in order to conserve energy, and arthat, as Harvard researchers observe, ‘he has spent a lifetime these mental patterns often result Leexploring new and unrelated things – the art of calligraphy, in repetitive, non-creative think-meditation practices in an Indian ashram, and the fine details ing. However, according to Emory nd University neuroscientist Gregoryof a Mercedes-Benz.’ la Berns, if individuals bombard goApple has continued to be successful because Jobs’ their brain with new experiences,original vision has never wavered. He has been very they force their brain to make new judgments. Neu- caclear about his vision for each of the new products roscience researchers at Harvard University have concluded the most important skill separating inno- hithat the company has developed. He does not use or vators from other, less creative, individuals is the Csupport the use of mission statements, instead, prefer-ring to hire talented people who are passionate about ability to connect seemingly unrelated issues or con-what they do and who inspire each other to make the cepts. Innovators are able to connect their previousbest products possible. Subsequently, Apple does not experiences in order to create new huge “inspirational” posters on the walls. As a result, the more varied the life experiences ofIndividuals should never underestimate the power an individual, the greater the number of connectionsa clear and strong vision gives to an organization. If they are able to make between different subject mat-an organization lacks a concise, consistent, and bold ters. Steve Jobs has been able to come up with veryvision, it should begin putting one together, and if unique innovations because his wide-ranging, seem-this proves to be difficult, they should look to a com- ingly unrelated life experiences have provided himpany or organization with an effective vision to see opportunities to draw strikingly different connectionshow it incorporates their vision into everyday interac- between concepts and things. His brain processes andBusiness Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 4
  5. 5. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine Galloconnects information in a way that is unique, in part some major changes.because he has exposed himself to many different Jobs believed that Apple had neglected its core con-things. sumer audience, and had begun to try to design theirWhen Jobs was attending Reed College, he took a products for everyone. He determined that Apple’scalligraphy course and fell in love with the subject. customer base was composed primarily of teach-Calligraphy seemed unrelated to his computing ers and creative-types: at that time, 65 percent of allpassion, and it offered no real career path, but he computers used by teachers in the U.S. were Apples,pursued it just the same. Later on, when he and Woz- as were 80 percent of all computers used in graphicniak were designing the first Apple computer, Apple design, advertising, printing and prepress. TheseI, Jobs thought to incorporate different typefaces into teachers and artists want to make the world a betterthe programming. Without that college calligraphy place. A new ad campaign to remind Apple’s custom-course, he may well not have considered incorporat- ers and employees of what Apple was all about was ying different fonts into the device, and the world’s initiated. One ad featured images of heroes and inspi- opcomputers probably would offer fewer font options. rational figures, including Einstein, Amelia Earhart, C Martin Luther King Jr. and Bob Dylan, while actorJobs also made a connection between the appearance Richard Dreyfuss read an inspirational poem that sof comforting devices which people use every day, emphasized the importance of creativity, ingenuity erand the exterior appearance of computers. Although it and discovery. It reflected Steve Jobs’ philosophy pre-featured comparatively advanced programming, the ad cisely: market the Apple brand as a whole in a way thatApple I was sold primarily as a kit for computer hob- Leinspires others to reach for their dreams and changebyists. Its exterior design did not differ significantly the world for the better, instead of marketing a prod-from that of other computers at the time: it was large uct with gimmicks, bells, and whistles. In fact, Jobs ngand flat, and required the addition of parts to the cir- truly does believe that his customers and employeescuit boards—something which the average individual ni have the ability to make great and amazing changeswould never dream of doing. Realizing that a personal ar in the world through the use of Apple computers, andcomputer which would be used by families could not the sincerity of this belief has encouraged millions to Leappear overwhelming, Jobs spent many hours in the buy more Apple sections of department stores studying the ndexterior design of various appli-ances. It was in food processors All the same, innovation is not limited to building something lathat he found inspiration for the that nobody has ever seen. Instead, Apple does one thing very goApple II’s exterior design, which well: making complex things simple and elegant. That’s whatused a molded, textured plastic caexterior. Most computers have makes Apple the world’s most innovative company. hiused this design since, with the Cexception of the new metallic-encased MacBook Pros. This approach of creating ‘dreams instead of prod- ucts’ implies a different kind of relationship with aPrinciple #4: Sell Dreams, Not Products company’s customer base. If a company is creatingThe fourth principle of Steve Jobs’ innovation is to sell revolutionary products, they are creating somethingdreams, not products. This sentiment is evident in that people do not know that they want until they getthe return of Steve Jobs to Apple Computers in 1997. it. This means that traditional consumer focus groupsAfter he was fired from Apple in 1985, the company are not helpful. For example, the iPad was a huge suc-began to expand, offering products that were not par- cess, but if Apple had asked consumers what productticularly useful or applicable to their main consumer they would like next, few would have suggested aaudience. As a result, Apple sales dropped from $11 device between a laptop and an iPhone without a key-billion to $7 billion. When the company asked Jobs board which allows them to read books, magazinesto return to Apple, he knew there would have to be and newspapers digitally, play music and movies, andBusiness Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 5
  6. 6. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine Galloconnect to the Internet. That would resemble asking the ease-of-use of Apple products, which in turn hassomeone in 1915 to describe their ideal entertainment contributed to their commercial success.product, and expecting them to suggest a television. It The aluminum body enclosure of many Apple prod-is simply beyond their realm of experience. ucts also reduced the amount of the computer’sInstead, Apple connects with its consumer base in structural parts by 60 percent, saving work for thean extremely intimate way that supersedes the need manufacturer and helping to minimize productionfor constant surveys or focus groups. Steve Jobs has waste. The reduction in the number of computer partssaid that he designs products that he would like him- has created computers which are stronger physicallyself, because he knows that his likes and dislikes and and better able to withstand pressure.product needs resemble the likes and dislikes of his The simple, straightforward design of the iPod wascustomers. When Apple releases a new product, it revolutionary in the mp3 industry. Other mp3 playersputs forward of vision of what its customers will love, y included different buttons and knobs which suppos-and its ads demonstrate how they will come to love op edly offered a wider variety of listening options toand enjoy the new product. the consumer, but in reality com- C plicated the listening. In contrast,When Johnson and Jobs decided that the vision for Apple’s s the iPod, featuring a circular padstores would be ‘enriching lives’ instead of ‘moving metal,’ it er with another circle in the middle,allowed them to throw out the conventional retail playbook was designed the make the listen- adthat dictated store design…Apple would build boutiques that Le ing experience as simple, quick, and easy as possible. Anythingoffered solutions, a novel approach to selling computers. detracting from the music lis- ngKeep it Simple tening experience was removed from the final iPod product. niWhen Jobs returned to Apple in 1997, he reduced thenumber of products Apple offered from 350 to 10. A Different Brand Experience arHe wanted to offer products that were excellent, and For many years, Apple depended on giant electronic Lebelieved that offering anything failing his expecta- retailers to sell their products. Unfortunately, manytions would only sully Apple’s reputation. The actions of the employees at these giant retailers knew little ndhe took rescued Apple from the brink of bankruptcy about the various electronic products being sold inand turned it into the successful company it is today. la the store, and as a result were not able to describe the goPrinciple #5: Say No to 1,000 Things advantages that Apple products had over the other products sold in the store. Jobs recognized this prob- caEliminating excess is in keeping with Jobs’ fifth prin- lem, and knew that the only solution was to open aciple of innovation: say no to 1,000 things. Anything chain of Apple retail locations. hithat compromises an uncluttered, elegant customer Cexperience will not be included in the final product. Principle #6: Create Insanely Great ExperiencesThis can be seen in many different aspects of Apple’s This leads to Jobs’ sixth principle of innovation: toadvertising and product lines, as well as on their web- create insanely great experiences. He strives to createsite, which sports a clean, minimalist layout. unique user experiences for Apple customers, and asJobs hired Jonathan Ives, an English designer a consequence, they return to Apple to satisfy theirrenowned globally for simple, visually pleasing future electronic product needs.designs and a tireless work ethic, to create modern, In 2000 he hired former Target executive Ron Johnsonsimple designs for Apple’s products. The marriage and asked Gap CEO Mickey Drexler to join Apple’sof Ives and Apple has been a resounding success. board to help guide Apple to retail success. They hadIves’ minimalist designs offer a unique combination a vision for Apple’s retail stores, and that vision wasof simplicity and accessibility, adding significantly to to “enrich lives.” Their goal was to enable consumersBusiness Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 6
  7. 7. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine Galloto see what they could do with electronic products, old computer and the new one which now conve-and this entailed putting a model of each product out niently contains all the information from the old one.for the customers to play with and use. Apple’s attention to making the computer purchasing experience one which is easy, pleasant, and quick hasAfter many meetings, Jobs and Johnson came up with greatly expanded their customer base.several criteria that would make Apple stores standout from other electronic retailers: The Power of Presentation• The stores would be placed in locations with the Throughout Apple’s history, Steve Jobs has shared easiest access. Instead of putting them in a unique his vision with others in order to gain either financial and remote location, they placed Apple stores in backing or the trust and interest of consumers. With- shopping malls where everyday people would be out the ability to communicate his vision to others able to go inside and look around. effectively, Jobs would not be the successful business- man we know and Apple would not have become the y• The stores would be simple and uncluttered op iconic brand which it is today. inside. They would be well-lit C and open, using only stainless Steve Jobs understands that his audiences retain information steel, glass, and Scandinavian more effectively when ideas are presented in words and pic- s wood in their interior design. er tures instead of words alone... in the iPad presentation...[t]here• The stores would offer a ser- ad were words and pictures – plenty of pictures – but no bullet vice similar to that offered by a concierge at a nice hotel. A points. Le “genius bar” provides a place Principle #7: Master the Message ng for customers to walk up and ask questions about any product or issue they may have with a prod- The power of presentation is reflected in the seventh ni uct. principle of Steve Jobs’ innovation, which is to master ar the message. It was Jobs’ remarkable ability to pres-• The stores would provide one-on-one training ent his ideas in a way which inspires and motivates Le with an Apple employee for any individual who others that enabled Apple to gain financial backing in has purchased an Apple computer on Apple’s the first place, and later to regain the trust of its cus- nd website or in their store. The training would focus tomers. on whatever product or program the customer la chose. Jobs utilizes “the rule of three” in his presentations go and product launches, explaining his products or• The products would be easy to buy. There would ideas in three concise points to make them easy to ca be no cash registers; employees would be able to remember and comprehend. In fact, studies by neu- hi ring up any customer with a portable wireless roscientists have demonstrated that the human brain credit card reader that they carried around the C usually cannot remember more than three or four store with them. pieces of information at a time. Jobs’ presentationsThe Apple retail stores have been a huge success. describe an antagonist in a situation with a problem,Not only have they boosted sales, their convenient and include Apple as the hero, or the solution to themall locations have exposed a wide range of people Apple’s products. The “Meet Your Mac” program The presentations also feature a twitter-friendly head-has made the computer purchasing experience easier. line that provides media outlets a catch phrase to useThrough this program, any customer who has pur- when writing about the new product or service. Thischased a new Apple computer is able to bring in the short and simple headline also enables Jobs to controlold computers so that Apple employees can transfer the public message which the media communicatesdata from the old computer to their new one. The cus- about the new product or service. The twitter-friendlytomer schedules an appointment to pick up both their headlines are shorter than Twitter’s 140-character postBusiness Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 7
  8. 8. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine Gallolimit, and feature something positive about the new Chapter Five: Think Differently About How Youproduct or service. The presentations are visually Thinksimple, including no bullet points, and feature slides Chapter Six: Seek Out New Experiencesto explain key words, as well as slides with pictures toillustrate points. They use “zippy,” uplifting words to Chapter Seven: Think Differently About How Youdescribe Apple’s new product or service. ThinkThree key tactics contribute to Jobs’ ability to com- Chapter Eight: See Genius in their Crazinessmunicate value effectively. First, he tells classic stories Chapter Nine: Think Differently About Your Custom-in order to get others to buy into the idea or product ershe is presenting. Second, he keeps everyone on theApple team aligned by using a consistent and clear Chapter Ten: Simplicity is the Ultimate Sophisticationmessage about each of his ideas and products. Third, Chapter Eleven: Think Differently About Design yhe encourages his employees to develop their own oppresentation skills, and targets people with outstand- Chapter Twelve: We’re here to Help You Grow Cing presentation skills to work for Apple. Chapter Thirteen: Think Differently About Your Brand Experience s er g g g g Chapter Fourteen: The World’s Greatest Corporate adFeatures of the Book Storyteller LeChapter Fifteen: Think Differently About Your StoryReading Time: 4-5 Hours, 241 pages One More Thing…Don’t Let the Bozos Get You DownThe Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs would be ben- ngeficial to those working in executive positions or to Notes nianyone who has started or is interested in starting Index artheir own business. The book cites many examplesof other successful companies which have operated Leunder principles similar to those championed bySteve Jobs. It is written in a straightforward, easy-to- ndread style. There are a few visuals in the book that lahelp to demonstrate some of the tools Steve Jobs uses goin his presentations and in his planning, but morevisuals would have been helpful. It is not necessary to caread the book from cover to cover, since the principlesof innovation do not build upon each other chrono- hilogically. CContentsAcknowledgementsIntroduction: What the World Needs Now is MoreJobs – Steve JobsChapter One: What Would Steve Do?Chapter Two: Follow Your HeartChapter Three: Think Differently About Your CareerChapter Four: Inspire EvangelistsBusiness Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 8
  9. 9. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs Carmine Gallo y op C s er ad Le ng ni ar Le A Note to Our Readers nd We at BBS encourage our readers to purchase the business books we summarize. BBS Summaries are intended as a service to busy professionals, as we recommend only those books la that are worth your time to read in their entirety. We apply stringent criteria in selecting only the best go business books, and in that selection process, strive to help you make informed book-purchasing decisions. ca Click to Buy This Book hi This book is available at bookstores and online booksellers. C Business Book Summaries® is a service of EBSCO Publishing, Inc. For more information about BBS, to subscribe to BBS, or to provide us feedback, visit our Web site. EBSCO Publishing Inc. 10 Estes Street Ipswich, MA 01938 USACopyright of Business Book Summaries, Business Book Review, BusinessSummaries and BizSum is property of EBSCO Publishing Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download or email articles for individual use.Business Book Summaries® May 5, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 9