Asca 2013 Top to Bottom dryland training

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Asca 2013 Top to Bottom dryland training

  1. 1. CAVEAT AUDIENS!!  The author of this presentation is a sprinter.  BUT he has done the Hawaii Ironman, several half Ironmans and marathons.  The author of this presentation is a short attention span coach, athlete and researcher.  BUT it makes him want to do something other than watch or participate in hours of mind numbing workouts. Have used dryland training with swimmer since 1979.  The author is an English major.  BUT swim coach since 1974, CSCS 2002. Health and Fitness researcher/author who has trained junior national and national swimmers, age group triathletes, runners and masters swimmers.
  2. 2. A humble offering  “When the human body is concerned, we are dealing with a system that is so complex with som many interrelated variables, we can do nothing but be humble about our beliefs and recommendations.”  Chris Beardsley
  3. 3. Why drylands for swimmers?
  4. 4. Why? Because….  The repetitive motion of swimming creates muscle imbalances increasing the chances of injury.  Active releases, flexibility exercises, corrective exercises and resistance training can restore muscle balance.  Aerobic training decreases strength and anaerobic power  Resistance training strengthens tendons as well as muscles.  Resistance training to failure can improve aerobic capacity.  Resistance training creates stronger joint force couples  Resistance training shows a significant improvement in movement economy compared to subjects who perform normal aerobic programming.
  5. 5. What’s the difference in adding in high intensity training (strength)?  Runners divided into HIT and HVT groups had the same relative improvement in their 10K times  Swimmers divided similarly had the same relative improvements in events between 100 and 400 meters.  Research consistently shows similar if not superior gains in aerobic capacity with high intensity training (Laursen et al 2010)
  6. 6. But Wait there’s more…..!  Improved exercise performance as measured by time- to-exhaustion tests or time trials  Increased maximal oxygen uptake  Increases compliance in peripheral arteries  Increases the value of your 401K  Order now and it will improve your dancing skills!
  7. 7. Costill ‘‘It is difficult to understand how training at speeds (or force production) that are markedly slower (or weaker) than competitive pace for 3–4 h/day will prepare (an athlete) for the supramaximal efforts of competition.’’ Costill (1991)
  8. 8. Early Expert Questions- Astrand “It is an important but unsolved question which type of training is most effective: to maintain a level representing 90 % of the maximal oxygen uptake for 40 min, or to tax 100 % of the oxygen uptake capacity for about 16 min.” Textbook of Work Physiology, Åstrand and Rodahl (1986)
  9. 9. Resistance training to failure = Acute CV Improvements (Steele, 2012) Improved lactate metabolism Increased AMPK Improved aerobic glycolisis Increased motor recruitment
  10. 10. Chronic responses – Steele 2012 •Improved VO2 max* •Upregulation of mitochondrial enzymes •Increased mitochondrial proliferation •Increased capillarizaton and other vascular improvements. •Conversion towards type IIa phenotypes
  11. 11. Two stimuli for the same switch? Repeated High Intensity Contractions??
  12. 12. Resistance training to muscle failure (Mikkola et al. 2006) 20% of endurance volume replaced by strength and power training with no loss of aerobic capacity. Lactate to velocity improved slightly in experimental group
  13. 13. Genetics: Some people are Kenyans some are Jamaicans • More than 50% of the people in the US have a higher % of fast twitch fibers. • In a cardiovascular training study improvements in VO2 max ranged from 0-1000% • In a strength training study hypertrophy improvements ranged from 0-54%
  14. 14. Joint Integrity and technique  Most individuals have joint dysfunctions.  Continuous exercise to physical and mental fatigue attacks areas of dysfunction.  Strength sessions can improve the integrity of joints and create more stability.  Training at higher but controlled tempos with mindful technical proficiency increases joint stabilization.  Bring all the muscles to the party!
  15. 15. Enjoyment  Continuous swimming and black line fever is not pleasant for some (most?).  Something different to look forward during a week.  Different goal setting that is .
  16. 16. Time  Replacing some of the hours of long submaximal distance training will provide more time for  Friends and family  Other responsibilities  Recovery and rejuvenation strategies  Sleep  Improvement of technique.  Complement any pool time limitations.
  17. 17. What about sport specificity?
  18. 18. Sports specificity is the sport “No exercise in the weight room is sport specific. Training in the weight room enhances physical qualities associated with athleticism which is different from skill. The repetition of the sport’s skill is what allows the strength aspect to transfer.” Rob Panariello “There are reams of research showing improved performance and transference into sporting actions.” Bret Contreras
  19. 19. Is this sports specific? Lochte lifting big ass tire! Lochte lifting big ass chain!
  20. 20. Lochte in hi-tech swim cap, suit and fins doing a high intensity workout w medball and rope by pool!
  21. 21. Lochte after a ……well you know.
  22. 22. Swimming seems ideally suited to dryland style HIT workouts  Event times range from 18 seconds to 20 minutes.  There are few ways you can improve force production equally in the pool.  Aerobic training weakens anaerobic muscle fibers and more than half of swim events are at least 50 % anaerobic.  There is a good chance that some swimmer s can be “tricked” into working harder on drylands than in pool.  Specific gravity considerations.
  23. 23. Now that we’re all in agreement!
  24. 24. How do muscles respond differently in swimming  In land based activities, muscles react to ground force reaction of the foot.  Swimmers have an entirely different force reaction  Top to bottom reaction.  Hand is the driver of force and chain reaction.  Force is initiated by a liquid and not a solid  Force on opposite end is also anchored by liquid, not solid  Thorax and its appendages – scapula, shoulders, ribs etc and their attendant muscles, ligaments and attachments take on a role similar to pelvis and trunk muscles
  25. 25. There are many considerations in dryland design for swimmers.  Swimming primarily involves internal rotation of the shoulder complex.  Swimming requires a lengthened or extended torso.  Popular dryland or gym exercises are primarily designed for shortened or flexed torso and internal rotation.  Our sitting society promotes shoulder IR and anterior tilt of the pelvis and swimming requires a neutral pelvis.  Swimming is a multiplanar movement (like all athletic and active movements)
  26. 26. Exercise either lengthens (extends) or shortens (flexes) muscles
  27. 27. Lengthening or shortening?
  28. 28. Lengthening or shortening
  29. 29. Lengthening or shortening
  30. 30. Start w stabilized and strong core muscles  “Structures that make up the Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex.” National Academy of Sports Medicine.  “The body minus the arms and legs” Wikipedia  “Balanced development of deep and superficial muscles that stabilize, align and move the trunk of the body, especially the abdominals and muscles of the back.” Pilates  “The core is…abdominals…,glutes and lower back muscles, called the erector spinae, psoas muscle of the hips and the multifidus of the spine.Muscles (that) stabilize the trunk, including the spine and pelvis, and core strength training targets these muscles.” Livestrong  “My washboard road to paradise” – Guy in bar with shirt off.
  31. 31. Ineffective lengthening/unstable core.
  32. 32. Lack of symmetrical lateral strength
  33. 33. A swimmers core helps manage center of gravity and allow a smooth chain reaction from top to bottom.  But a swimmers COG is vastly different from land COG  Lungs provide flotation and fulcrum.  Individual torso length, femur length and muscle density affect flotation and center of gravity.  Movements of swimming change the COG more dramatically.
  34. 34. Opposing Chain Reactions  Ground based from bottom up  Same side foot to hip.  Opposite shoulder via latissimus and fascia.  Single opposing motions between upper and lower limbs •Fluid based from top down. •Same side hand to shoulder •Same side hip via latissimus, obliques and fascia. •Single motion upper limb between multiple lower limb motion
  35. 35. Full muscle system workouts  Strengthen the shoulders by building a good foundation from the hips. The hips need to gain good mobility and posterior strength in order for the lumbar spine to be stable, thoracic spine mobile.  Cue relationship between the hips, core, and shoulder  Once the athlete has established this relationship with the core and the hips, we can begin pressing exercises
  36. 36. SPORTCore Principles: Swimming  Lengthen  Rotation and stability against rotation.  Dynamic isometrics in the traditional core.  Hand driver for whole body.  Hip driver (gluteals) for lower body.  Choose unique exercises that create stability between hand and foot.  Anchor hands/elbows/arms  Anchor feet or knees  Create stability in trunk  Combine with traditional strength exercises
  37. 37. Swimming drylands should target Sport specificity sidebar  Hand to hip stabilization via lats  Single and double arm work.  Posterior chain – scaps to glutes.  Lateral stability and strength.  Exercises that lengthen, strengthen and stabilize.  Exercises that establish stable and symmetrical rotation.
  38. 38. Sports Specificity  Swimmers can train strength traditionally but need special awareness to posture.  Cuing is critical.  Coach must be able to relate exercises to the needs of swimmers.
  39. 39. Anterior Tilt: Barge and Ballast Look at the swimmers dryland posture and ask your self is this what you want to see in the water. Planks and pushups are great exercises when done well. Enhance weakness when done poorly.
  40. 40. Factors influencing pelvic and thoracic misalignment Tight anterior (front) muscles; some weak posterior (back) muscles Sway back more pronounced when fully extened – ab strength test
  41. 41. Even subtle differences in hip orientation. Sciatic nerve is entrapped in both excessive anterior and posterior tilts. (Rothbart)
  42. 42. Kyphosis at upper spine leads to anterior tilt. Chest and hips are connected via core musculature and fascia. Tight abdominals and hip flexors pull them closer. But its not just about flotation
  43. 43. Another anterior tightness factor - The only skeletal point of attachment for the arms is at the sternum Weak back muscles and tight chest/abdominal muscles pull shoulders forward and internally rotate shoulders.
  44. 44. Why do exercises that promotes flexion at spine and tightness of the spinal flexion muscles.
  45. 45. Good postural development is critical
  46. 46. What are your swimmers doing the other 22 hours of the day
  47. 47. We are a flexed society
  48. 48. Elevated or upright posture opens up chest cavity. The heart and aorta have ample room to deliver blood and oxygen to the body. The lungs can expand to full capacity. An extreme example of how a slouched posture can compress heart, lungs, aorta and interfere with proper cardiovascular activity. Another extreme example but compression can also occur in the lower organs like stomach, liver, spleen, uterus Proper Thoracic extension goes beyond arthrokinetic issues and into cardiovascular efficiency
  49. 49. R/L Psoas and Quadratus Lomboram
  50. 50. How the legs affect the diaphragm
  51. 51. With this in mind  Releasing overactive muscles.  Stretching shortened muscles  Strengthening weak muscles Become a priority.
  52. 52. My 70s to 90s workouts
  53. 53. How back and chest muscles affects shoulder in swimming
  54. 54. Considerations in workout design  Probably a 2:1 ratio of external to interval shoulder rotation. Rowing and pulling to pressing.  Ample supply of shoulder stabilizers.  Determine goal of workout – stabilization or strength and put the muscle group emphasized in beginning of circuits.  Multi-planar circuits that alternate muscle groups.  All exercises done w braced core , extended or neutral thoracic spine and neutral pelvis.  Neutral foot position?
  55. 55. Lateral and Anterior Core Deep and superficial muscles
  56. 56. Thorax and Posterior core
  57. 57. Posterior and Anterior Linked systems Superficial large muscle groups (Anatomy Trains)
  58. 58. Rotation and deep support. These groups, especially deep muscle groups, are most often under-trained and under- stretched. (Anatomy Trains)
  59. 59. Frontal and Transverse Plane Systems (Anatomy Trains)  Color of Text
  60. 60. Swimmers stabilization work  Assess Primary stability throughout the body.  Thoracic spine area (shoulders and scapula)  Wall Assessment  Kyphosis of upper spine, internal rotation of shoulders.  Scapular distance.  Pelvis  Neutral pelvis – wall assessment  Symmetrical lateral strength/mobility – wall bumps  Symmetrical rotation strength/mobility – wall rotations
  61. 61. Demos  Lengthening vs shortening – (extension vs. flexion)  Which most appropriately reflects what happens in swimming.  Hollowing and bracing – lengthening the pelvis.  Anchoring the trunk – watch abdominals in drylands – does the stomach poke out?  Do fat man to skinny man swim in practice.  Wall exercises  Draw-in/brace against the wall.  Straighten lines and walk.  Double arm wall lean.  Single arm lean.  Rotation stretch
  62. 62. Pre-Test 1. Touchdown  Raise arms overhead 2. Hand on opposite shoulder  Lift elbow to forehead 3. Over & under  Try to bring hands as close together as possible 4. Hand behind low back  Lift back of hand away from lower back  Potential issues if you have  Pain  Limited ROM  Asymmetry
  63. 63. Trigger point therapy and corrective exercise as needed
  64. 64.  Pectoral and lat releases (Soleway,Lang)
  65. 65. Foam roll – upper back, piriformis, IT band
  66. 66. Thoracic activation linked to lower body Plus wall clocks and leans (Egoscue/Carey)
  67. 67.  Doorway and countertop stretches  (Egoscue/Carey)
  68. 68. Wall Clocks – (Egoscue/Carey)
  69. 69. Posterior muscles
  70. 70. Anterior muscles
  71. 71. Rotator Cuff Overview  Humeral head kept in place by:  Joint capsule & labrum  Thick bands of cartilage that form an elongated cone where humeral head fits  Four joints in the shoulder  Rotator cuff muscles are:  Dynamic stabilizers & movers of shoulder joint  Adjust position of humeral head & scapula during shoulder movement  17 muscles attach to the scapula
  72. 72. Then there are nerves and blood vessels (Musculoskeltal Atlas) 17 muscles attach to scapula
  73. 73. Rotator Cuff Damage: A Variety of Ways  Acute injury  Can develop from sudden powerful raising of arm against resistance  Heavy lifting  In an attempt to cushion fall  Injury requires a significant amount of force if person is  Younger than 30 years of age
  74. 74. Rotator Cuff Damage: A Variety of Ways  Chronic overuse:  Found among people in occupations or sports requiring excessive overhead activity  Examples: painters or baseball pitchers  Result from previous acute injury that has caused:  Structural problem within shoulder  Affected rotator cuff anatomy or function (bone spurs that impinge upon a muscle or tendon causing inflammation)  Repetitive trauma to muscle by everyday movement of shoulder
  75. 75. Rotator Cuff Damage: A Variety of Ways  Gradual degeneration of muscle & tendon that can occur with aging, such as tendonitis  Degeneration (wearing out) of muscles with age  This usually occurs where  Tendon attaches to bone  Area has poor blood supply  Mild injury  May take a long time to heal  Potentially lead to a secondary tear
  76. 76. Subscapularis Muscle Adduction Extension Stabilization of humeral head in glenoid fossa Internal rotation
  77. 77. Supraspinatus Muscle Weak abduction Stabilization of humeral head in glenoid fossa
  78. 78. Infraspinatus Muscle External rotation Horizontal abduction Extension Stabilization of humeral head in glenoid fossa
  79. 79. Teres Minor Muscle External rotation Horizontal abduction Extension Stabilization of humeral head in glenoid fossa
  80. 80. Scapula Deviations  Upward rotation  Lateral slide  Increased protraction  Anterior tilted  Weak posterior & inferior musculature
  81. 81. Individual differences There are three distinct types of acromions: flat (type one), smoothly curved (type two), and hooked (type three). Each functions a bit differently, and a type three acromion increases the likelihood of impingement and anterior bone spurs.
  82. 82. Scapular humeral rhythm  Scapula must move in sequence with the arm.
  83. 83. Force couple Muscles surround joint with strength and stability (anterior forces in this image)
  84. 84. Baseball Injury Prevention for Youths  Adhere to suggested age-related pitch counts (USA Baseball)  9-10 yr old: 50/game, 75/wk, 1000/season  11-12 yr old: 75/game, 100/wk, 1000/season  13-14 yr old: 75/game, 125/wk, 1000/season  At least 3 months per year of “active rest”  Avoid pitching in multiple leagues  Pitch to fatigue, not through it  Caution with “showcases”  Develop good pitching mechanics at an early age  Hard throwers need to be watched more closely  Associated with increased injury  Overused by coaches  Get involved in a strength and conditioning program
  85. 85. Program Instructions  Move from 1 exercise to next with no rest  Perform 10-15 reps  Start with 10 reps  Work up to 15 reps over 4-wk period  Perform 1-3 circuits  Start with 1 circuit  Progress to 3 over 4-wk period  Perform 3x/wk  Maintain body posture  Retract shoulder blades while performing exercises  Add core, UB & LB strength exercises to training program*  Add flexibility/mobility training to program*
  86. 86. Rotator Cuff Exercises: Flexion, Scaption, Abduction, & Abduction w/thumbs up
  87. 87. Bent-over Lateral Raise: Start with head on edge of table for support, arms hanging down with palms facing each other, or thumbs up, and elbows straight. Retract your scapulas then raise arms up, hold for 2-3 seconds & return to the starting position.
  88. 88. Side Lying External Rotation at 0⁰: Place a towel roll under arm while keeping elbow flexed at 90°, externally rotate shoulder & then slowly return it to starting position & repeat. Externally rotate for a 1 count & lower weight in a 2 count.
  89. 89. 3-Step External Rotation: Start with shoulder protracted hanging off edge of table (Starting Position), then retract shoulder (Step 1). Bring arm into an abducted position with elbow flexed at 90° (Step 2). Then with thumb up, externally rotate shoulder (Step 3). Return to starting position, reversing steps. Hold each position for a 2 count.
  90. 90. Y-Position: palms down start & finish; thumbs up start & finish
  91. 91. T-Position: palms down start & finish; thumbs up start & finish
  92. 92. I-Position: hand neutral start & finish
  93. 93. Wall Dribble: Start by bouncing the ball along the wall until it is overhead and return to starting position. Keep ball bouncing through the entire pattern. Elbow remains straight throughout motion.
  94. 94. Individual differences (lower body) More range of motion from a longer femoral head with larger angle. Longer limbs create strength disadvantages.
  95. 95. Thrower’s 10 Program  SEATED PRESS-UPS  Seated on a chair or on a table, place both hands on books or yoga blocks firmly on sides of chair or table, palm down & fingers pointed outward.  Hands should be placed equal with shoulders.  Slowly push downward through hands books/blocks to elevate your body.  Hold elevated position for 2 seconds & lower body slowly.
  96. 96. Thrower’s 10 Program  PRONE ROWING  Lie on your stomach with your involved arm hanging over side of table, DB in hand & elbow straight.  Slowly raise arm, bending elbow, & bring DB as high as possible.  Hold at top for 2 seconds, then slowly lower.
  97. 97. Thrower’s 10 Program  WRIST EXTENSION/Flexion - wrist anchors hand on water stimulates muscle activity through hip!  Supporting forearm & with palm facing downward, raise weight in hand as far as possible.  Hold 2 seconds & lower slowly.  WRIST FLEXION – wrist anchors hand on water  Supporting forearm & with palm facing upward, lower a weight in hand as far as possible & then curl it up as high as possible.  Hold for 2 seconds & lower slowly.
  98. 98. References From Zymanski presentation  Floyd, RT. The Shoulder Joint. In: Manual of Structural Kinesiology (16th Ed). McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY. pp. 106-134, 2007.  Velasquez, F. Pittsburgh Pirates Shoulder & Arm Care Manual. 2004.  Wilk, KE. Rehabilitation of the Shoulder. In: Injuries in Baseball. Andrews, Zarins, & Wilks (ed.) Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 451-467, 1998.
  99. 99. Practical on-line references •Eric Cressey – facebook and ericcressey.com •Mike Reinold – facebook and mikereinold.com •Swimming Science – facebook and swimmingscience.net •Bret Conteras – facebook and bretconteras.com and Strength and Conditioning Research Journal on facebook. •Kelly Starett – mobilitywod.com and youtube •TRX – trxtraining.com •Triggerpoint Therapy – tptherapy.com •SuppVersity on facebook
  100. 100. Progressions: Swimming  Stability before mobility.  Most core muscles are slow twitch  Hips and upper thorax (scapula and shoulders)  Plank or push up position  Hip position/neutral w no anterior or posterior tilt.  5-10 second pulses for 1-3:00 minute sets. New concept in planks.  Once strength/stability is established then add movement patterns to the plank or pushup position.  Start with distinct rep count pattern – up in two/down in 4.  Then move on to bands – single arm and single leg combos  Then move to less stable equipment like TRXs and Stability Balls.  Establish stability on these before adding movements  When adding movement, maintain stability and deliberate rep count.
  101. 101. Practical workshop  TRX, gymnastics rings, suspension trainers  Medicine balls  Stability balls and dumbells  Planks and pushups
  102. 102. Medicine ball and kettle bell Medicine ball Kettlebell  Overhead throw  Reverse overhead throw  Rotation throw from hips  Reverse rotation throw  Rotation throw from hips with push  SL overhead lean  SL Dead Lift  Plyo press from floor  Power stroke from floor  Wall ball or standing push press  Swing  SA swing  SA clean
  103. 103. Planks and stability balls Planks Stability ball  Front plank w tight core/glutes for :10  Front plank w  Leg lift, arm lift, opposite arm/opposite leg, tricep kickback, row w band, db w rev. fly from pup, pike and body saw.  Side plank w  Straight oblique lines, pulse, overhead db w side reach, rotation,  Hip extension  Reverse hip extension  Tucks  Pikes  Hamstring curls  Glute raise  Rotation w foot touch prone  Rotation w foot touch supine
  104. 104. TRX or suspension trainers exercises  1. Squat Jump with ground separation  2. Hamstring Push  3. Sprinter’s Start  4. Surfers  5. Overhead Squat  6. T-Y Delt Fly  7. Swimmer’s Pull  8. Chest Press Progression  9. Low Row Progression  10. Corkscrew  11. Prone Crunch / Dbl Oblique / Spiderman  12. Kneeling Rollout
  105. 105. Plank and push-up position exercises – stability first
  106. 106. Plank and pushup cont.
  107. 107. Right: Cobra on floor – hold each contraction for :06. Head in neutral, engage glutes and lift upper spine to lift. Low back just follows to stabilize spine. .Left: Tricep extension from TRX strap.
  108. 108. Bird dog/quadraped variations.
  109. 109. Stability ball exercises
  110. 110. Medicine ball
  111. 111. Band and Suspension training exercises
  112. 112. Band exercises
  113. 113. Stability ball exercises
  114. 114. Stability ball exercises
  115. 115. Stability ball exercises
  116. 116. TRX or Suspension Training exercises
  117. 117. TRX Suspension training cont.
  118. 118. TRX/Suspension Training cont.
  119. 119. Examples of workout circuits Circuit 1 or day 1 Circuit 2 or day 2  Bench press  SA bench on stability ball  TRX or SB rollout  Plank w tricep extension  Squat  TRX plyo jumps  Med ball push press  SL rear foot eleveated squat  Two or three rotator cuff exercises in circuit at end  Seated row  Single arm seated row  Side plank with overhead press  TRX rotation  Hip Extension SB or machine.  Sleg hip thrust  Swimmers  Tricep extension on Stability ball.  Two or three rotator cuff exercises in circuit at end.
  120. 120. Workout circuits, cont. Circuit 3 or day 3 Circuit 3 or day 3  Two or three rotator cuff exercise circuit in beginning  Incline bench  SA rollout on TRX or stability ball.  SA/SL Tricep extension  Med ball chest press from floor  Step up on box or bench  Sprinters jump w TRX  Tricep extension from TRX  Two or three rotator cuff exercise circuits in beginning.  Bent over row.  Single leg Single arm row  Side plank w rotation  TRX rotation  Dead lift  Single leg dead lift  TRX hamstring curls  SL deadlift med ball toss
  121. 121. Periodization schedule  Research into periodization schedules have changed their infallible status so keep up with research.  Basic periodization schedule might look like this over the course of a year.  Return to strength training and drylands a few weeks after peak summer meet.  Determine peak meets during the school year.  Divide the time to peak meet by four and establish four cycles of development.  Repeat cycles as needed.
  122. 122. Periodization continued  First period would consist of stability development and enhancement plus muscle endurance in key strength weights. Find a 15-20 rep max in key exercises during this period.  Second period -develop peak strength in key exercises. Find a 10 to 15 rep max during this period.  Third period - combination of strength plus development of explosive power. Plyos and power based exercises like box jumps, kettle bells and cleans.  Fourth period – peak in explosive power plus individual taper. Individuals have differing ability to hold strength during taper.
  123. 123. Final notes  If you have a dryland program, it should be as important as your swim training.  The dryland intensity should be planned along with the swim intensity during the training cycle.  Financial and educational resources should be committed towards developing a solid dryland program that is worth the time and effort.  Find a gym that needs you and pay them to let you workout there.  Invest annually in equipment – year 1 – three suspension trainers, three med balls, three stability balls, assorted bands, DBs and KBs - $1500.
  124. 124. Thanks and my contacts  Charlie Hoolihan on facebook – Just health and fitness related information and perhaps some random music info. No rants, politics, pictures of cats, food porn or personal workouts  Charlie@thepac.com  Slides will be up on www.slideshare.net by Sunday. Search my name.

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