Robyn mc conchie_food_safety_overview


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From the Food Security Forum 2014: Good food, good health: delivering the benefits of food
security in Australia and beyond - 17 March 2014

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Robyn mc conchie_food_safety_overview

  1. 1. Food Safety in Plant Based Foods the challenge ahead Robyn McConchie Faculty of Agriculture and Environment University of Sydney
  2. 2. Presentation › Fruit and Veg – they’re healthy and nutritious aren’t they? › Main safety issues with plant based foods › Overseas experiences we don’t want to replicate here › Food safety incidents in Australia › Food safety research & education at the Faculty of Agriculture and Environment Hitching a ride!
  3. 3. Fruit and Veg – healthy and nutritious aren’t they? Europe – average consumption is half the daily recommended intake U.S. – 6-8% of individuals achieve recommended daily target Australia – 5.6% of adults had an adequate daily consumption of F&V 2011-12 Worldwide daily intake of F&V well below recommended WHO levels Source: The Louis Bonduelle Foundation, 2011; Produce for Better Health Foundation, 2010; Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012 Do you eat 400g fruit and veg per day? 3
  4. 4. Globally 1.7 million deaths (2.8%) deaths per annum linked to low F&V consumption (WHO 2013) Australian Guide to Healthy Eating 2 serves of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables a day Fruit and Veg ARE good for you The last thing we want to risk human health with unsafe food Raw food does not have a kill step Ranked safest among ASEAN countries › Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit 2012 Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012 4
  5. 5. Current Environment • Consumers expect food to be safe • Regulators protect public health through QA systems and laws • The food industry want to do “right” thing: Produce industry - great industry Healthy, nutritious food • Educators can provide assistance • Buyers focus on food safety • Yet… product recalls and outbreaks 5
  6. 6. BUT Can we rest on our reputation? › Australia - safest food supplies in the world…. but we have 5.4 million cases of food-borne illness a year costing est. $1.2 billion (DAFF 2013) › Gap between food production and consumption - consumers know little about the origin and handling of food › Consumers have to rely on the food regulation system for the provision of safe food › They do a good job… but need continuous updating and education of stakeholders in the supply chains and the consumer › Incidents and outbreaks of foodborne disease are monitored and detected via Communicable Disease Network Australia and OzFoodNet Australia has a clean, green image for food production 6
  7. 7. What are the risks with plant based foods? › Microbial – raw fruit and vegetables, unpasteurised juices, fresh cuts e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, Shiga- toxin–producing E. coli › Pesticide contamination › Mycotoxins e.g. aflatoxins, fumonisin, alternariol, patulin, ochratoxin › Allergens e.g. peanuts, gluten, plant defence compounds 7
  8. 8. Sprouts in Europe 2011 May 2011, Germany had a massive epidemic of bloody diarrhoea and the hemolytic–uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin–producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Over 3 months more than 4000 illnesses, 800 cases of the hemolytic–uremic syndrome, and 50 deaths in Germany and in 15 other countries. 8 Spanish fruit and vegetable exporters estimate they lost 200m euros per week
  9. 9. Melons in the USA 2011 › In 2011, cantaloupes were contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes › Caused one of the deadliest foodborne illness outbreaks in U.S. history › Tainted melons sickened 147 people in 28 states, killed 33, and caused one pregnant woman to miscarry 9
  10. 10. In Australia? • An unofficial listing of recalls and reported illnesses over 10 years in Horticultural produce (n=45) • Microbial contamination the most prevalent category • Salmonella the most prevalent individual • Fruit and veg equally represented • Nuts also prominent, particularly almonds • Residues not as significant as expectedSource: Richard Bennett 2014 PMA Technical Manager
  11. 11. Microbial contamination 2012 › Recall of almonds due to Salmonella contamination › Wet season almonds lay on the ground › Vacuum steam pasturisation and processing minimises risk
  12. 12. Allergens › Food allergy occurs in around 1 in 20 children and in about 2 in 100 adults › Common plant triggers are peanuts and tree nuts, sesame, soy and wheat › Some food allergies can be severe, causing life threatening anaphylaxis - 600 cases per year › Incorrect labelling major cause › Industries and service providers are responsible for correct labelling › Zero tolerance for presence of allergens Source: SCIA allergy
  13. 13. Pesticide contamination 2009 › Situation that could cause material (economic) and/or reputational harm to a business, region or industry › “Macadamia farmers on Queensland's Sunshine Coast are at the centre of a controversy over two-headed fish hatchlings.” › Source: Australian Wildlife Health Network 2009 Farm run-off blamed for two-headed Noosa bass
  14. 14. Mycotoxins › Mycotoxins are associated with dried fruit, fruit and fruit juices, coffee grains, cereals, nuts, spices, oilseeds, oils and starches › Toxins produced by fungi › Tasteless, invisible and can’t be easily destroyed › Main pathogens associated with aflatoxins: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus › In humans causes liver cancer and damage, immunosuppression › In animals decreased milk and egg production 14 “In March this year, a consignment of Australian apple juice was tested in Japan and found to have unacceptably high levels of the toxin patulin in it.” Source: Are your fruit safe for juice? Patulin – the toxic substance found in juice fruit. Australian Fruitgrower. June 2012. “Excessive levels of ‘mycotoxins’ found in European apple juices and cereals.” Source: AusFoodNews: %E2%80%98mycotoxins%E2%80%99-found-in-european-apple- juices-and-cereals.html June 24, 2013 Patulin
  15. 15. Food Safety @ the Faculty of Agriculture and Environment 15 Project Goals Partners Australia: A New Collaborative Paradigm for Fresh Produce Safety: Stage 2 – A Fresh Produce Safety Centre. Research, outreach education funded and managed by industry HAL, Produce Marketing Association A-NZ , 19 Industry partners Australia: Remediation of soil contaminated by Salmonella enterica to expedite plant or replant of vegetables Safe use of chicken manure amendments and risk management strategies CPS USA, UC Davis, HAL, Vet Faculty Africa: Australia Awards for Africa Short course - Post-harvest management of maize, rice and legumes Post-harvest management and handling of grains DFAT, GRM, Universities of Nairobi, Stellenbosch and Kwame Nkrumah Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana Africa: Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia Linking agricultural R&D with human health and focus on production systems under the control of women Faculty of Vet Science (Lead), Australian International Food Security Centre, Ministry of Health, Zambia; Kyeema Foundation, University of the Witwatersrand, Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Royal Veterinary College, UK; Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Zambia; University of Zambia, Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives, Tanzania.
  16. 16. In Australia: Fresh Produce Safety Centre › Independent, industry-managed organisation, based at the Faculty of Agriculture and Environment and affiliated to the Center for Produce Safety (US) at University of California (Davis). › Role will be to promote fresh produce safety across Australia and New Zealand through research, outreach and education http:/ 16 Establishment of Fresh Produce Safety Centre at the University of Sydney
  17. 17. Industry Driven and Funded Hosted by the University of Sydney 17
  18. 18. In Africa: Postharvest interventions to reduce aflatoxins Bimodal wet seasons in central Africa often means harvesting wet grain above 12% moisture Fungi can produce mycotoxins pre and post harvest Safer Food – Reducing Mycotoxins 18 • Drying Grain 12-14% • Whole unbroken grain • Hermetic storage • Education Hermetic Storage in Uganda Extension to famers in Kenya
  19. 19. In Africa : Poultry-Crop Systems and Poultry Value Chains Potential Cropping Interventions 19 › Identifying product demand – animal feed? › Identify nutritious products › Better access to markets/ co-ops › Safer and better quality food › Pre-harvest – cultural aspects › Postharvest Quality - Drying, grading and storage - Insect and fungal attack - Handling and distribution
  20. 20. › Dr Robert Whittaker, Chief Science and Technology Officer PMA USA › Michael Worthington, CEO PMA Australia and New Zealand › Richard Bennett Technical Manager PMA Australia and New Zealand › Erika Watson, Communications Manager FAE › Reetica Rekhy, Ph D student FAE › Francis Musavi, Crop Protection Manager Ministry of Agriculture Nairobi, Kenay › Dr Harriet Muyzinza, Postharvest Scientist, NARO, Uganda Acknowledgements 20
  21. 21. Thank you 21