WHAT IS STOPFRAME?Stop Frame: Stop motion (also known as stop action or frame-by-frame) is an animation technique used to make a physicallymanipulated object appear to be moving on its own. Aardmanhas made this technique very famous; this company has beenproducing stop motion animation since 1976 when Morph firstappeared on TV. The object is moved in small incrementsbetween individually photographed frames, creating the illusionof movement when the series of frames is played as acontinuous sequence. Dolls with movable joints or clay figuresare often used in stop motion for their ease of repositioning.Stop motion animation using plasticine is called clay animationor “clay-mation”. Not all stop motion requires figures or models;many stop motion films can involve using humans, householdappliances and other items of comedic effect.
WHAT IS FRAMERATE?Frame Rates: Frame rate, or frame frequency, is thefrequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces uniqueconsecutive images called frames. The term applies equallywell to computer graphics, video cameras, film cameras, andmotion capture systems. Frame rates can effect how theproduction can be viewed, this can be the difference betweenit being very smooth and the jittering. Jittering within theproduction can also show you where the frame starts andfinishes, this effect can sometimes work well but there aretimes this doesn‟t work well.
WHAT IS PERSISTENCEOF VISION?Persistence of Vision: Persistence of vision is thephenomenon of the eye by which an afterimage is thought topersist for approximately one twenty-fifth of a second on theretina. Persistence of vision is a relationship between the eyeand the brain, almost as if we are being tricked into believingwhat is going on with the animation on screen. The imagebelow is an example of this technique, it almost appears as ifthere are multiple coins when in fact it is only the one movingat a fast rate.
PIONEERS – WILLIAMHORNERWilliam Horner was an animator pioneer who created one ofthe original animations of the zoetrope in 1834. A zoetrope isa device that produces an illusion of movement from a rapidsuccession. This allowed animation to be viewed easier dueto the slits in the side which allowed the person could lookinside and produce a better effect than the phenkitascope.
PIONEERS - EDWARDMUYBRIDGEEdward Muybridge, in 1878, took 20 simultaneousphotographs of a horse jumping. These photographsshocked America when they were first released as they werethe first of the time. This form of photography would usuallyhave taken a minuet, he used a more developed cameraallowing him to take 1 picture every 0.5 seconds. Thisallowed him to take the 12 quick image. After developingthese images he was looking through and then repeated thiswith a bit more speed which made it appear as if the imageswere moving.
DEVELOPERS – RAYHARRYHAUSENTo those who do know him, his name stands out as alandmark in the history of a genre and cinematic art, the artof dimensional stop-motion animation. Ray made his nameknown by developing fantastic stories and creatures basedon legends and mythology and creating a unique genre offantasy films during the 1950‟s, 60‟s and 70‟s that took themovie making world, and the public, by storm.
DEVELOPERS - JANSVANKMAJEROne of the great Czech filmmakers, JAN SVANKMAJER wasborn in 1934 in Prague where he still lives. Svankmajer madehis first film in 1964 and for over thirty years has made someof the most memorable and unique animated films evermade, gaining a reputation as one of the worlds foremostanimators, and influencing filmmakers from Tim Burton toThe Brothers Quay.
CONTEMPORARYANIMATORS – TIM BURTONTim Burton is an American film director, film producer, writeand artist. He is famous for his dark, quirky-themed moviessuch as Beetle Juice, Edward Scissorhands, Corpse Brideand Dark Shadows. He is also known for blockbusters suchas Pee-Wee‟s Big Adventure, Batman and Batman Returns.was Burtons first full-length stop-motion film as a director,featuring the voices of Johnny Depp, as Victor, and HelenaBonham Carter (for whom the project was specificallycreated) as Emily. In this film, Burton was able to continueusing his personal quirky styles and trademarks, such ascomplex interactions between light and darkness and ofbeing caught between two irreconcilable worlds.
CONTEMPORARY -AARDMAN ANIMATIONSAardman was founded in 1972 as a low-budget project byPeter Lord and David Sproxton, who wanted to realise theirdream of producing an animated motion picture. One of therevery first productions was morph. Leading up to themillennium they had created a whole range of different stopmotion animations. This also includes advertising. In 2000they then produced there first full-length feature movie„Chicken Run‟. This was a giant hit for Aardman and sincethen they have produced and worked on more movies suchas Flushed Away.
BROTHERS QUAYStephen and Timothy Quay are American identical twinbrothers better known as the Brothers Quay or QuayBrothers. They are influential stop-motion animators. Theyare also the recipients of the 1998 Drama Desk Award forOutstanding Set Design for their work on the play „TheChairs’. They reside and work in England after moving herein 1969 to study at the Royal College of Art in London. Therebody of work includes „Punch and Judy (Tragical Comedy orComical Tragedy)‟ in 1980 and „Rain Dance‟ which was asmall film for Sesame Street in 1990.
DIFFERENTTECHNIQUESStop frame: Stop frame animation is a long process ofphotographing a model, moving it a miniscule amount, thenphotographing it again. Finally, you string the photographstogether and the tiny movements appear to be action. Thisform of animation is the simplest to use and is great forbeginners.Cut Out: Simple animation used on TV is usually acombination of cutout and collage techniques. Cutoutanimation uses, literally, models or puppets that have beencut from drawing paper or craft paper. The pieces are thenarranged loosely, or connected by fasteners and thenarranged. Each pose or move is captured, then the model isrepositioned, and shot again.
DIFFERENT TECHNIQUESCONTINUEDRotoscoping: Rotoscoping is used to capture realistic humanmovement by drawing over film footage of live actors. Perhapsthis sounds like cheating, but adding an artists vision to themovements of a human actor can create a unique storytellingmedium that is just as stylistic as any other form of animation.Cel Animation: When someone says the word "cartoon," whatwe see in our head is usually cel animation. Cartoons todayrarely use the pure cel animation of the past, instead employingcomputers and digital technology to help streamline theprocess.CGI: Computer Generated Imagery is also used for 2D and stop-motion animation. But its 3D CGI animation that has become apopular form of animation. Beginning with Pixars Toy Story, 3DCGI animation has raised the bar for the images we see onscreen.
DIFFERENT FORMATSAnimations come in several different formats, this includes:Music video‟s – E.G SledgehammerCinema - Feature length films E.G Corpse Bride & ChickenRunChannel Idents – Defines or is important to the brand of thechannel and acts as a moving image for that seasonshowings. E.G Cbeebies use the moving images to make thechannel appeal to a younger audience, during seasons suchas Christmas they will make the logo more Christmasorientated.Advertising – Stop animation is used in certain brands ofadvertising to make something appeal more, usually usedwithin children‟s TV as it catches their attention. E.G Xboxand Amazon