POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR SUPPORT STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUMDISORDER IN THE CLASSROOM
• This is a video of a 5 Year Old boy with Autism having an episode(please be advised this is mildly distressing but for some, it is part of living with Autism every day for them and their loved ones) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXN- aWBjkTc (Please click on the link)
Would any of us know what to doin a classroom with this type ofbehaviour?
WE ARE RESPONSIBLE“I‟ve come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child‟s life miserable or joyous. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized.” - Haim Ginott (PDD.net, n.d., p.1).
WHAT IS ASD? (Autism SpectrumDisorder)• “Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment in social interaction, in communication skills, and in behavior, which is restrictive and repetitive” (Tidmarsh & Volkmar, 2003, p.517).
WHAT CAUSES AUTISM ?• Can my child catch it or get it from immunisation?“There are no substantiated data to suggest that the MMR vaccine causes autism “ The Lancet, (2002).
“SURELY IT WILL GO AWAY IF IJUST IGNORE IT ““The incidence of Autism is increasing at the alarming rate of 10 to 17 percent each year; faster than any other disability or disease” (Dahle, 2003, p.65).
“CAN‟ T THE KIDS JUST TAKE APILL?”-Presently, there is no cure.-The current treatment is the education of parents, teachers and students about the disorder.(The United States National Research Council, 2001).
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASD difficulty in expressing needs difficulty in mixing with others a preference for gestures or pointing instead of words uneven gross/ fine motor skills lack of response to verbal cues little or no eye contact with others resistance to changes in routine
noticeable physical over-activity / extreme under-activitytantrumsinappropriate attachment to objectsunusual ways of relating to people, objects and eventsinappropriate laughing and gigglingspeech / language problems or delay Echolalia (repeating words of others)(Equal Opportunities Commission; Hong Kong, 2009, para.5)
TRIAD OF IMPAIRMENTThere are three common core deficits in all people with ASD. In combination, these three dysfunctions are exclusive to the disorder.
We don‟t have to be „EINSTEIN‟ toestablish that the characteristicsand core deficits of students withASD can lead to behaviouralproblems in the classroom if we arenot aware and prepared
STUDENTS WITH ASD CAN BEPERCEIVED AS „BEHAVIOURPROBLEMS‟ IN AND OUTSIDE THECLASSROOMSOME BEHAVIOURS THAT MAY BE PERCEIVED AS BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS TO THE CHILD‟S PEERS OR ADULTS WHO ARE UNAWARE :- Stereotypical, repetitive gestures or movements e.g. rocking back and forth or hand flapping- Some degree of mental disability- Language problems- Atypical intonation- Abnormal obsessions with objects or topics- Echolalia- A fierce resistance to change- Lack of eye contact
BILL GATES „ROCKS‟ !!!(CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f15JexiQ t4U&feature=PlayList&p=35E604CF7F368 3D5
“THE CURIOUS INCIDENT OF THE DOG IN THE NIGHT-TIME”Haddon, M. (2003). The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. Great Britain: Antony Rowe Publishers. http://media.photobucket.com/image/the%20curious%20incident%20of%20the%20dog%20in%20the%20night- time/julez156/markhaddon.jpg?o=4&sortby=sevendaysview
„TYPICAL‟ NEGATIVE ASDBEHAVIOUR IN CLASSA survey of 45 teachers (Leger, 2007) in the United States who had students with Autism, found that many of the problems in a general education setting were regarding:• the students interrupting• students getting aggravated• distracting others with noises and gestures and;• strong reactions to changes in routine.The survey and associated study recognized the need for a global change within the education system to better accommodate children with Autism.
HOW CAN WE SUPPORTSTUDENTS WITH ASD AND THEASSOCIATED BEHAVIOUR INCLASSROOMS?
• “Acting-out behaviours of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently may be responses to academic and curricular challenges of the classroom setting” (Hart, 2008, p.116).
ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT• Without understanding how different contexts affect childrens behavior, teachers may develop a negative attitude toward children who exhibit challenging behavior (Kauffman, 2001).
PREPARING THE ENVIRONMENTrequires:• understanding the particular child and his needs.• consistent close collaboration with parents, care givers, paediatricians and other professionals and para- professionals.• accommodating for the child‟s differences• the child not having to adapt to the classroom.
PRACTICAL ENVIRONMENTALMEASURES TO ENCOURAGEPOSITVE BEHAVIOUREliminate Potential Distractions• Establish an environment as free from distraction as possible (ASD students are prone to distraction and sensitive to sensory stimuli )• A flickering fluorescent light, a lunchtime siren, an unstructured setting where transitions are noisy and unscheduled, can contribute to unnecessary sensory over-stimulation of the child with ASD
Create a HighlyStructured, Predictable Routine forthe Learner• Provide graphic or visual schedules (ASD students are visual learners) to prepare the student for the day‟s schedule and subsequent transitions.• Visual cues have been recommended for students with ASD because of the difficulty of processing too many complex verbal commands. Dahle (2003) asserts that 70% of the processing is done via visual means with autistic students.
If I cant picture it.I cant understand it.Albert Einsteinhttp://www.slideshare.net/tomhimpe/great-quotes-to-use-repeat-when-you-cant-find-a-better-way-of-saying-it
• Alert the student to any timetable changes and in particular, room changes well before they occur• „Prime‟ the student (Hart, 2008)
• Students can use graphic organizers (Hart, 2008) which demonstrate ideas in a concrete, visually supportive manner. It outlines the key components of a topic and visually demonstrates the connections between these facts.• Scripted pieces can also help ASD students academically and socially. The student can follow a script in order to participate in academic discussions or social interactions.
•ABA Applied Behavior AnalysisCLICK ON THE LINK BELOWhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19mORz muzQc
OTHER MEASURES-Teachers may also have to develop a behaviour management plan for children who are finding it extremely difficult to learn appropriate behaviours- Also provide a quiet, secluded time-out area for the child in times of over-stimulation. Most children with autism have some form of sensory integration disorder whereby they cannot filter or screen out sensory-related input (Kranowitz 2005). This should not be a time-out setting in the middle of peak traffic areas or a zone in close proximity to noise.
For the teacher of a student with ASD, this usually requires much more work-perhaps a shift in mindset- a shift from establishing classrooms for the typically developing student, to creating an environment for all students.
TEACHERS NEED SCHOOL ANDPROFESSIONAL SUPPORT FORPOSITIVE OUTCOMES AND TOMINIMISE NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR Typically, ASD students need: • Speech and language therapy • Occupational therapy • Physical therapy • Speech training for their parents • Special training for their teachers. (Dahle, 2003, p.66). THIS CAN ONLY COME FROM AN INVOLVED, SUPPORTIVE ADMINISTRATION