Oil spills


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Oil spills

  1. 1. Surname1Student’s Name:Professor’s Name:Course Code:Date: Oil spillsAccording to Fattal et al., oil spills in marine environments can have long term effects not onlyto wildlife, coastal habitats and fisheries but also to human beings respectively (889). Eventhough the number of oil spills has decreased from tanker accidents, accidental oil spills causedby maritime transport are still a significant source of pollution for the oceans in the world. Oilspills can occur when individuals make mistakes or become careless thus causing an oil tanker toleak oil into the ocean. In addition to that, oil spills can occur when equipment breaks down thusmaking the tanker to get stuck on shallow land. This eventually forces individuals to start drivingthe tanker thus resulting to creation of a hole that initiates the leaking of oil. When two countriesare at war, one of them may decide to dump oil into another’s country ocean to gain attention ormake a point. Some people also dump oil illegally into the oceans as they do not want to spend alot of cash on decomposing their waste crude oil or breaking up the oil.
  2. 2. Surname2 Effects of oil spills on the environment and how it affects the worldOver the years, oil spills have significantly contributed to marine and coastal pollution thuscausing disturbance of the coastal environment. The potential harmful effects of this hazard havebeen taken into account through the implementation of preventive actions in Coastal zoneIntegrated Management (Fattal et al. 879). Effects of oil spills on wild life and HabitatsOil spills have a diverse impact on the wildlife and its habitats through physical contactinhalation, ingestion and absorption. Floating oil often contaminates planktons which includesfish eggs, algae and larvae of various invertebrates that inhabit the waters. Fish that feed on theplankton that are contaminated with oil spills, often affects the larger food chains including thebigger fish, birds, terrestrial animals and even the human who consume the contaminatedorganisms. Oil spills have a great impact on the species that use the water surface including thewaterfowl and sea otters and also the species that inhabit the near shore environment (“Effects ofoil spills on wildlife and habitats” 1). Due to the persistence of oil spills in the environment forlonger periods often results to the shifts in population structure, species diversity, abundance andtheir distribution. Loss of habitat and prey items through oil spills has the capability of affectingwildlife and fish populations at large. Impacts of oil spill on a country’s economyOil spill results to direct and indirect effects. The indirect effects consists of the following, lossof jobs in the tourism and fishing industries , destruction of the people’s health, vitality and therich culture communities in the coastal region, imminent bankruptcies and vast environmentaldamages that persists for decades resulting to the disruption of seafood markets nationwide.
  3. 3. Surname3These indirect effects impacts heavily on the economy in that majority of the people are renderedjobless especially those practicing fishing and working in the fishing and tourism industries dueto disruption of wildlife habitats hence leading to death of aquatic organisms. In addition to that,those nations that depend on tourism as a foreign exchange earner will receive a blow as thecoastal ecosystems are tempered through the loss of biodiversity e.g. wildlife and plants. Largeamount of money will also be channeled to cleaning the mess rather than it being used for otherpurposes such as development. Mitigation measures put in place to combat oil spill environmental damagesThe increased number of oil spills since the 1960s has triggered the design and implementationof international liability regime known as CLC/FUND regime, devoted to the compensation forthe damage caused by oil pollution (Hay 29). This regime has implemented a multiple-tiersystem which has aimed at compensating on an objective basis for damages cost by oil pollutionaffecting countries which have ratified the FUND and CLC conventions. The shipping and cargointerests often share the burden of this regime. The bottom layer of the tier comprises of shippingindustry, objectives and the financially limited civil liability of tank owners while the upper layeris made up of supplementary compensation funds limited at the expense of oil companies basedin member countries who contribute by paying according to the proportion quantities of oil theyreceive annually.A variety of articles have put their focus on the interest of using liability and compensationmeans in the field of marine oil pollution prevention. The article analysis is based on the wellestablished feedbacks in environmental laws and economics. They have efficient and effectivelevels of prevention which might be achieved via passing on the overall cost of damage to the
  4. 4. Surname4parties that are responsible for an accident. However there exists some limitation inimplementing these policies. For example, insufficient financial caps and a restrictive approachin defining damage entitling compensation which jeopardizes the possibility of internalizing thesocial cost of pollution. ConclusionHuman beings should try to coexist with other ecosystems so as to achieve a clean and healthyenvironment free from pollution.
  5. 5. Surname5 Work Cited Effects of oil spills on wildlife and habitats retrieved from<http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=12&hid=15&sid=dc5f6ea3-7426-4918-9f06-ea27cf4641b3%40sessionmgr1> on 28 November, 2011.Fattal, P., et al. “Coastal Vulnerability to Oil Spill Pollution: the Case of Noirmoutier Island(France)”. Coastal Research 26. 5(2010):879–887.Print.Julien, Hay. “How efficient can international compensation regimes be in pollution prevention?A discussion of the case of marine oil spills”. Int Environ Agreements 10(2010): 29–44.Print.