What is Phonetics?• Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. > Articulatory phonetics – how speech sounds are produced > Acoustic phonetics – the transmission and physical properties of speech sounds > Auditory phonetics – perception of speech sounds• Phonetic transcriptions – one sound = one symbol.
Consonants• The descriptions of the sounds we call consonants are based on the human articulatory system (lungs to pump air in and out, vocal folds, oral cavity including tongue and lips, and nasal cavity).• Consonants are described using 3 characteristics: ▫ vocal quality (voiced/voiceless) ▫ point of articulation ▫ manner of articulation
Vowels• Place of articulation, manner of articulation and voicing are not useful when trying to describe vowels.• Vowels are all made in the mouth (place), with little or no air flow constriction (manner) and are always voiced in English• So the system that describes vowels does so in terms 4 characteristics: ▫ tongue placement ▫ tongue height ▫ lip rounding ▫ tenseness.
Supersegementals• Length ▫ High vowels shorter than low vowels ▫ Voiceless consonants longer than voiced consonants ▫ Voiceless fricatives longest ▫ Length is influenced by the surrounding sounds• Tone ▫ Can change meaning in some languages (like Chinese)• Stress ▫ Stressed syllables more prominent than unstressed ones ▫ Stressed syllables usually contain tense vowels ▫ Stressed syllables are often longer ▫ Unstressed syllables reduce vowel• Intonation ▫ Rising and falling intonation can change meaning
What is Phonology• Phonology is how speech sounds are organized and affect one another in pronunciation.• Key terms: ▫ Phone – sound that is actually heard [ ] ▫ Phoneme – more theoretical (idea) of a sound / / ▫ Allophone – nondistinctive realization of the same phoneme• This organization is explained in phonological rules
Different Types of Phonological Variation• Overlapping Distribution – different sound in same environment (ex. /thap/ vs. /phat/).• Contrastive distribution – changing sound changes meaning (ex. /mæn/ vs./mɪn/).• Complementary distribution – sounds in a language never found in the same phonetic environment (ex. /thap/ vs. /path/*).• Free variation – two sounds that occur in overlapping environments but doesn’t change meaning (ex. /ɪnpʊt/ vs. / ɪmpʊt /).
Phonemic Rules• Aspiration Rule: Voiceless stops are aspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable.• Liquid/Glide Devoicing: Liquids/Glides become voiceless when they follow a voiceless stop, fricative, or affricate.• Vowel Lengthening: Vowels are lengthened when they come before a voiced consonant.• Flapping: When a /t/ or /d/ is preceded by a vowel and followed by a vowel, it becomes flapped (ex. bitter, butter, batter, ladder, letter, beauty, beautiful).
Phonological Rules• Assimilation – becomes like the neighboring sound (ex. hippo) ▫ Palatization (ex. Don’t you, Won’t you) ▫ r coloring (ex. fur, bird, party) often seen as /ɚ/or/ɝ/ ▫ Nasal coloring• Dissimilation (ex. fifth, sixth)• Insertion (ex. dance, strength, hamster)• Deletion (ex. chocolate, interesting)