Sulabo de inglés curso detallado

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Sulabo de inglés curso detallado

  1. 1. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 1 THE SYLLABUS DESIGN. Definition It is a working document that should be used flexibly and appropriately to maximize the aims and processes of learning (Hutchinson and Waters). The syllabus defines the constituent parts of language knowledge, and provides basis for the division of assessment, textbooks and learning time; this makes the language learning task appear manageable. An ESP syllabus shows that some thought and planning has gone into the development of the course. A syllabus will normally be expressed in terms of what is taken to be the most important aspect of language learning and defines the kind of texts to look for, the items to focus on in exercises and finally a syllabus provides a visible basic for testing. A properly constructed and planned syllabus is believed to assure successful learning, since it represents a linguistically and psycholinguistically optimal introduction to the target language. A SYLLABUS DESIGN FOR AN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE COURSE (ESP). PHYLOSOPHICAL AND EPISTHEMOLOGIC BASIS 1.
  2. 2. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 2 Syllabus design theory has consequently been one of the most active branches of applied linguistics in recent years (e.g. Wilkins 1976; Shaw 1977; Yalden 1983; Krashens 1987; Nunan 1988). As a result of the more recent movement toward communicative theories of language and language learning, Syllabus has tended to be expressed more in communicative terms. Despite the extensive literature on syllabus design in recent years, there is little empirical evidence to warrant commitment to any particular approach to syllabus development. In practice, combination of approaches is often used. The syllabus reflects the philosophical assumptions of the syllabus planners: a commitment to communicative language teaching and to a needs-based approach to program content. At the same time the syllabus assumes that teachers have a high degree of proficiency in English and are able to adapt and plan materials and classroom activities around the syllabus. Approaches to Syllabus Design: (Wilkins 1979) 2.1. Synthetic Approach. The Different parts of language are taught separately and step by step, so that acquisition is a process of gradual accumulation of the parts until the whole structure of the language has been built up.  Syllabus= inventory of grammatical structures and list of lexical items.  Fixed order of presentation.  Simplified and limited sample of language.  Restricted vocabulary. 2.
  3. 3. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 3  Linear syllabus design.  Emphasis on form.  Lack of situational relevance. 2.2. Analytic Approach. There is no attempt at this careful linguistic control of the learning environment:  A variety of structures (linguistic structures) is allowed from the beginning.  Analysis of significant forms isolated from the structurally heterogeneous context.  Organized in terms of language behavior or purposes for which people are learning the language.  Structural diversity: heterogeneous, more varied.  Structural considerations are secondary in the choice and organization of the material.  The language not simplified or restricted: authentic language is used. Types of Syllabi 3.1. Grammatical Syllabus This type of syllabus is based on the concept of linguistic competence as “Knowledge of grammar structure”. In this type of syllabus the emphasis is on form; vocabulary and grammar are carefully chosen and controlled, the language is non-authentic and there is lack of situational and contextual relevance. 3.
  4. 4. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 4 3.2. Situational Syllabus This approach assumes that language consists of a set of patterns of social use, and language learning implies becoming proficient in using the language in social situations. 3.3. Notional Syllabus The emphasis of this type of syllabus lies the concepts expresses the ideas or notions such as: time, locality, direction, size, space, etc. Wilkins suggests three components for a syllabus design:  A semantic component: the basic concepts, the WHAT of communication (NOTIONS)  A functional or interactive component: the WHY of communication (FUNTIONS)  A formal component: grammatical knowledge, the WHAT of communication (structures or key language items) 3.3. Functional Notional Syllabus The emphasis is on the purpose (WHY) of communication, represented through functions (such as: asking, describing, narrative, expressing agreement or disagreement, describing, and else) followed by the notions or concepts to be expressed (time, space, locality, frequency, and else). Both notional and functional / notional syllabi represents a communicative approach to language teaching.
  5. 5. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 5 3.4. Task- Based Syllabus The task – based syllabus or procedural syllabus, is based on the task principle (Richards and Rodgers, 1986) which states that “activities that involve the completion of real-world task promote learning”, it does not aim to introduce language items in any order at all, but consists of doing real activities which require real language use. 3.5. Communicative Syllabus The communicative approach was the result of the needs to find alternative ways for foreign language teaching and language syllabus design in Britain. It resulted from the work of a team of experts appointed by the Council of Europe. The main characteristics of this approach are the following. It is based on the idea that language is communication and learning a language is learning to communicate. Language is viewed as a set of concepts (notions) to be communicated and a purpose for communication (functions). The contents of language teaching courses are defined in terms of concepts and functions and not on terms of formal elements of syntax and lexis. It is a student-centered approach: the concepts and functions are based on student’s needs. The syllabus is organized in terms of functions and notions in a cyclic or spiral way. Key language items are introduced depending on the functions without any particular order. It takes the communicative factors of language into account from the beginning, without losing sight of grammatical factors (some cognitive elements
  6. 6. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 6 are accepted). More importance is assigned to the content of communication (the meaning of the message) rather than the form used to express it. Meaning is emphasized. Communicative competence is the desired goal. All four skills are emphasized from the beginning: reading and writing start from the first day. Communication takes place as a discourse where meanings are negotiated through interaction. The students are encouraged to communicate from the beginning; errors are corrected only if they interfere with communication. Communicative activities are developed based on the concept of “information gap”. Some characteristics:  There is more flexibility than in others approaches in the use of the mother tongue. Judicious use of L1 is accepted when necessary.  Dialogues and activities are always contextualized.  Authentic or simulated materials are used to familiarize students with the functions of the language in real situations.  Effective communication is sought and any device which helps the learner is accepted. Procedures from other approaches, such a drilling and grammar explanations may be used if deemed necessary.  Classrooms activities are teacher directed but student-centered. The teacher is a guide or manager: the students interact in pairs or groups, with the teacher or with other students.  Materials are varied, as well as classroom activities. Receptive skills materials and text follow the I +1 principle; the teacher can use oral or written language that is slightly above the language level of the student,  Authentic language is emphasized; fluency is the primary goal.
  7. 7. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 7 A course design It is the process by which the raw data about learning need is interpreted in order to produce an integrated series of teaching – learning experiences. The course design major aim is to drive the learners to a particular state of knowledge. Some important aspects involved in a course design are: a. The use of the Theoretical and Empirical Information available:  To produce a syllabus  To select, adapt or write materials in accordance with the Syllabus  To develop a methodology for teaching those materials.  To establish evaluation procedures by which progress towards the specified goals will be measured b. The Data: After collecting the information about our students needs, we must interpret it. This interpretation helps us to carry out the designing of our course. However, we will find another series of questions when we come to designing our course, the data from our needs analysis can answer these questions. c. The needs analysis: The starting point for Hutchinson and Waters is the question, what is the difference between E.S.P and General English? From a traditional point of view the answer is in General English needs are not specifiable. What distinguishes ESP from General English is not the “existence” of a need as such, but 4.
  8. 8. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 8 rather an “awareness” of a need. It is not so much the nature of the need which distinguishes the ESP from the General Course but rather the awareness of the need (i.e. learners, sponsors and teachers knowing why learners need English). This awareness influences what will be acceptable as reasonable content in the language course. In other words, the content that characterizes the ESP courses (science, medicine, tourism, commerce, culinary art) is a secondary consequence of that awareness (being able to readily specify why the learners need English). Approaches to a course design This is the simplest kind of course design process. The language – centred course design process aims to draw as direct as a connection as possible between the analysis of the target situation and the content of the ESP course. This process may seem to be a very logical procedure because it starts with the learner; goes on through different stages of analysis to a syllabus, and thence to materials used in the classroom and finally to evaluation of mastery of the syllabus items. But if we analyse carefully this process we can find some weaknesses: 4.1 4.1.1 Language – Centred Course Design
  9. 9. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 9 a. About the learner and their needs: This process starts from learners and their needs; but learner is simply used as a means of identifying the target situation; so, the learner is used as a way of locating the restricted area of the language will be taught. Thereafter the learner plays no further part in the process; however, when considering needs analysis, the learner should be considered at every stage of the process. In this model the learning needs of the students are not accounted for at all. b. About the static and inflexible procedure of this approach: Once the initial analysis of the target situation is done, the course designer is locked into a relentless process. No crucial element such as unexpected motivational attitude of students can take into account. In order to respond to unsuspected or developing influences, any procedure must have flexibility, feedback channels and error tolerance. There are conflicts and contradictions that are absolutely inherent in human behaviour which can modify the initial analysis of the target situation. c. About the systematisation of knowledge: The role of systematisation in learning is not so simple; the systematisation of knowledge plays an important and a crucial role in the learning process: we learn by fitting individual items of knowledge together to create a meaningful predictive system. Learners have to make the system meaningful to themselves. Knowledge can be systematically analysed and systematically presented but it is not systematically learnt. By far, we do not know well enough about how the mind goes about creating its internal system of knowledge. The meaningful
  10. 10. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 10 predictive system must be an INTERNALLY – GENERATED SYSTEM not an EXTERNALLY – IMPOSED SYSTEM. As a result, language has a describable system, describing that system will not induce systematic learning. d. language centered – course: it is an analytical model used inappropriately as a predictive one The most important point is the data interpretation, this allows us make use of all sorts of knowledge that are not revealed in the needs analysis itself. We must consider a lot of factors which can be used to determine the content of pedagogic syllabuses and materials. One principle of good pedagogic materials is that they should be interesting and this factor is not acknowledged in the model but this aspect inevitably plays a part in the creation of any course. e. The language – centered analysis of target situation data is only at the surface level It reveals very little about the competence that underlies the performance. To conclude, this approach fails to recognize the fact that, learners being people, learning is not a straightforward, logical process. This approach to ESP has been widely applied in Latin America. The specific aim of this approach is to develop the students’ ability to read in English because, students in universities and colleges need to read important 4.1.2 Skills - Centred Course Design
  11. 11. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 11 subject texts in English and those are unavailable in the students’ mother tongue. Fundamental principles of this approach: a. The basic theoretical hypothesis: It is that underlying any language behavior are certain skills and strategies, which the learner uses in order to produce or comprehend discourse. This approach aims to get away from the surface competence that underlies the performance. Therefore, learning objectives will be presented in terms of both performance and competence. b. The pragmatic basis: It derives from a distinction between Goal – Oriented Courses and Process – Oriented Courses (Widdowson 1981). If we designed a course in terms of what is desirable, for instance: to be able to read in the literature of the student’s specialists, we have to know the period of time of the course for reaching that aim. On the other hand, the level of our students allows us predict the experience and knowledge of their specialists. So, time of the course and experience of the students take part in our course design because we can determine the main aims in terms of those aspects; it is better to say, designing a course whose aims can be achieved during the course in a short term and after the end of the course, concentrating on strategies and processes of making students aware of their own abilities, and motivating them to improve their ESP management after finishing the course. The skills – centered model sees the ESP course as helping learners to develop skills and strategies which can be continued to develop after finishing the period of the course. To summarize; this approach takes the students more into account than the language – centered approach. However, in spite of its concern for the
  12. 12. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 12 learner, the skill – centered approach still takes the learner as a user of language rather than as a learner of a language. This approach directs its attention to the processes of language use not of language learning. As we have seen, a needs analysis reveals that the main need of ESP students is to read texts in their subject specialists, so if we have followed a language – centered or skills - centered approach to course design, we probably conclude that the ESP lessons would be better only with the activity of reading texts. Therefore, as they have no need to write, speak or listen to English, all discussions would be in the native language and writing texts would be minimal. Then, this is a logical application of the models studied above. But, if we took a Learning – Centered Approach, we would needed to ask further questions and consider other factors because, it may be possible that learners might understand the structure of texts more easily by writing texts themselves and, it may be possible too that a knowledge of the sound or rhythm of a language help in reading; so, I suppose that it depends specially on each particular student. Stevick (1982) stresses the importance for memory of creating rich images in a way which closely parallels our own model of learning as a network – building process. But, the most important aspect is how the students can learn that knowledge most effectively; if the effectiveness of the process can be improved by using of other skills, then that is what should be done. Processing the same information through a variety of skills is one way of achieving reinforcement while still maintaining concentration and, in this way, we prevent boredom produced by frequent repetition drills. 4.1.3 Learning - Centred Course Design
  13. 13. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 13 The answers of all the following questions proposed will influence the course design, because it will vary according to the individual situation and time span of the course. The answers will serve to show how factors concerned with learning may affect the design of a course, sometimes in total contradiction to the initial needs of the target situation. English for specific purposes. ESP an important approach English for specific purposes is an area of development of English Language Teaching (ELT), and it is part of the recent move within the English Language Teaching sphere towards a more communicative basis for teaching and learning. The importance of English as an important international language continues to increase because of more people need and require to learn English, for that reason, the teaching of English for specific purposes has expanded and become the most important part of English Language Teaching. The demand for an ESP course comes from groups of students who wish to learn English for particular reasons connected with their studies or their jobs. So, ESP can be seen as an approach to language teaching which is directed by specific and apparent reasons for learning. Learners realize that a specialized course in English help them to access to scientific and technical literature. Language use is different from language learning, ESP must be based on an understanding of the process of language learning. So, it is important to take into account this definition of ESP: “It is an approach to language 5
  14. 14. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 14 teaching in which all decisions as content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning”. According to Munby (1985), there are two main divisions of ESP situation:  English for occupational purposes (EOP)  and English for academic purposes (EAP) EOP is taught in a situation in which learners need to use English as part of their work or profession, and EAP is taught within educational institutions to students needing English in their studies. Three large categories are usually identified: Much of the demand for ESP has come from scientists and technologists who need to learn English for a number of purposes connected with their specialists. EST is an important branch of ESP dealing with scientific content; so, EST is an important aspect of ESP programmers, the term EST is too general to be of great use in the design of ESP materials. A scientist may need to operate in English in a number of different situations such ESP EST English for science and technology EBE English for business and economy ESS English for social sciences
  15. 15. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 15 as: conferences, read relevant, literature, exchange views at social gatherings, write a paper on his subject. The scientist’s specialists have wide range of disciplines and it is clear that the notion of EST is too general; it needs the learner to be taken fully into account (Strevens 1977). Pre – experienced learners is the category of students who need English in order to gain access to knowledge and express in English, the knowledge which they already have. These distinctions made by Strevens help teachers to specify the level of student and the content of teaching materials. ESP Origins It is important to look at the emergence of ESP in the late 1960s and the theoretical and practical aspects which have given place to its subsequent development. The combination of three important aspects seemed to point towards the need for increased specialization in language learning: a. The expansion of demand for English The economic and technological power of the United States by 1945 made that English became the key, to the international currencies of technology and commerce and so, English became the accepted international Language of technology and commerce. A new mass of people emerges, and they knew specifically why they 6.
  16. 16. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 16 wanted to learn English and why they needed it. This had implications for ELT programmers in that the learners and their needs were now taken as central to the problem of deciding course content. The effect of this aspect was to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. b. The developments in the field of linguistics Linguistics began to pay attention to the ways in which language is actually used in real communication. This point gave rise to the view that, there are important differences between the language we speak and the language we write. In ELT there are important differences between the English of commerce and English of engineering, these ideas married up with the development of English courses for specific groups of learners. The developments of linguistics which greatly influenced E.S.P programmers were a move towards a view of language as not only a set of grammatical structure but also a set of functions. c. The developments in the field of educational psychology Educational psychology studied the learners and their attitudes to learn (Rodgers, 1969). The different needs and interests of learners have an influence on their motivation of learn and therefore on the effectiveness of their learning. The relevance of the English course to the learner’s needs improves motivation and makes learning better and faster.
  17. 17. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 17 The development of ESP ESP has been developed in phases; these are well explained in Hutchinson and Waters “A Learning – Centered Approach”; the present paper will summarize the most important aspects of them: a. Register analysis late 1960s and early 1970s Main workers REGISTER ANALYSIS ESP 1964 Peter Strevens Halliday Mc Intosch Focused on Sentence Grammar Language at the sentence level 1969 Jack Ewer La Torre Hughes – Davies John Swales The aim of register analysis was to identify the grammatical and lexical feature common to all scientific disciplines, Ewer and La Torre analyzed more than three million words of scientific English, taken from a variety of sources such as textbooks, paper and journals, they selected the most frequent grammatical patterns: 7.
  18. 18. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 18 present simple tense, the passive voice and nominal compounds; structural words and vocabulary items. The register analysis had a pedagogic motive “makes the E.S.P. course more relevant to learner’s needs”. The aim was to produce a syllabus with a high priority on the language forms students would meet in their science studies. b. Rhetorical or discourse analysis By 1970s Main workers Rhetorical or discourse analysis ESP 1974 Widdowson (Britain) Larry Selinker (EEUU) Louis Trimble Mary Todd – Trimble John Lackstrom Focused on It paid attention to understanding how sentences were combined in discourse to produce meaning. It paid attention to the level above the sentence The aim was to identify the organizational patterns in text and to specify the linguistic means by which these patterns are signaled. These patterns would then form the Syllabus of the E.S.P. course. Widdowson (1978) distinguished between “usage”, language viewed as isolated items of grammatical structure, and “use”, language used to express ideas through a set theoretical acts.
  19. 19. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 19 c. Target situation analysis Main workers Target situation analysis ESP  John Munby (1985): Needs analysis  Chamber Focused on it takes the existing knowledge and set it on a more scientific basis . first, identifies the target situation, then, analyzes the linguistic The aim was to establish procedures for relating language analysis more closely to learner’s reasons for learning. A target situation is the situation in which the learners will use the language they are learning. d. Skills and strategies early 1980s Main workers Skills and strategies ESP 1981 Francois Grellet Focused on It considers the thinking processes that underlie language use. Reading skills1982 Christine Nuttal 1984 Charles Alderson Sandy Urquhart
  20. 20. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 20 The main idea behind the skill centered approach is that underlying all language process, which regardless of the surface forms, enables us to extract meanings from discourse. This approach focuses on the underlying interpretive strategies, which enable the learners to cope with the surface forms, for instance: guessing the meaning of words from context, exploiting cognates, using visual layout to determine the type of text. In terms of materials the emphasis is on reading or listening strategies. Factors influencing ESP teaching and learning The factors influencing the design and implementation of ESP programs are numerous and their inter- relationship is complex. Teachers must take into consideration these points: a. The Role of English The role of English as a means of communication, as a subject on the school curriculum or as a medium providing access to technology and science have considerable impact on ESP programs since the student’s knowledge of English and their awareness of their need for the language will vary according to their exposure and familiarity with English and its usefulness to them. Program objectives may vary according to whether the students are studying in an institution where English is the medium of instruction or in one where English is simply and additional subject on the curriculum. 8.
  21. 21. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 21 b. Resources and Administrative Constrains The number and nature of facilities available influence programs, and teachers should not brush aside the physical realities of a situation when designing courses, for example, the ease of access to materials, the adequate provision of reprographic facilities, the availability of audio-visual aids and the amount of space available for class teaching. Teachers must take into account the size of classes the degree of homogeneity within classes with respect to abilities and subject discipline, the number of hours given to English. c. The Learners Some characteristics such as: age, level, motivation, and attitudes to learning must be also considered. Many of ESP learners are adults, for that reason there is likely to be more agreement on needs between teachers and students at adult level since the purposes are more clearly defined, the older a learner is, the more likely he is to have his own definite ideas on why his learning English.The significance of specialist knowledge and the specialist text makes learners able to manage linguistic skills and perform the ways of thinking appropriate to his particular discipline. A course is designed to match a given motivation, problems may occur either if the course content and the learner’s motivation do not match or if the level of motivation is low in the first place. On the other hand,
  22. 22. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 22 attitudes to an E.S.P. course may be influenced by a student’s previous learning of English, there may be a negative feeling if the previous learning has not been successful. d. Linguistic aspects Any analysis of needs have as its central point the language which it will be necessary to teach if the learner is to achieve his purpose. The learner may need to be taught a certain vocabulary, specific forms and functions, and how these functions interrelate to produce coherent text. Each subject specially has its own vocabulary, often highly specialized or technical. Scientific English uses the same structure as any other kind of English but with a different distribution. It is also important to realize that grammar may be used in specific ways in scientific texts and that reference to a general English grammar may not be helpful. We must look beyond the grammatical level to see what function the structure has in the text from which is it taken. The type of English the learner is aiming will change its characteristics according to a number of variables. Topic will considerably affect vocabulary. A further important variable, when considering the variety of language to be taught, is the role and status of the participants. Reading. ESP has its basis in investigation of the purposes of the learner and the set of communicative needs arising from those purposes. These needs will then act as a guide to the design of course materials. The kind of 9.
  23. 23. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 23 English to be taught will be based on the interest and requirements of the learner. The specific purpose most common within the participant Universities is the reading of specialist literature in English, Given a group of learners with this specific purpose in teach English help teachers to use this information as a guideline for the content of a course suited to the student’s interest and needs. Teaching reading Interactive, integrated – skills approaches to language teaching emphasize the interrelationship of skills. In this point, we will focus on reading as a component of general second language proficiency in the perspective of interactive language teaching. So, reading ability will be best developed in association with: writing – listening – speaking activities. Especially the reading – writing connection will help us to achieve the goals in teaching reading. EVALUATION. Focus of Evaluation. The primary focus of evaluation is to determine whether the goals and objectives of a language program are being attained – that is, whether the program is effective. When a decision must be made as to whether to adopt one of two possible program options geared to the same objectives, a secondary focus is on the relative 10.
  24. 24. Dra. Mildred M. Pérez Pérez 24 effectiveness of the program. In addition, evaluation may be concerned with how a program works: that is, with how teachers and learners and materials interact in classroom, and how teachers and learners perceive the program’s goals, materials, and learning experiences. Evaluation differs from educational research in that even though it shares many of the procedures of educational research ( text, assessment, observation ), information obtained from evaluation procedures is used to improve educational practices rather than simply describe them. Examination Questions. Examination questions tend to have a common underlying structure. They consist of a topic, the subject which is to be dealt with in the answer. It is this part of the question that students often pick out the instruction which is also contained in the question and which should influence the type of answer they give. These instructions are often in the form of imperatives, such as: define, explains, discuss, describe, compare, list, calculate, and prove. Each, of these imperative requires a different type of answer. An explanation’ requires not only a description of an event but the reasons why it occurred. A comparison between two process, for example, might involve a description of process A, then process B, with a comparison of A and B following, and a conclusion.
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