Continuous Process Improvement
TWI

Overview
Charles S. Logan
Learning Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will be able to:

• Explain the basic principles of Continuous
Process I...
History of CPI
• Roots of Lean: back to early 1900’s
• Henry Ford: continuous flow production, waste
elimination
• TWI: (T...
Continuous Process Improvement

• CPI uses four very important principles for a
total improvement to any program/process.
...
Four Methodologies
• “Lean Thinking” is a management philosophy focusing on
reduction of the 8 wastes in products and serv...
What is Lean?
Lean Principles
• Value has been specified
– From the Customer’s perspective

• The Value Stream has been id...
Knowledge Check: Eight Sins of Waste
Wastes-Those Elements of a process that Do Not
Increase the Value of a Product or Ser...
Eight Forms of Waste (Muda)
Type

Physical Process

Transactional Example

Transporting

Parts Moving to
Warehouse and Bac...
The Value of Time
Within the 8 wastes, time is a significant factor.
Disassemble
Transport
Wait
Remove From
Ship

Set-up

...
The Value of Time
1
Time

2

LARGE

Small Amount of
Time Eliminated

amount of
time saved
Note: The focus is not on the va...
What is Six Sigma ?
• Sigma ( ) is the 18th letter of the Greek
alphabet.
• In statistics, represents standard deviation, ...
What is Six Sigma? (cont’d)
“Six Sigma” is an optimized performance level
approaching zero defects in any process whether ...
Critical Relationship Between Process Performance
and Customer Satisfaction

Voice of the Process
Voice of the Customer

M...
DMAIC Problem-Solving Roadmap
IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITY

DEFINE
MEASURE

DESCRIBE AS-IS CONDITION

ANALYZE

IDENTIFY KEY CAUSES...
Why “Six Sigma”?
Hey, 99% is good enough right?
99%

99.99966% (6 Sigma)

• 20,000 lost postal mail items per
hour

• 7 lo...
What is Theory of Constraints?
• A system must have a goal on which everything in that
system is evaluated
• Systems funct...
Principles of TOC
• Systems operate in an environment of cause and
effect. Visible problems are usually indicators
(undesi...
TOC focuses on Constraints
• Constraint = Anything that impedes
Throughput. TOC concentrates on
identifying and improving ...
TOC Measures of Progress
• Throughput: The rate at which the system
produces customer value or generates money
• Inventory...
TOC Applications
• Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR): Links the pace of the first step in a
process to the exit rate of the constrain...
TOC Steps
1. Identify - What’s the constraint?
2. Exploit – Get the most out of the constraint with
minimum investment.
3....
What is TWI?
3 J-Programs

Developed by the U.S. Government to increase WWII production,
by standardized techniques, train...
What is TWI?

(LEAN)
(SIX SIGMA)

Job Instruction (JI): Structure
for effective training, to
eliminate the waste caused
by...
TWI Job Instruction Card
What is TWI?
Job Methods (JM): Structure
for job improvement, listing
each step and questioning
why, what, where, when, wh...
TWI Job Methods Card
TWI and Kaizen
• Job Methods - The Original Kaizen
The objective of Job Methods was to give supervisors a practical
method...
What is TWI?
Job Relations (JR):
Structure for how to
promote teamwork and
resolve basic worksite
communication problems.
...
TWI Job relations Card
Job Breakdown Sheet
Important Steps
•
•

Advance the
work
Change form, fit
or function

•

Noun & Verb

•

Safety

•

Make...
3 J-Programs overview
TWI is simply applied Scientific Method!
Step
1
Preparation

2
Presentation

3
Application

4
Inspec...
Training Within Industry

WHEN THE 3J-PROGRAMS ARE USED TOGETHER
Training Within Industry…
Variability Causing Unstable
Performance

Reduce Variability and
Cut Waste With
Standard Work

I...
Training Within Industry…
JR
(No Blame, Mentoring, Understanding)

JM
JM

Indicators of
Improvement

JI

(Kaizen)

Holding...
Integrating a Culture of Continuous Improvement
Training Within Industry
Job Instruction

Job Methods

(Know How)
 Develo...
PMP & CPI PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
(LEAN / 6 SIGMA / TOC / TWI)
START
Process
Owner

TRANSFER

TRANSFER

TO
PM / LEAD
BELT

FROM...
DMAIC Process

TWI
DEFINE
•
•
•
•
•

Select a Project (use Process Managers and/or CPPI Office)
ID Business Opportunity (What, Where, When, E...
MEASURE
•
•
•
•
•

Develop Data Collection Plan (Collection Plan)
Develop As-Is Map (Gemba Walk, Walk the Process, Base Li...
ANALYZE
•
•
•
•
•

Identify Processes Constraints (TOC / LEAN)
Organize Potential Causes (Cause & Effect Diagram)
Preform ...
IMPROVE
•
•
•
•
•

Generate, Evaluate & Select Solution
Conduct Design of Experiment (LEAN) Job Instruction (Know How)
- D...
CONTROL
•
•
•
•
•

Monitor the Process (Run Chart, TWI: JM)
Establish Visual Controls
Control as Required (Control Plan)
M...
VALIDATE
• Monitor the Process
• Manage Process Performance (Sustainment)
Performance
with
Sustainment

Historical
Momentu...
Integrating a Culture of Continuous Improvement
Training Within Industry
Job Instruction

Job Methods

(Know How)
 Develo...
Continuous Process Improvement

TWI

Any Questions?
CPI Training overview
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CPI Training overview

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CPI uses four very important principles for a total improvement to any program/process.
- Lean (Eliminate Waste)
- Six Sigma (Minimize Variation)
- Theory of Constraints (Strengthening Weakest Link)
- Training within Industry (Standard Work)

You can’t just use one…… When all four are used together, you can truly see the difference!!!

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  • The TWI Programs contain simple yet powerful methods to teach fundamental skills that can help people at any level of any organization become more productive. The power of the TWI Programs is that, when properly implemented, they touch all employees and harness everyone’s intellect and energy to address problems on a daily basis. Moreover they do this by focusing on the ‘hard’ skills of improving quality, cost, productivity and safety while using the ‘soft’ skills of improved communication, teamwork and morale. The skills taught are ones that everyone can learn, and thus every organization can become more effective by implementing the TWI Programs into its culture. In order for this to happen, all employees must be involved. Some costs will be acquired in both time and money, but the payback will far outweigh the costs.
  • Objective of Job Instruction (JI): Develop a well-trained workforce resulting in Less scrap and rework, Fewer accidents, Less tool and equipment damage.
  • Charles Allen's 4-Step training program called Job Instruction, given first to trainers, then by them to supervisors. The first two sessions presented and discussed the 4-step method; the last three sessions consisted of actually practicing method. Between sessions, all participants converted an instructional method used in their department to the TWI method and reported back to the group. Job Instruction and all other training programs weren't officially released until they had been used, evaluated, and revised multiple times based on feedback from many plants and TWI's own assessment of effectiveness. This approach developed a sure-fire method usable in all industries, plus variants developed for specific industries. The Job Instruction training manual focused on "instructing employees rather than “letting them learn", and concentrated on the critical issue of training new, green employees. All persons attending Job Instruction were issued a pocket-sized Job Instruction card. The front of the card outlined the instructor or supervisor's procedure for getting ready" to instruct, and is very similar to a technique in Allen's book. The back outlined How to Instruct according to the 4- step method. It was to be carried by the supervisors at all times to remind them of the methods they should use when training workers on the job.
  • Objective of Job Methods (JM): Make the best use of the people, machines, and materials now available
  • Job Methods trained supervisors to achieve obvious work area improvements using a practical approach instead of technicalfixes, proving successful in all types of war production plants. The objective of Job Methods: … helping the supervisors to produce greater quantities of quality products in less time, by making the best use of the manpower, machines, and material now available. Job Methods was a thought process to break down jobs and to develop new, improved ways to do them, using steps very similar to kaizen or PDCA today. One purpose of the Job Methods program was to prevent supervisors from trying flawed or incomplete improvement ideas.
  • Objective of Job Relations (JR): Build positive employee relations by effectively resolving conflicts that arise, Maintain positive relations by preventing problems from happening
  • The Job Relations program was sorely needed because: …supervisors needed a great deal of help in human relations - the art ofhandling men. Although working with women wasn't implied by the language of the time, women played a key role and were featured insome of the case studies of TWI training. All "J" program names included the term "job" to emphasize a theme consistent with work, and the Job Relations program adopted the additional themes, "poor relationships cause poor results" and "good relations lead to good results." It emphasized understanding and resolving small issues before they became large. Job Relations also had a card. Job Relations training sessions illustrated the principles with everyday case studies using a fictitious supervisor and his employee. Following each of the four steps, a case study illustrated how the supervisor handled the situation. Each attendee was required to use the process in their area and report back to the class.
  • The Purpose of Job Breakdown Sheets:1. To help organize the operation in the Instructor’s mind2. To remind the Instructor of the order and details of all the important steps and key points3. To document Standard Work
  • “Learn by Doing” The TWI approach is not a matter of schools or classes or lessons – It is individual and/or group work on current day problems of output, quality, lost-time, scrap, rework, maintenance, and working relations
  • CPI Training overview

    1. 1. Continuous Process Improvement TWI Overview Charles S. Logan
    2. 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this lesson you will be able to: • Explain the basic principles of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI), including Lean Thinking, Six Sigma, Theory of Constraints (TOC) and Training Within Industry (TWI). 2
    3. 3. History of CPI • Roots of Lean: back to early 1900’s • Henry Ford: continuous flow production, waste elimination • TWI: (Training Within Industry), 1940-1945 • Kiichiro Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno: low inventories, flexibility • U.S. supermarkets: pull systems • Shigeo Shingo: mistake proofing, reduced set up times • Toyota Production System • MIT and James Womack: bring Lean back to U.S. • Eli Goldratt: published book “The Goal”, early 1980’s (TOC) • Motorola & others: developed Six Sigma early 1990’s 3 NIKE
    4. 4. Continuous Process Improvement • CPI uses four very important principles for a total improvement to any program/process. - Lean (Eliminate Waste) - Six Sigma (Minimize Variation) - Theory of Constraints (Strengthening Weakest Link) - Training within Industry (Standard Work) You can’t just use one…… When all four are used together, you can truly see the difference!!!
    5. 5. Four Methodologies • “Lean Thinking” is a management philosophy focusing on reduction of the 8 wastes in products and services. By eliminating waste, quality is improved, production time is reduced, and cost is reduced. • “Six Sigma” can be defined as a methodology to manage process variations that cause defects, defined as unacceptable deviation from the mean or target; and to systematically work towards managing variation to eliminate those defects. • “Theory of Constraints (TOC)” a methodology for identifying the most important limiting factor (i.e. constraint/bottleneck) that stands in the way of achieving a goal. • “Training Within Industry” standardized techniques, training, and continuous improvements in order to Source: Wikipedia Encyclopedia maximize the potential of every worker. 5
    6. 6. What is Lean? Lean Principles • Value has been specified – From the Customer’s perspective • The Value Stream has been identified – For each product/service • The product/service Flows without interruptions • The Customer can Pull value from the process • Continuous pursuit of Perfection 6
    7. 7. Knowledge Check: Eight Sins of Waste Wastes-Those Elements of a process that Do Not Increase the Value of a Product or Service as perceived by the Customer, but Increases Cost and Cycle times. IDENTIFY AND ELIMINATE THESE WASTES: Types of Waste: 7 T I M W O O D U Transportation Inventory (Excess) Motion Waiting Over-Production Over-Processing Defects Under utilization of employees
    8. 8. Eight Forms of Waste (Muda) Type Physical Process Transactional Example Transporting Parts Moving to Warehouse and Back Data Handoffs Inventory Excessive Work-inProcess Backlog of Design or Tooling Changes Motion Retrieving Parts, Tools, Information Poor Office Lay-Out Waiting Parts, Tools, Information Meetings, Approval, System Down Time Over-Processing Performing Unneeded Operations Approvals (Too Many Sign-offs) Over-Production Working Ahead of Schedule Printing Paper Too Soon Defects Scrap or Rework Drawing or Planning Errors, Rework Under utilization More people involved than required to perform physical or transactional tasks. of employees 8
    9. 9. The Value of Time Within the 8 wastes, time is a significant factor. Disassemble Transport Wait Remove From Ship Set-up Start Broken Component = Value-Added Time Re-Install Machine Machine Inspect Transport TIME Repaired Component Finish = Non-Value-Added Time (WASTE) Value-added time is only a very small percentage of the total time. 9
    10. 10. The Value of Time 1 Time 2 LARGE Small Amount of Time Eliminated amount of time saved Note: The focus is not on the value-added steps or the people performing them. Instead, the focus is to remove barriers and better support the people doing the work! 10 1) Traditional Focus • Improve Value-Added work steps • Better tools, machines, instructions • Result: Small time savings 2) Lean Focus • Make all of the Value Stream visible • Reduce or eliminate Non-Value-Added portions of the process • Result: Large time savings
    11. 11. What is Six Sigma ? • Sigma ( ) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. • In statistics, represents standard deviation, a measure of variation for process performance. • Sigma is calculated from population or sample data. – Process data can be collected and evaluated to determine its impact on productivity, performance, and customer satisfaction – The measurements provide the ability to “predict” process performance and provide a benchmark to determine if actions have produced results 11
    12. 12. What is Six Sigma? (cont’d) “Six Sigma” is an optimized performance level approaching zero defects in any process whether it produces a: • product • service • transaction 12
    13. 13. Critical Relationship Between Process Performance and Customer Satisfaction Voice of the Process Voice of the Customer MEASURED IN UNITS OF STANDARD DEVIATION (SIGMA) Source: ASQ LSS Training Material 13
    14. 14. DMAIC Problem-Solving Roadmap IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITY DEFINE MEASURE DESCRIBE AS-IS CONDITION ANALYZE IDENTIFY KEY CAUSES TWI PROPOSE & IMPLEMENT SOLUTIONS SUSTAIN THE GAIN IMPROVE CONTROL Validate & Replicate Changes 14
    15. 15. Why “Six Sigma”? Hey, 99% is good enough right? 99% 99.99966% (6 Sigma) • 20,000 lost postal mail items per hour • 7 lost postal mail items per hour • 15 minutes of unsafe drinking water per day • 1 unsafe minute every seven months • 2 long/short landings per day at a major airport • 1 long/short landing every five years • 5,000 incorrect surgical operations per week • 1.7 incorrect operations per week • 7 hours of lost electricity per month • 1 hour without electricity every 34 years • 20,000 incorrect prescriptions per month • 68 wrong prescriptions per year 15
    16. 16. What is Theory of Constraints? • A system must have a goal on which everything in that system is evaluated • Systems function as chains. Strengthening the weakest link benefits the system the most • Optimum system performance is NOT equal to the sum of the individual process optima 16
    17. 17. Principles of TOC • Systems operate in an environment of cause and effect. Visible problems are usually indicators (undesirable effects or UDE) of some critical root cause(s) that must be addressed • An optimal solution deteriorates over time. Improvement must be continuous. • Policy constraints are the most common and most difficult to break. Policy constraints offer the most opportunity for system improvement. 17
    18. 18. TOC focuses on Constraints • Constraint = Anything that impedes Throughput. TOC concentrates on identifying and improving the worst impediment • Identifying constraints – Visual identification of WIP (Work in Process) – Calculating Throughput for each process step 18
    19. 19. TOC Measures of Progress • Throughput: The rate at which the system produces customer value or generates money • Inventory: Inventory is all the money invested in buying things that will at some time be sold (turned into Throughput) or that is tied up in the system (investment). Includes costs for raw materials, infrastructure, etc. • Operating Expense: The costs associated with turning Inventory into Throughput. Includes costs for labor, utilities, interest, etc. 19
    20. 20. TOC Applications • Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR): Links the pace of the first step in a process to the exit rate of the constraint. One of the most common TOC applications; often applied to repetitive processes. • Critical Chain: An advanced application of DBR used in the project management field which treats time as inventory. • Supply Chain Management: DBR concepts applied in the logistics arena, concentrating on the system’s ability to replenish stock. The metric, “Time to Reliably Replenish” (TRR), is an offshoot of this application. • Thinking Processes: TOC tools to link improvement efforts to the system’s goal using the logic of cause and effect. Uses logic trees as a way to step through the process. 20
    21. 21. TOC Steps 1. Identify - What’s the constraint? 2. Exploit – Get the most out of the constraint with minimum investment. 3. Subordinate - Focus non-constraints towards supporting the constraint 4. Elevate – Increase the constraint’s capacity 5. Repeat Step 1 - The constraint has probably moved. Drum-Buffer-Rope uses this methodology (From The Goal by Eli Goldratt) 21
    22. 22. What is TWI? 3 J-Programs Developed by the U.S. Government to increase WWII production, by standardized techniques, training, and continuous improvements in order to maximize the potential of every worker.
    23. 23. What is TWI? (LEAN) (SIX SIGMA) Job Instruction (JI): Structure for effective training, to eliminate the waste caused by varied work practices. JIT taught supervisors the importance of proper training for their workforce and how to provide this training. Job instruction is the way to get a person to quickly remember how to do a job; Correctly, Safely & Conscientiously.
    24. 24. TWI Job Instruction Card
    25. 25. What is TWI? Job Methods (JM): Structure for job improvement, listing each step and questioning why, what, where, when, wh o & how which leads to ideas towards improvement. JMT taught how to generate and implement ideas for continuous improvement.
    26. 26. TWI Job Methods Card
    27. 27. TWI and Kaizen • Job Methods - The Original Kaizen The objective of Job Methods was to give supervisors a practical method to improve production in their work area other than better technology, proving to be both simple and effective. Job Methods pocket cards were issued in the US to stimulate ongoing improvement, an idea similar to kaizen, usually translated as CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT. As TWI originally expressed it.
    28. 28. What is TWI? Job Relations (JR): Structure for how to promote teamwork and resolve basic worksite communication problems. JRT taught leadership and human relations.
    29. 29. TWI Job relations Card
    30. 30. Job Breakdown Sheet Important Steps • • Advance the work Change form, fit or function • Noun & Verb • Safety • Makes or breaks the job • • Calibrates 5 senses Reasons • Always go with key points • Makes the job easier to learn or remember • Support: Q,C,D,T,V and Safety Makes the job easier to do Adds Value • Key points • Special Information
    31. 31. 3 J-Programs overview TWI is simply applied Scientific Method! Step 1 Preparation 2 Presentation 3 Application 4 Inspection Job Instruction Job Methods Job Relations PDCA Cycle Scientific Method Prepare the worker Break down Get the the job facts Define & Analyze a Problem Observation & Description Present the operation Weigh Question and every detail decide Devise a Solution Formulation of an Hypothesize Try out performance Develop the Take new action method Confirm Outcomes Against Plan Use of Hypothesis to make Prediction Follow up Apply the new method Standardize Solution Interpret Predictions & Conclusions by Experiments Check results
    32. 32. Training Within Industry WHEN THE 3J-PROGRAMS ARE USED TOGETHER
    33. 33. Training Within Industry… Variability Causing Unstable Performance Reduce Variability and Cut Waste With Standard Work Improve Performance and Bottom Line From Stable Baseline Job Instruction (Know How) Improved Process - Develop Standard Job Methods (Better Way) - Train Each Person - Question Every Detail You must standardize the work and remove variability first before you can improve it. - Improve Standard Stable Process & Less variation Job Relations (Confidence to Proceed) -Encourage Innovation - Solve People Problems …it’s that simple
    34. 34. Training Within Industry… JR (No Blame, Mentoring, Understanding) JM JM Indicators of Improvement JI (Kaizen) Holding Standard Work (Performance with Sustainment) (standardize) (Kaizen) JM JI (standardize) JI (Kaizen) (standardize) Not Holding Standard Work (Performance without Sustainment) JM (Kaizen) Time STANDARD WORK is nothing more than applying Job Methods (Better Way) and Job Instruction (Know How) within the boundaries of Job Relations (Confidence to Proceed).
    35. 35. Integrating a Culture of Continuous Improvement Training Within Industry Job Instruction Job Methods (Know How)  Develop Standard  Train Each Person (Better Way)  Question Every Detail  Improve Standard Job Relations (Confidence to Proceed) CPI   Encourage Innovation Solve People Problems Continuous Process Improvement Theory of Constraints Six Sigma Reducing Process Variation Constraint Mitigation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the Constraint Exploit the Constraint Subordinate to the Constraint Elevate the System’s Constraint Repeat Step 1, the Constraint has probably moved      Consistent Repeatable Processes Process Design / Redesign Defect Prevention Statistical Analysis Voice of the Customer
    36. 36. PMP & CPI PROJECT LIFE CYCLE (LEAN / 6 SIGMA / TOC / TWI) START Process Owner TRANSFER TRANSFER TO PM / LEAD BELT FROM PM / LEAD BELT PLAN END Process Owner PM / LEAD BELT INITIATE DEFINE SEE THE PROCESS PROJECT SELECTIO N DEFINE (DETAILED) MEASURE SEE THE WASTE SUSTAIN / CONTROL MONITOR & CONTROL MENTORING & OVERSIGHT BY CPI LEAN CHAMPION (BI-WEEKLY REPORTS TO CPI OFFICE) (CONCEPT) IMPROVE LEAD THE WAY IMPROV E CONTROL VALIDATE (BI-WEEKLY REPORTS TO CPI OFFICE) VISUALIZE THE PERFECT STATE ANALYZE EXECUTE PM / LEAD BELT CLOSURE
    37. 37. DMAIC Process TWI
    38. 38. DEFINE • • • • • Select a Project (use Process Managers and/or CPPI Office) ID Business Opportunity (What, Where, When, Extent, Impact) Develop Charter (Charter, Business Plan, Strategic Plan, SMART Objectives) Develop SIPOC (SIPOC) Develop Project Plan / Timeline
    39. 39. MEASURE • • • • • Develop Data Collection Plan (Collection Plan) Develop As-Is Map (Gemba Walk, Walk the Process, Base Line Data) Continue Measurement (Base Line Data) Validate Measurement System (Gage R&R) Evaluate Normality, Stability & Capability (Run Charts, Control Charts, Process Capability)
    40. 40. ANALYZE • • • • • Identify Processes Constraints (TOC / LEAN) Organize Potential Causes (Cause & Effect Diagram) Preform FMEA (Failure Modes & Effects Analysis) Conduct Hypothesis Testing Develop Future State Map (Lean, Six Sigma, TOC)
    41. 41. IMPROVE • • • • • Generate, Evaluate & Select Solution Conduct Design of Experiment (LEAN) Job Instruction (Know How) - Develop Standard Pilot & Debug (TWI: JI & JM) - Train Each Person Plan the Implementation (Gantt Chart, TWI: JI & JM) Implement Plan (TWI: JI & JM) Job Methods (Better Way) Job Relations (Confidence to Proceed) - Question Every Detail -Encourage Innovation - Improve Standard - Solve People Problems
    42. 42. CONTROL • • • • • Monitor the Process (Run Chart, TWI: JM) Establish Visual Controls Control as Required (Control Plan) Manage Process Performance Clean Hand-off to Process Owner
    43. 43. VALIDATE • Monitor the Process • Manage Process Performance (Sustainment) Performance with Sustainment Historical Momentum Performance without Sustainment Baseline RIE #1 RIE #2 RIE #3 RIE #4 RIE: Rapid Improvement Event
    44. 44. Integrating a Culture of Continuous Improvement Training Within Industry Job Instruction Job Methods (Know How)  Develop Standard  Train Each Person (Better Way)  Question Every Detail  Improve Standard Job Relations (Confidence to Proceed) CPI   Encourage Innovation Solve People Problems Continuous Process Improvement Theory of Constraints Six Sigma Reducing Process Variation Constraint Mitigation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the Constraint Exploit the Constraint Subordinate to the Constraint Elevate the System’s Constraint Repeat Step 1, the Constraint has probably moved      Consistent Repeatable Processes Process Design / Redesign Defect Prevention Statistical Analysis Voice of the Customer
    45. 45. Continuous Process Improvement TWI Any Questions?
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