The Long Arm of the Law, presentation by Bill Hannay, Schiff Hardin LLP


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You can run, but, really, you can't hide from the long arm of the law. This fact is known to Kenny Rogers -- and to all librarians. For example, many basic library operations are entwined with copyright law, which enables us to make materials available to readers and to provide for long-term access. And copyright is but one of many legal constructs that impacts 21st century library activities and practices. In this digital age, the law is evermore a factor, ensnaring us in the complications of regimes developed largely for the print environment. Today, all are working to develop new "rules" governing a transformed age of content creation, delivery, and sharing. The 2010 Charleston conference presented for the first time an expert session on the "long arm," featuring attorneys who specialize in competition and copyright. Two of them (William Hannay and Lauren Schoenthaler) return this year, now joined by Jack Barnard (University of Michigan), to bring the Charleston audience up to date on leading developments in cases such as Sky River, the Google books settlement (still unresolved), Georgia State (reserves), John Wiley (first sale), and the FTC's investigation of Google. Hear their concerns and insights about electronic price-fixing, orphan works, web accessioning and downloading -- and anything else of importance that can be accommodated in a mere 75 minutes. After the presentations, there will be some time for audience engagement. This session once again promises to be a winner: educational, riveting, challenging, and stimulating.

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  • Recognize the Celsus Library in Ephesus, built in 117 A.D.?
  • The Long Arm of the Law, presentation by Bill Hannay, Schiff Hardin LLP

    1. 1. Apples & Books Or a Gaggle of Googles Bill Hannay Charleston Conference November 4, 2011
    2. 2. Arma virumque cano ... -- Virgil
    3. 3. Armaggedon virumque cano ... -- with apologies to Virgil
    4. 4. Will libraries of the future look like this . . .?
    5. 5. “ Tell me, O Spirit of Things to Come, is this the fate of our libraries in the future?” “ Chicago Mayor announces plan to cut 550 librarians from city budget . . .”
    6. 6. Is this the future of libraries?
    7. 7. “ Spirit, answer me one question: Are these the shadows of the things that will be, or are they shadows of things that may be, only?” “ . . . if the courses be departed from, the ends will change. Say it is thus with what you show me!”
    8. 8. What if there were competition in electronic libraries in the future?
    9. 9. Would these be the libraries of the future? HathiTrust
    10. 10. COMPETITION IS GOOD FOR THE SOUL ... AND OUR COUNTRY. “ Throughout the history of our antitrust laws it has been constantly assumed that one of their purposes was to perpetuate and preserve, for its own sake and in spite of possible cost, an organization of industry in small units which can effectively compete with each other.” – Judge Learned Hand (1945) Congress feared concentration of economic power not only on economic grounds, but also because of its threat to democratic values.
    11. 11. The Google Books Case <ul><li>The Google Books case goes on. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not resolved by settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on how the case is resolved, it could lead to unpredictable and possibly negative effects on the structure, staffing, and budgets of all libraries, whether public, private, or academic. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? How? Because it could reduce the ability of current or future competitors to enter the market. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Status of the Law Suit <ul><li>2004 – Google Print Project initiated </li></ul><ul><li>2005 – Lawsuit by Author’s Guild et al. </li></ul><ul><li>11/13/09 – Amended Settlement Agreement (“ASA”) filed </li></ul><ul><li>02/18/10 – Fairness Hearing held </li></ul><ul><li>3/22/11 – Judge Chin concludes that the ASA is not “fair, adequate, and reasonable.” (770 F.Supp. 2d 666) </li></ul><ul><li>9/15/11 – Judge Chin gives the parties more time to try to try a new approach. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Court’s Reasoning Judge Chin objected to the “forward-looking commercial arrangements” established by the ASA that would have transferred to Google certain rights in exchange for future and ongoing arrangements, including the sharing of future proceeds and would have released Google from liability for certain future acts.
    14. 14. For example ... “ the ASA would grant Google the right to sell full access to copyrighted works that it otherwise would have no right to exploit. The ASA would grant Google control over the digital commercialization of millions of books, including orphan books and other unclaimed works. And it would do so even though Google engaged in wholesale, blatant copying, without first obtaining copyright permissions.”
    15. 15. The Court continued: While its competitors went through the &quot;painstaking&quot; and &quot;costly&quot; process of obtaining permissions before scanning copyrighted books, “Google by comparison took a shortcut by copying anything and everything regardless of copyright status.” As one objector put it: “Google pursued its copyright project in calculated disregard of authors' rights. Its business plan was: ‘So, sue me’.”
    16. 16. As to antitrust, he held: The ASA would give Google a de facto monopoly over unclaimed works. ... As the United States observed ... : “This de facto exclusivity (at least as to orphan works) appears to create a dangerous probability that only Google would have the ability to market to libraries and other institutions a comprehensive digital-book subscription. The seller of an incomplete database – i.e. , one that does not include the millions of orphan works – cannot compete effectively with the seller of a comprehensive product.”
    17. 17. The Court went to say: [A]s counsel for the Internet Archive noted, the ASA would give Google “a right, which no one else in the world would have, . . . to digitize works with impunity, without any risk of statutory liability, for something like 150 years.” The ASA would [also] arguably give Google control over the [internet] search market. ... The ASA would broadly bar “direct, for profit, commercial use of information extracted from Books in the Research Corpus” except with the express permission of the Registry and Google.
    18. 18. The Court concluded: As the United States and other objectors have noted, many of the concerns raised in the objections would be ameliorated if the ASA were converted from an &quot;opt-out&quot; settlement to an &quot;opt-in&quot; settlement. I urge the parties to consider revising the ASA accordingly. The motion for final approval of the ASA is denied, without prejudice to renewal in the event the parties negotiate a revised settlement agreement.
    19. 19. So, where are things? In the 7 months since the proposed settlement was rejected by Judge Chin, lawyers representing the author-plaintiffs, the publisher-plaintiffs, and Google have continued to negotiate ... but have not reached any agreement. At the most recent status hearing on 9/15/11, the lawyers put an optimistic face on the situation ... and asked for more time. They agreed to initiate a pretrial discovery schedule extending into next Summer. No trial date has been set.
    20. 20. What’s the problem? Basically the fundamental structure of the settlement was rejected by the court. In effect, Judge Chin noticed that the emperor was not wearing any clothes. That is, what Google and the plaintiffs wanted to establish was entirely outside the laws -- copyright, antitrust and procedural. The parties tried to impose a radical rebalancing of burdens and rights, and the court was having none of it. The “opt in” approach suggested by the court in turn seems to be a major sticking point in the re-negotiation (at least for Google).
    21. 21. What Is To Be Done? In the past few months, there have been at least two very interesting “roundtable” conferences asking the musical question “can the Google settlement be fixed?” One in May in San Francisco and one in D.C. in June. (See 82 PTCJ 87; 82 PTCJ 292) I won’t give away the end of the movie, but I will tell you that almost no one agreed with anyone else. One speaker said that “My experience working in this area makes it seem unlikely that we can work this out in our lifetimes.”
    22. 22. But if we wait long enough ... things may work out on their own. Time wounds all heels ... or perhaps it’s that other competitors seem to be nipping at Google’s heels. I hear that: Internet Archive is digitizing over 1,000 books a day. The HathiTrust Digital Library includes about 6 million volumes. Europeana links to at least 10 million digital objects from 1,000 EU archives. And Gallica from France is expanding at 5,000 new documents per month.
    23. 23. <ul><li>All of this competitive activity in the electronic library sphere says to me “let a thousand points of digitizing shine!” It suggests to me a Rodgers & Hart song which kinda sorta goes something like this: </li></ul>♫ “ If they asked me, I could scan a book.” ♫ What do I think?
    24. 24. Hey, speaking of books ... Anybody want a status report on the another hot antitrust case in the world of libraries? I am speaking of course about SkyRiver v. OCLC, which is antitrust suit that started out in California in July 2010 and subsequently got moved to federal court in Ohio. SkyRiver is a bibliographic utility that promotes itself as offering a low cost alternative for cooperative cataloging. An alternative to OCLC, that is. A second plaintiff Innovative has joined the suit.
    25. 25. What’s the claim? SkyRiver and Innovative claim that OCLC has monopolized three markets: The market for bibliographic data about the holdings of college, university and research libraries The cataloging of bibliographic records of the holdings of academic libraries The market for interlibrary lending (ILL) between and among academic libraries ... and attempted to monopolize the integrated library systems (ILS) market.
    26. 26. What did OCLC do wrong? Plaintiffs allege that OCLC (1) requires its member libraries not to share the metadata of their own library holdings contributed to OCLC’s WorldCat database with any for-profit firms for commercial use and (2) requires them exclusively to use OCLC’s services. OCLC has allegedly imposed these membership terms to prevent the development of competing bibliographic databases, cataloging services, or ILL services and is also attempting to squeeze Innovative out of the ILS market.
    27. 27. What’s the status? 12/13/10 – OCLC filed a motion to dismiss the complaint on the ground that it fails to plead facts making a plausible claim and in any event plaintiffs’ theories do not constitute antitrust violations. 2/4/11 – SkyRiver and Innovative respond defending the sufficiency of their complaint under antitrust law. In April 2011, the parties agreed – and the court entered an order – staying discovery until the court rules on the motion to dismiss. A decision could occur anytime.
    28. 28. What will happen? Quien sabe? Both parties are represented by Ohio-based law firms that are highly experienced in antitrust law, and both sides submitted articulate and thoughtful briefs in connection with the motion to dismiss. The Plaintiffs’ 39-page complaint seems thoughtfully written with lots of detail, but the Sherman Act is a tricky law, made all the harder by a pair of US Supreme Court decisions about the need for “plausible” claims of antitrust violation.
    29. 29. <ul><li>More competition is better than less competition. Competition spurs lower prices and higher quality and service. So, I am all for competition and for innovative companies. This reminds me of that great song from Fiddler on the Roof: </li></ul>♫ “ Innovation. Innovation.” ♫ What do I think?
    30. 30. And in parting, a special farewell and RIP to Steve Jobs who epitomized innovation in the electronic sphere. Here, on this New Yorker cover, you see just how far digital databases have travelled.