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Bringing Concurrency to Ruby - RubyConf India 2014

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A talk on the why and how of high-concurrency Ruby.

A talk on the why and how of high-concurrency Ruby.

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Bringing Concurrency to Ruby - RubyConf India 2014 Bringing Concurrency to Ruby - RubyConf India 2014 Presentation Transcript

  • Bringing Concurrency to Ruby Charles Oliver Nutter @headius
  • Me, about 40 weeks of the year
  • Me, the other 12 weeks of the year
  • Concurrency
  • Parallelism?
  • Concurrency • Two or more jobs • Making progress • Over a given time span
  • Parallelism • Two or more computations • Executing at the same moment in time
  • Examples • Thread APIs: concurrency • Actore APIs: concurrency • Native thread, process: parallelism • If the underlying system supports it • SIMD, GPU, vector operations: parallelism
  • You Need Both • Work that can split into concurrent jobs • Platform that runs those jobs in parallel • In an ideal world, scales with job count • In our world, each job adds overhead
  • Process-level Concurrency • Separate processes running concurrently • As parallel as OS/CPU can make them • Low risk due to isolated memory space • High memory requirements • High communication overhead
  • Thread-level Concurrency • Threads in-process running concurrently • As parallel as OS/CPU can make them • Higher risk due to shared memory space • Lower memory requirements • Low communication overhead
  • Popular Platforms Concurrency Parallelism GC Notes MRI 1.8.7 ✔ ✘ Single thread, stop- the-world Large C core would need much work MRI 1.9+ ✔ ✘ Single thread, stop- the-world Few changes since 1.9.3 JRuby (JVM) ✔ ✔ Many concurrent and parallel options JVM is the “best” platform for conc Rubinius ✔ ✔ Single thread, stop- the-world, partial concurrent old gen Promising, but a long road ahead Topaz ✘ ✘ Single thread, stop- the-world Incomplete impl Node.js (V8) ✘ ✘ Single thread, stop- the-world No threads in JS CPython ✔ ✘ Reference-counting Reference counting kills parallelism Pypy ✔ ✘ Single thread, stop- the-world Exploring STM to enable concurrency
  • Idle System
  • MRI 1.8.7, One Thread
  • MRI 1.8.7, Eight Threads
  • Timeslicing Thread 1 Thread 2 Thread 3 Thread 4 Native thread Native thread Native thread Native thread “Green” or “virtual” or “userspace” threads share a single native thread.The CPU then schedules that thread on available CPUs. Time’s up Time’s up Time’s up
  • MRI 1.8.7, Eight Threads
  • MRI 1.9.3+, Eight Threads
  • GVL: GlobalVM Lock Thread 1 Thread 2 Thread 3 Thread 4 CPU CPU CPU CPU In 1.9+, each thread gets its own native thread, but a global lock prevents concurrent execution. Time slices are finer grained and variable, but threads still can’t run in parallel. Lock xfer CPU Lock xfer Lock xfer
  • GVL: GlobalVenue Lock
  • MRI 1.9.3+, Eight Threads
  • MRI 1.9.3+, Eight Threads
  • JRuby, One Thread
  • Why Do We See Parallelism? • Hotspot JVM has many background threads • GC with concurrent and parallel options • JIT threads • Signal handling • Monitoring and management
  • JRuby, One Thread
  • JRuby, Eight Threads
  • Time Matters Too 0 1.75 3.5 5.25 7 Time per iteration MRI 1.8.7 MRI 1.9.3 JRuby Nearly 10x faster than 1.9.3
  • Rules of Concurrency 1. Don’t do it, if you don’t have to. 2. If you must do it, don’t share data. 3. If you must share data, make it immutable. 4. If it must be mutable, coordinate all access.
  • #1: Don’t • Many problems won’t benefit • Explicitly sequential things, e.g • Bad code can get worse • Multiply perf, GC, alloc overhead by N • Fixes may not be easy (esp. in Ruby) • The risks can get tricky to address
  • I’m Not Perfect • Wrote a naive algorithm • Measured it taking N seconds • Wrote the concurrent version • Measured it taking roughly N seconds • Returned to original to optimize
  • Fix Single-thread First!Timeinseconds 0 5 10 15 20 big_list time v1 v2 v3 v4 String slice instead of unpack/pack Simpler loops Stream from file
  • Timeinseconds 0 17.5 35 52.5 70 Processing 23M word file Non-threaded Two threads Four threads
  • Before Conc Work • Fix excessive allocation (and GC) • Fix algorithmic complexity • Test on the runtime you want to target • If serial perf is still poor after optimization, the task, runtime, or system may not be appropriate for a concurrent version.
  • Concurrency won’t help code that’s using up all hardware resources.
  • #2: Don’t Share Data • Process-level concurrency • …have to sync up eventually, though • Threads with their own data objects • Rails request objects, e.g. • APIs with a “master” object, usually • Weakest form of concurrency
  • #3: Immutable Data • In other words… • Data can be shared • Threads can pass it around safely • Cross-thread view of data can’t mutate • Threads can’t see concurrent mutations as they happen, avoiding data races
  • Object#freeze • Simplest mechanism for immutability • For read-only: make changes, freeze • Read-mostly: dup, change, freeze, replace • Write-mostly: same, but O(n) complexity
  • Immutable Data Structure • Designed to avoid visible mutation but still have good performance characteristics • Copy-on-write is poor-man’s IDS • Better: persistent data structures like Ctrie http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ctrie
  • Persistent? • Collection you have a reference to is guaranteed never to change • Modifications return a new reference • …and only duplicate affected part of trie
  • Hamster • Pure-Ruby persistent data structures • Set, List, Stack, Queue,Vector, Hash • Based on Clojure’s Ctrie collections • https://github.com/hamstergem/hamster
  • person = Hamster.hash(! :name => “Simon",! :gender => :male)! # => {:name => "Simon", :gender => :male}!  ! person[:name]! # => "Simon"! person.get(:gender)! # => :male!  ! friend = person.put(:name, "James")! # => {:name => "James", :gender => :male}! person! # => {:name => "Simon", :gender => :male}! friend[:name]! # => "James"! person[:name]! # => "Simon"
  • Coming Soon • Reimplementation by Smit Shah • Mostly “native” impl of Ctrie • Considerably better perf than Hamster • https://github.com/Who828/persistent_data_structures
  • Other Techniques • Known-immutable data like Symbol, Fixnum • Mutate for a while, then freeze • Hand-off: if you pass mutable data, assume you can’t mutate it anymore • Sometimes enforced by runtime, e.g. “thread-owned objects”
  • #4: Synchronize Mutation • Trickiest to get right; usually best perf • Fully-immutable generates lots of garbage • Locks, atomics, and specialized collections
  • Locks • Avoid concurrent operations • Read + write, in general • Many varieties: reentrant, read/write • Many implementations
  • Mutex • Simplest form of lock • Acquire, do work, release • Not reentrant semaphore = Mutex.new! ...! a = Thread.new {! semaphore.synchronize {! # access shared resource! }! }
  • ConditionVariable • Release mutex temporarily • Signal others waiting on the mutex • …and be signaled • Similar to wait/notify/notifyAll in Java
  • resource = ConditionVariable.new!  ! a = Thread.new {! mutex.synchronize {! # Thread 'a' now needs the resource! resource.wait(mutex)! # 'a' can now have the resource! }! }!  ! b = Thread.new {! mutex.synchronize {! # Thread 'b' has finished using the resource! resource.signal! }! }!
  • Monitor • Reentrancy • “try” acquire • Mix-in for convenience • Java synchronization = CondVar + Monitor
  • Monitor require 'monitor'!  ! lock = Monitor.new! lock.synchronize do! # exclusive access! end
  • Monitor require 'monitor'!  ! class SynchronizedArray < Array!  ! include MonitorMixin!  ! alias :old_shift :shift!  ! def shift(n=1)! self.synchronize do! self.old_shift(n)! end! end! ...
  • Atomics • Without locking… • …replace a value only if unchanged • …increment, decrement safely • Thread-safe code can use atomics instead of locks, usually with better performance
  • atomic • Atomic operations for Ruby • https://github.com/headius/ruby-atomic
  • require 'atomic'!  ! my_atomic = Atomic.new(0)! my_atomic.value! # => 0! my_atomic.value = 1! my_atomic.swap(2)! # => 1! my_atomic.compare_and_swap(2, 3)! # => true, updated to 3! my_atomic.compare_and_swap(2, 3)! # => false, current is not 2
  • Specialized Collections • thread_safe gem • Fully-synchronized Array and Hash • Atomic-based hash impl (“Cache”) • java.util.concurrent • Numerous tools for concurrency
  • Queues • Thread-safe Queue and SizedQueue • Pipeline data to/from threads • Standard in all Ruby impls
  • thread_count = (ARGV[2] || 1).to_i! queue = SizedQueue.new(thread_count * 4)! ! word_file.each_line.each_slice(50) do |words|! queue << words! end! queue << nil # terminating condition
  • threads = thread_count.times.map do |i|! Thread.new do! while true! words = queue.pop! if words.nil? # terminating condition! queue.shutdown! break! end! words.each do |word|! # analyze the word
  • Putting It All Together • These are a lot of tools to sort out • Others have sorted them out for you
  • Celluloid • Actor model implementation • OO/Ruby sensibilities • Normal classes, normal method calls • Async support • Growing ecosystem • Celluloid-IO and DCell (distributed actors) • https://github.com/celluloid/celluloid
  • class Sheen! include Celluloid!  ! def initialize(name)! @name = name! end!  ! def set_status(status)! @status = status! end!  ! def report! "#{@name} is #{@status}"! end! end
  • >> charlie = Sheen.new "Charlie Sheen"! => #<Celluloid::Actor(Sheen:0x00000100a312d0) @name="Char >> charlie.set_status "winning!"! => "winning!"! >> charlie.report! => "Charlie Sheen is winning!"! >> charlie.async.set_status "asynchronously winning!"! => nil! >> charlie.report! => "Charlie Sheen is asynchronously winning!"
  • Sidekiq • Simple, efficient background processing • Think Resque or DelayedJob but better • Normal-looking Ruby class is the job • Simple call to start it running in background • http://mperham.github.io/sidekiq/
  • class HardWorker! include Sidekiq::Worker!  ! def perform(name, count)! puts 'Doing hard work'! end! end! ! ...later, in a controller...!  ! HardWorker.perform_async('bob', 5)
  • Concurrent Ruby • Grab bag of concurrency patterns • Actor,Agent, Channel, Future, Promise, ScheduledTask,TimerTask, Supervisor • Thread pools, executors, timeouts, conditions, latches, atomics • May grow into a central lib for conc stuff • https://github.com/jdantonio/concurrent-ruby
  • …all the examples I’ve shown you and more
  • Recap • The future of Ruby is concurrent • The tools are there to help you • Let’s all help move Ruby forward
  • Thank you! • Charles Oliver Nutter • headius@headius.com • @headius