Chapter 7 TermsSocial Stratification - the ranking of people and therewards they receive based on an objective criteria,often including wealth, power and or prestige.Income - is the money received for work or throughinvestments.Wealth - is all of your material possessions plusincome
Forms of PovertyTransitional Poverty - is a temporary state ofpoverty that occurs when a person loses their job fora short time.Marginal Poverty - when a person lacks stableemployment.Residual Poverty - is chronic and multigenerationalpoverty.Relative Poverty- is a state of poverty that occurswhen we compare ourselves to those around us.
Terms for Power and PrestigePower - is the ability to carry out your will andimpose it on others.Delegated - means given or assignedPower Elite - is a small group of prestige who holdimmense power.Prestige - is the level of esteem associated with onesstatus and social standing.
Race and Poverty•In the United States there are approximately 37million people living in poverty.•Most lower class often live paycheck to paycheck andone hospital bill or layoff will cause financial problems•In 2008 statistics showed that no matter what agegroup they were in blacks seemed to have the mostpoverty.•Whites had the lowest amount of poverty
Race and Poverty•Hispanics were in 2nd place for poverty•More than 2/3 of Americans live near the povertyline•10% of senior citizens live at the poverty line•½ of children in the U.S. live near the poverty line•A poor woman is 3x more likely to have a childbefore marriage which explains why ½ the childrenare in poverty.
Race and Poverty• Most homeless receive government assistance, have littleto no health care, and often lack a high school diploma.•They often find jobs that pay them minimum wage, andoften known as the urban underclass•Urban underclass - lives in disadvantaged neighborhoodsthat are characterized by four components: poverty, familydisruption, male unemployment, and lack of individuals inhigh-status occupations•Sociologist William J. Wilson stated that these componentscould trigger a cycle of undermining social organization
Race and Poverty•U.S. urban poor are increasingly living in neighborhoodswith fewer opportunities, poor schools, weak socialstructures, large amounts of crime, and rampant drug use•What is the major disadvantage is that they have no rolemodels around them
Theories (Social Stratification) Functionalism Kingsley Davis, Wilbert Moor etcStratification system is inevitable because people havedifferent ability. Abilities are more or less important tosociety.People need some people who do tough or stressful jobs ora job which need longer the training. These people gaingrater the rewards.The idea of “The united states is the land of opportunity” isbased on functionalism. Many Millionaires believe that they
Theories (Social Stratification) Conflict Theory Melvin Tumin etcConflict theory has diametrically opposite interpretations of socialstratification. There is nothing inevitable about inequality. Socialinequality is rooted in a system that is more likely to reward youbased on where you start. Not solely based on ability you have.The Social importance of a job does not seen to be the only basisfor financial rewards. The US system doesn’t allow dynamic socialmobility. Wealthy people stay affluence and poor people can notescape from poverty. Educational inequality of the United Statescan be explained by conflict theory.
Theories (Social Stratification) Symbolic Interactionism Stuber etcSymbolic interactionists focus how people perceive povertyand wealth. Symbolic interactionists believe social classimpact to our personal belief system. For example, upperclass college students are unconcerned about social class.Working class college students have to consider about theirsituation. Lower class people have lower expectation aboutfuture earnings and successes.
Classes in the United StatesUpper or Elite Class - a social class that is very small innumber and holds significant wealth.Upper Middle Class - A social class that consists of high-income members of society who are well educated but donot belong to the elite membership of the super wealthy.Middle Class - a social class that consists of those whohave moderate incomes.Working Class - A social class generally made up ofpeople with high school diplomas and lower levels of
Classes in the United StatesLower Class - Social class living in povertyUrban Underclass - a Social class living in disadvantagedneighborhoods that are characterized by four components.Poverty, family disruption, male unemployment, and lack ofindividuals in high-status occupations