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The Contributor Role Taxonomy Project

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Marjorie Hlava (speaker)

Marjorie Hlava (speaker)

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  • As you know, I would prefer not to have the ‘lead’ supporting statements as I think it is sufficient – at least from our perspective – to know who contributed to which aspects rather than start introducing hierarchies (value-laden language).should be asked for elsewhere as it is never single reason for the ‘author’ role (and should be taken care of by FundRef or at least more structured information in a funding section)Biomedical and Geoscience cover things very differently and mean different things by the placement of authors in an article. “I am very concerned that "Lead" and "Supporting" are dragging us back into the status-laden nonsense of "equal second author" and I favor removing these after the survey, or designing the survey in two sections to try to find out when authors feel the need for status claims rather than granular contribution statements. The point of a granular contribution statement is to identify who did what.”
  • Is it awkward to have the note “May be covered if degrees of contribution are applied” showing up here, after also being in the slides for version 2, 6 and 7? Maybe not…-gc
  • Formal analysisScope: Application of statistical, mathematical or other formal techniques to analyze study data ComputationScope: Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms InvestigationScope: Conducting the research and investigation process Sub-role: Performed the experimentsSub-role: Data/evidence collectionOther investigatory role: please specify in space provided ResourcesScope: Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation or other analysis tools. Data curationScope: Management activities to annotate (produce metadata) and maintain research data for initial use and later re-use. PublicationScope: Preparation, creation, and/or presentation of the published work. Sub-role: Writing the initial draftSub-role: Critical review, commentary or revisionSub-role: Visualization/data presentationOther presentational role: please specify in the space provided ­­­Supervision Scope: Responsibility for supervising research; project orchestration; principal investigator other lead stakeholder.  ­­Project administrationScope: Coordination or management of research activities leading to this publication.  Funding acquisitionScope: Acquisition of the financial support of the project through grant or other funding of the project Other roles 
  • Lower-cased field names, and changed “…fields of Medical, DNA, Physics…” to “…fields ofmedicine, genetics, physics…”; also, “In DNA and genome research…” to “In genetics and genome research -gc
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Contributor Role Taxonomy Project Interim report Marjorie M.K. Hlava President Access Innovations, Inc.
    • 2. Contributor Role Taxonomy        What is it? How did it get here? Who is involved? Why do we need it? What have we done? Where can it be used? Next steps
    • 3. What is it? A tool to improve recognition and details on all contributor roles in a published work.
    • 4. Why do we need it?   More and more frequently, research and scholarly publications involve collaboration. There is a growing interest among stakeholders in scholarship in increasing the transparency of research and in identifying the specific roles that contributors play in creating collaborative scholarly works.
    • 5. Why do we need it?      Provides a more precise and extensive identification of all contributions to a paper All roles recognized Better credit given to supporting roles Modeling to writing are all significant Eventually … Publishers to pass author name data to auto-populate the author name fields
    • 6. How did it get here?     A workshop at Harvard Sponsored by the Wellcome Trust In autumn of 2011, discussed ways to improve recognition and details on all contributor roles in a published work. Initial report: http://projects.iq.harvard.edu/attribution_worksh op/files/iwcsa_report_final_18sept12.pdf
    • 7. Who is involved?         Contributor Role Taxonomy Task Force Members Liz Allen, Wellcome Trust Micah Altman, Brown Ginny Barbour, PLOS Amy Brand, Harvard, Convenor Marjorie Hlava, Access Innovations Veronique Kiermer, Nature Publishing Group Christine Laine, American College of Physicians Diane Scott-Lichter, AACR / ACP
    • 8. The word “author”     Role of “author” is no longer clear Not a single designation of the work done Doesn’t represent the complexity involved in the supporting roles of the community in producing a published work Offer a list of 11+ roles that contributors can claim in the roles they play in the publication of their work
    • 9. The challenge    Increasingly complex research communities Conflicting funding contributions Digital distribution mandate that we need to find a way to identify the contributions of all who participate in the process of bringing research to fruition
    • 10. Key challenges       Keep the list to 10 – 12 terms To make a taxonomy suitably generic but with sufficient granularity to enable precision To enable some degree of cross-disciplinary applicability To ensure we don’t introduce perverse incentives The funding information is not an author role Covering all disciplines – when the approaches are quite different
    • 11. Like the movies – better identification of who did what
    • 12. Under construction
    • 13. The work and result  The task force empowered by the workshop subsequently built a small taxonomy for use in the categorization of the actual contribution an "author" or other contributor makes to the published paper.
    • 14. We all come into this with a slightly different perspective….. Criteria important for Nature Demand on taxonomy Transparency No 'honorary authorship'* Contribution must justify authorship Accountability All authors have responsibilities Corresponding authors have more responsibilities (overall integrity, persistence, data/material sharing) Authors responsible for specialized experiments or analysis have some responsibilities Contribution must justify authorship Degree of contribution is important (at least 'corresponding' versus 'contributing') Desire to provide appropriate credit, although we are resisting demands for convoluted cocontributions ("7 co-first and 6 co-second authors") * Simple co-contribution is often demanded * Degree of contribution is important (lead role versus contributor role? or intellectual innovation versus operation?) * Recognition of important expertise that does not typically justify 'first author' level Desire to allow microattributions * Allow association to part of the paper (fig), object (data, resource, protocol), field specific expertise Corresponding author filling in on behalf of authors if captured as metadata; or inferred from existing statements. Contribution must be self explanatory to reader in addition to be a standard Credit Ease of use Nature Allow association with parts of the paper (data, figure) *We already have a definition of authorship, by which we consider 'author' not necessarily = 'writer' (may be different problem for clinical journals). According to this definition, 'obtaining funding' or 'writing' only would not justify authorship.
    • 15. Taxonomy creation       Mining the literature Contributions from the team Review of other models Draft taxonomy Team vetting Validation by publishers
    • 16. Mining the literature     JATS Contributor element – 800,000 AIP articles in JATS format 10 years of MEDLINE for the underlying research acknowledgements Micah Altman mined through the acknowledgments in the Elsevier data David Shotton’s SCoRO model: http://www.essepuntato.it/lode/http://purl.o rg/spar/scoro
    • 17. Term sources and team vetting         Several iterations of the taxonomy Nature STEM – DTIC IEEE SCoRO PLOS Microattribution Survey IWCSA Report
    • 18. Methodology Study conception Methodology development Methodology design Patient study clinical trials Data Data contribution Data gathering Data recording Data analysis Data curation Metadata Data analysis Data interpretation Data notation Mathematical modeling Statistical analysis Model design Engineering Software programming Equipment calibration Equipment design Equipment management Report preparation Initial draft preparation Critical review Manuscript contribution Manuscript revision Final approval Illustration Data visualization Administration Funding Research supervision Project management Version 1
    • 19. SUMMARY OF ROLES 1. Study Conception (Conceptual) a. Designed concept of study b. Formulated research questions c. Developed analytical approach d. Guidance, input, and advice??? – May be covered if degrees of contribution are applied. 2. Methodology a. Development or design of the methodology; b. Methodological, technology and equipment design; c. Creation of models both physical and theoretical; 3. Formal Analysis a. Investigation Performance of the experiments b. Data evidence collection 4. Investigation a. Performance of the experiments b. Data evidence collection 5. Provision of Resources and Tools 6. Data Curation and Management 7. Manuscript Preparation a. Writing the initial draft b. Critical review, commentary or revision c. Illustration and visualization 8. Programming and Computation 9. Project Administration 10. Funding acquisition 11. Supervision a. Principal investigator (possible) Version 2
    • 20. Conceptual framework VersionConceived and designed the experiments 2 Conceptual design of the study Contributing to writing and revision of manuscript Contributed equally Contributed to manuscript Development of the methodological design of the study Final approval Revised manuscript Methodology Machine/equipment calibration Illustration/visualization Methodological design Prepared graphs Prepared illustrations or graphical displays to accompany text Prepared tables Version 3 Technology/equipment design Development methodology Equipment management Programming/software Statistical analysis Analytic programming Developed statistical or mathematical techniques to analyze study data Developed software Project management/administration Research and investigation Jointly supervised the research Laboratory head Executed, organized and archived of study-related documents Project management Research management Organization/supervision of study staff Contributed reagents, materials or analysis tools Performed the experiments Data collection Assembled study samples or population Developed tools, laboratory procedures, or techniques for data collection Gathered and recorded data Funding acquisition Commercial partner
    • 21. Conceptual framework Drafting manuscript Conceived and designed the experiments Conceptual design of the study Prepared initial draft Wrote the manuscript Contributing to writing and revision of manuscript Methodology Machine/equipment calibration Methodological design Technology/equipment design Development methodology Critical review Contributed to manuscript Final approval Revised manuscript Contributed comments and suggestions on drafts of the manuscript Performed critical revision of manuscript Version 4 Equipment management Statistical analysis Illustration/visualization Developed statistical or mathematical techniques to analyze study data Prepared graphs Prepared illustrations or graphical displays to accompany text Research and investigation Prepared tables Instrumentation Contributed reagents, materials or analysis tools Performed the experiments Cared for patients Clinically characterized patients Programming/software Project management/administration Ensured patient follow up Performed phenotyping Performed genotyping and association analyses Analytic programming Developed software Jointly supervised the research Laboratory head Executed, organized and archived of
    • 22. Conceptual framework Version 4 and designed the experiments Conceived Contributing to writing and revision of manuscript Critical review Contributed to manuscript Final approval Revised manuscript Contributed comments and suggestions on drafts of the manuscript Performed critical revision of manuscript Article guarantor Prepares supplementary information Publishes data Direct oversight and management for the manuscript Conceptual design of the study Formulates research questions Development of analytical approach Methodology Machine/equipment calibration Methodological design Technology/equipment design Development methodology Equipment management Undertakes modelling Tested equipment Version 5 Illustration/visualization Prepared graphs Prepared illustrations or graphical displays to accompany text Prepared tables Specimen preparation and treatment Statistical analysis Photographer Developed statistical or mathematical techniques to analyze study data Statistical assistance Performed imaging Programming/software Research and investigation Analytic programming Developed software Designing computer code / algorithms Programming computer code / algorithms Maintains research facility Processes data Provides technical support Responsibility for day-to-day execution of experiment Responsible for the overall research findings Tooling Creating computer-based workflows Managed software development Project
    • 23. Version 6
    • 24. Version 7
    • 25. Version 8
    • 26.      Study conception Ideas, formulation of research question, and statement of hypothesis. Designed concept of study Formulated research questions Developed analytical approach Guidance, input, and advice??? – May be covered if degrees of contribution are applied.       Methodology Development and design of methodology This role includes activities such as Development of the methodology; Methodological, technology and equipment design; Creation of models both physical and theoretical; Version 9     Formal Analysis This role includes the application of statistical, mathematical and other models and techniques to analyze study data. (provided statistical assistance) – May be covered if degrees of contribution are applied    Investigation This role covers the activities included in the carrying out of the research and investigation process    Performance of the experiments Data evidence collection    NOTE: . The activities are different in Medical, DNA, Physics, Biology etc however the roles level remains the same. In a medical setting it includes patient care, clinical characterization of patients, ensuring patient followup. In DNA and Genome research it would include phenotyping, genotyping and the associated analysis. In DNA and Genome research it would include phenotyping, genotyping and the associated analysis.
    • 27. Provision of Resources and Tools This role includes contribution of reagents, material instrumentation or other analysis tools Data Curation and Management Management activities to curate and maintain research data and metadata for use and reuse Manuscript Preparation Any contribution to the creation of the published work. Writing the initial draft Critical review and comment Illustration/visualization This role includes those who prepared the illustrations and other graphical displays to accompany the text. They include photographers, the preparation of the tables and graphs, the imaging, visualization of the data in supplemental data. Programming and Computation This role includes the analytic programming, software development, designing programming and implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms, creation of computer based workflows, and management of the software development. Project Administration This role includes the coordination or management of research activities leading to the publication. This is specifically the project management which led to the execution of this published work. Version 10 Funding acquisition This role includes those responsible for the acquisition of the financial support of the project through grant or other funding of the project. It includes the commercial partner, organizational partner, leader applicant, coapplicant, and non academic partners. Supervision This role is responsible for the overall integrity and accuracy of the research findings, the published material and insurance of regulatory compliance. it includes the Principal Investigator, corresponding author*, and other lead stakeholders. (NOTE: Thorny issue: All members of the team should be accountable for the work.) Could we fold this role up under “administration”?
    • 28. Current taxonomy DRAFT – Version 11        --Study conception --Methodology Formal analysis Computation Investigation Resources Data curation      Publication ---Supervision --Project administration Funding acquisition Other roles
    • 29. Taxonomy details 1/7  --Study conception   Scope: Ideas; formulation of research question; statement of hypothesis --Methodology  Scope: Development or design of methodology; creation of models
    • 30. Taxonomy details 2/7  Formal analysis   Computation   Scope: Application of statistical, mathematical, or other formal techniques to analyze study data Scope: Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms
    • 31. Taxonomy details 3/7  Investigation     Scope: Conducting the research and investigation process Sub-role: Performed the experiments Sub-role: Data/evidence collection Other investigatory role: please specify in space provided
    • 32. Taxonomy details 4/7  Resources   Scope: Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, or other analysis tools. Data curation  Scope: Management activities to annotate (produce metadata) and maintain research data for initial use and later re-use.
    • 33. Taxonomy details 5/7  Publication      --- Scope: Preparation, creation, and/or presentation of the published work. Sub-role: Writing the initial draft Sub-role: Critical review, commentary or revision Sub-role: Visualization/data presentation Other presentational role: please specify in the space provided
    • 34. Taxonomy details 6/7  Supervision   Scope: Responsibility for supervising research; project orchestration; principal investigator; other lead stakeholder. --Project administration  Scope: Coordination or management of research activities leading to this publication.
    • 35. Taxonomy details 7/7  Funding acquisition   Scope: Acquisition of the financial support of the project through grant or other funding of the project Other roles
    • 36. Taxonomy validation    To validate the initial taxonomy 25 publishers invited Each participating publisher identified 50 or more articles with corresponding authors (of multi-authored works with between 2 and 15 authors) and completed a survey
    • 37. The “Corresponding Author”   In physics, medical, and biological sciences, it is very important that each of the authors be allowed to state his or her own level of contribution. Worry about disagreements when only one author fills in for people’s contribution types and levels.
    • 38. The publisher data  Returned spreadsheets    Included relevant author names Included journal information Corresponding authors and participating authors submitted their information using a spreadsheet template.
    • 39. Pilot project returns        Nature ACPOnline PLOS Elsevier elifesciences.org AAAS The IET (Inspec)
    • 40. Other participants        American Society for Civil Engineers – ASCE Cambridge Press IEEE NISO Institute of Physics – IOP American Chemical Society – ACS SPIE
    • 41. Next steps?     Initial receipt of survey results is in Analyze results Modify taxonomy Report results at CSE in May  Council of Science Editors
    • 42. Next steps – more validation     Broader feedback Greater variety of constituents Verify with relevant works to see if the test contributor role assignments accord with their perceptions of their own contributions. Request input from the library community.
    • 43. Still in research and development stage, so use options are only conjecture
    • 44. Draft principles of use: This work is designed to be used with publisher "author" submission systems as well as internal editorial production systems. It may be used as a brief authority file, pick list, or drop down menu in those systems. In order to encourage use and participation, we have made the roles general and the number limited so that they can be used in a drop down menu or pick list within paper submission modules. Contributors may also elect to tag themselves within the author block of a paper.
    • 45. Draft principles of use: We found that contributors and publishers come from many different perspectives and cultures of use. Clinical fields currently present attributions differently than physics, or the humanities. The current author assignment protocols are different within the fields of medicine, genetics, physics, biology etc.; however, the roles level remains the same. In a medical setting it includes patient care, clinical characterization of patients, ensuring patient follow-up. In genetics and genome research it would include phenotyping, genotyping and the associated analysis.
    • 46. Draft principles of use: Contributions must be self-explanatory to the reader and follow a standard attribution path to be understood globally. Use of this list should be based on level of contribution to encourage transparency. The contributorship designation should reflect the responsibilities of the individual claiming each role. For example, corresponding author responsibilities include the overall integrity of the paper, and ensuring that the data and appropriate materials are shared. Some contributors are responsible for the specialized experiments and others for extensive analysis.
    • 47. Draft principles of use: The degree of the contribution is also important; for example, to distinguish between an intellectual innovation and an operational role. The expertise offered to the project and paper may not justify a first position on the paper. Obtaining the funding, or leading the lab where the research is done, may not justify contributorship positions. As the taxonomy is meant to be considered a standard, contributors to published works should be assigned one or more role descriptors as they appear in the taxonomy. Taking into account the scope of each descriptor, most contributors’ roles will be covered in the taxonomy. If a role is not available, contributors should contact the creators of the taxonomy so they can consider changing or expanding the taxonomy to reflect this role.
    • 48. Draft principles of use: For each contributor of the work in question, please indicate applicable roles, and use free text fields to supply additional role information where relevant.  Choose the most appropriate taxonomy term for your contribution(s).  More than one taxonomy term per person may be used.  Please use standard phrasing of each taxonomy term.
    • 49. Draft principles of use:   For each role please indicate degree of contribution, if appropriate. Below the terms are stated first as a "Scope" in several cases with sub roles and secondly as a possible "Scope note" statement __ Lead __ Supporting __ All contributors equal
    • 50. Editorial Workflow Integration Contributor Role Tagging A popup list of contributor role options appears for the author to choose from ----Study conception ? Contributor Information Contributor Role --Methodology ? Mouse Over for explanation Formal analysis ? Computation ? Investigation ? Application of Resources ? statistical, Data Curation ? mathematical or Publication ? other formal ---Supervision ? techniques to --Project administration ? Funding acquisition ? analyze study data Formal Analysis
    • 51. Current ORCID taxonomy
    • 52. Contributor Roles as listed on the ORCID Site
    • 53. Possible ORCID taxonomy What was your role? Study conception --Methodology Formal analysis Computation Investigation Resources Data curation Publication ---Supervision --Project administration Funding acquisition Other roles Proposed Contributor Roles taxonomy ORCID Site
    • 54. Potential taxonomy additions    Translators Commentors or Discussors - Authors who discuss another person's work or find errors in another work. This could be widened to cover the reviewers of books, software, etc. unless they are considered as curators (?) or investigators (?). Editors and Guest Editors - They may have a hand in the selection of articles for inclusion in various special issues/sections, or even select conference papers for further development and publication in a periodical.
    • 55. Potential taxonomy deletions   Fundraising – should this be part of the contributor role or placed in another area? Will “Other roles” be allowed by NISO?
    • 56. A possible map to JATS <collab>: Group of contributors credited under a single name; includes an organization credited as a contributor. REMARKS: This element may contain either a collaboration of individuals or the name of an organization (such as a laboratory, educational institution, corporation, or department) when such a unit acts as a contributor by, for example, authoring the work. <contrib>: Container element for information about a single author, editor, or other contributor. REMARKS: Types of Contributors. The element <contrib> can be used for many roles besides authors, for example, editors, special issue editors, photographers, illustrators, directors, etc. The @contrib-type attribute placed on the <contrib> element, or the <role> element used within the <contrib> element, may be used to describe the contribution. <contrib-group>: Container element for one or more contributors and information about those contributors. REMARKS: Inside the element <article-meta>, the <contrib-group> element groups individual contributors to a document such as authors, researchers, or photographers. Inside the element <journal-id>, the <contrib-group> element groups contributors to the whole journal, above the level of an article, such as section editors or journal editors, or special issue editors.
    • 57. As part of the <contrib> element <role>: Title or role of a contributor to a work (for example, editor-in-chief, chief scientist, photographer, research associate). REMARKS: Information on the role or type of contribution is collected in two places, in the @contrib-type attribute on the <contrib> element and in the <role> element (which is part of the contributor information inside a<contrib> element). For example, the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute might have a value of “editor”, whereas the content of the <role> element could be “Associate Editor”. As another example, the <contrib> element’s @contrib-type attribute might be “author”, and the <role> element might contain “Principal Author”. <principal-investigator>: Individual(s) responsible for the intellectual content of the work reported in the document. <principal-award-recipient>: Individual(s) or institution(s) to whom the award was given (for example, the principal grant holder or the sponsored individual).
    • 58. <contrib-id>: <contrib-id>: One identifier for a person such as a contributor or principal investigator. This element will hold:  an ORCID,  a trusted publisher’s identifier,  a JST (Japanese Science and Technology Agency) identifier,  or an NII (National Individual Identifier).  ISNI – International Standard Name Identifier The <contrib-id> tag is the only one that seems to reference controlled vocabularies – map to the ORCID, JST, NII
    • 59. Possibilities     Encourage widespread adoption Add to JATS – DTD Add to ORCID Make into an ISO / BSI / NISO Standard
    • 60. Survey results  Early peek     How easy or difficult did you find it to assign the contributions … …do you agree or disagree that the taxonomy is comprehensive… How does this structured list compare …in terms of accuracy of contributions? Easy? Agree? Similar? Well over 80%
    • 61. Still in research mode FULL Results to be reported at Council of Science Editors in May
    • 62. Discussion? Marjorie M.K. Hlava President and Chairman Access Innovations, Inc. Data Harmony www.dataharmony.com www.accessinn.com 505-998-0800 ext 109 mhlava@accessinn.com www.taxodiary.com - the taxonomy news blog We need your Thoughts, Trials, Feedback!