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205 Chemistry Notes 2

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Periodic Table Group Properties

Periodic Table Group Properties

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  • 1. Chapter 16 Group Properties
  • 2.
    • 1 outer shell electron
    • form ions with a charge of +1; form ionic compounds of similar formulas
    • very reactive metals; metals are kept under oil to prevent corrosion by air and water
    • shiny, silvery solids
    • soft and have low densities (can be cut with a knife!)
    • low melting points
    • react with water to give alkaline solutions, producing metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas
    group I elements - the alkali metals properties
  • 3. changes down group I elements
    • densities increase
    • melting points decrease
    • more reactive
    group I elements - the alkali metals 39 1.5 Rb rubidium 64 0.86 K potassium 98 0.97 Na sodium 180 0.53 Li lithium 1.9 Density (g/cm 3 ) 29 Cs caesium Melting Point ( ° C) Symbol Name
  • 4.
    • reactions of group I elements with water:
    reaction with water group I elements - the alkali metals 2K + 2H 2 O 2KOH + H 2 explosion potassium 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2 very fast reaction; sometimes sodium catches fire and explodes sodium 2Li + 2H 2 O 2LiOH + H 2 fast reaction lithium Equation for Reaction Observation Alkali Metals
  • 5. group VII elements - the halogens
    • 7 outer shell electrons
    • ions with a charge of -1
    • very reactive non-metals
    • diatomic molecules
    • low melting and boiling points
    • a more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its ions
    C l 2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) I 2 (aq) + 2KC l (aq) properties
    • react vigorously with metals to form ionic salts
    2Na (s) + C l 2 (g) 2NaC l (s)
  • 6. changes down group VII elements
    • melting and boiling points increase
    • elements become darker in colour
    • less reactive
    • change from gas to solid
    changes in physical properties of group VII elements gaseous chlorine liquid bromine solid iodine group VII elements - the halogens
  • 7. group VII elements - the halogens pale yellow gas -188 -220 F2 fluorine 114 -7 -101 Melting Point ( ° C) 184 59 -35 Boiling Point ( ° C) solid liquid gas Physical State at Room Condition black I 2 iodine Reddish brown Br 2 bromine yellow-green C l 2 chlorine Colour Formula of Molecule Halogens
  • 8. group 0 elements – the noble gases
    • monatomic, colourless gases
    • full valence shells; no wish to form bonds with other atoms
    • unreactive
    • low melting and boiling points
    properties provide an inert atmosphere unreactive; hot wire will not burn in the gas very low density; unreactive Properties light bulbs and steel production argon advertising strip lights neon balloons and modern airships helium Uses Noble Gases
  • 9. the transition elements properties
    • high densities and melting points
    • not very reactive
    • strong and hard metals
    • variable valency and oxidation states in compounds
    8.9 8.9 7.9 7.2 Density (g/cm 3 ) 1083 1453 1535 1890 Melting Point ( ° C) Other Metals Transition Metals 850 1.5 calcium copper 660 2.7 aluminium nickel 650 1.7 magnesium iron 98 0.97 sodium chromium Density (g/cm 3 ) Melting Point ( ° C) Metal Metal
  • 10. the transition elements properties
    • coloured compounds formed; solutions of ions in water are also coloured
    • elements and their compounds are good catalysts
    solutions of transition metal ions from left: manganate(VII), dichromate(VI), copper(II), nickel(II)
  • 11. the transition elements
    • uses of transition elements and their compounds:
    as a catalyst in Haber Process for the manufacturing of ammonia iron bright colours in porcelain copper, iron and cobalt filaments for light bulbs tungsten as a catalyst to manufacture margarine from vegetable oils nickel as a catalyst in Contact Process for the manufacturing of sulphuric acid vanadium(V) oxide nails, ships iron mixed with a little carbon (alloy – steel) Uses Transition Elements/ Compounds
  • 12. halogens group properties alkali metals noble gases
    • atoms have 1 outer shell electron
    • form M + ions
    • conduct electricity
    • have low melting points
    • are soft
    • have low densities
    • very reactive metals
    • react with water to form alkali MOH and H 2 gas
    transition elements
    • conduct electricity
    • have high melting and boiling points
    • have high densities
    • have variable valency
    • form coloured compounds
    • are often good catalysts
    • form strong alloys
    • atoms have 8 outer shell
    • electrons
    • unreactive gases
    • form monatomic molecules
    • atoms have 7 outer shell electrons
    • form X - ions
    • do not conduct electricity
    • have low melting and boiling points
    • form diatomic molecules X 2
    • reactive non-metals
    • form salts with metals
    • each displaces other halogens below
    • from their salts in water
    properties changes down the group
    • more reactive
    • melting point decreases
    • density increases
    properties properties changes down the group
    • more dense
    properties changes down the group
    • darker in colour
    • melting and boiling
    • points increase
    • from gas to solid
    • less reactive
    of of of of