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  1. 1. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20111Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011F B S ( F e l l o w s h i p o f B u r g o n S o c i e t y )The Development of Academic Regalia in ChinaBYCharles Ko, Ka ShingDip.SCSM (Musicology) LVCMEd (Hons) [2011] MSTSD,BEd (Hons) & BEng Lang (Hons) CandidatureOpen University of Hong KongRESEARCHSubmitted in fulfillment of the requirementsfor the FBS (the Fellowship of the Burgon Society)in The Society,December, 2011Hong Kong, China
  2. 2. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20112Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Design, Practice, HistoryThe Development of Academic Regalia in ChinaDip.SCSM (Musicology) LVCMEd (Hons) MSTSD,BEd (Hons) & BEng Lang (Hons) CandidatureOpen University of Hong KongWork submitted in fulfillment of the requirements forthe Fellowship of the Burgon Society,December, 2011.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am grateful to the Dean of Studies Professor Bruce Christianson for his kind assistanceand encouragement in the process of research. Nevertheless, it is thanks to FranklynMemorial Scholarships that I can finish the research without financial difficulties.AbstractThis submission includes a series of pieces on the themes of Chinese academic dress. Thetopics of design, history and practice will be included. The dissertation will cover the motivesleading to the development of academic regalia of modern Chinese tertiary institutions; thehistory and development of academic regalia in China; moreover, how the design of academicregalia has been changed, including an examination of reasons of the change from theacademic dress of ancient China to the modern Chinese academic dress.This research aims to increase the world‘s awareness of a great variety of academic regaliaissues in China, which is one of the countries around the world emphasizing in educationaland academic development. Moreover, China is a valuable research target as it has hadperiods of economic reform, establishment of westernized and modernized degree system andchange of its political attitudes. All these policies had led to the development of westernizedmodern academic dress in China. Furthermore, the research results can be used as an indicatoror references for the developing-countries or regions which have a similar historicalbackground of China to organize the management of their Modern Academic Dress.
  3. 3. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20113Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011ContentsAbstract………………………………………..…………………………………………....… 2Figures………………………………………………………………………………………… 4Methodology………………………………………………..……………………………...…. 5Introduction to Chinese academic dress…………………………………..………………….. 5A series of pieces on Chinese Academic Dress 9History of the ancient and modern Chinese academic dress………………………….… 9The Incentives leading to the Birth of Modern Academic Dress in China……………. 21Description of Modern Chinese academic dress……………………….……………… 28Mortarboard……………………………………………………………………… 30Gown…………………………………………………………………………….. 31Hood……………………………………………………………………………... 35Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….…………….. 39Bibliography.…………………………………………………………………………….…... 41Further readings 41Useful Links……………………………………………………………………….…………………… 41Sources…………………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 42APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
  4. 4. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20114Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011FiguresF i g u r e P a g eFigure 1 The Chinese university students trying the newly designedHanfu-style Chinese academicals...........................................................6Figure 2 A fashion show of the new series of Chinese academicals of thePeking University....................................................................................7Figure 3 The series of Hanfu-style modern Chinese academicals ..............7Figure 4 Pictures of the putout in black......................................................9Figure 5 Qing Dynasty Officers’ Academical Dress ...................................10Figure 6 Qing Dynasty Officer robe with the gown in purple...................11Figure 7 A red cap of the Qing dynasty officer’s robe ..............................12Figure 8 Picture depicting the pair of long curved wings of putou ..........13Figure 9 A literatus wearing a fangjin.......................................................14Figure 10 Si-fang pingding jin (or 四角方巾) ..........................................14Figure 11 Emperor Tang Xuanzong and officials in official/academic dress..............................................................................................................15Figure 12 The Ming Dynasty, from 1368 to 1644, panling lanshanphoto..…………………………………………………………………………………………..16Figure 13 The Modern Chinese doctoral academical photo.....................17Figure 14 An American Doctor of Philosophy’s gown ..............................18Figure 15 Robert Morrison (1782-1834), the first Protestant missionary toChina, was a British Presbyterian appointed by the London MissionarySociety..................................................................................................21Figure 16 The fashionable academical dresses display ............................24Figure 17 A description of the bachelor, master and doctoral gown inChina after 1994...................................................................................28Figure 18 20thcentury lace-up mortarboards typically used in China andother Asian universities........................................................................29Figure 19 Common prints of dragon designed on the imperial Chineserobes. ...................................................................................................30Figure 20 Prints of dragon on the imperial Chinese robes .......................31Figure 21 Other Chinese-style patterning prints on the imperial Chineserobes ....................................................................................................31Figure 22 Description of the good luck buttons applied in the Chineserobes.....................................................................................................32Figure 23 The good luck buttons applied in the modern Chinese gowns(bachelors’). .........................................................................................33Figure 24 A sample of the Chinese hood showing the patterning of peony
  5. 5. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20115Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011flowers..................................................................................................35Figure 25 An indicated diagram showing the colours of hoods of differentacademic units under the Chinese academic dress regulations………..36Figure 26 The 6 colours of hoods in different academic units in China….37Figure 27 Academical design that shows some of the Chinese cultures e.g.by red theme colour on the westernized black modern academic dress..............................................................................................................38Figure 28 Academical design that chiefly shows the Chinese character..39MethodologyA mixed research design is used in this dissertation, involving two main research methods:1. Secondary research – to summarize and make a synthesis of existing researches and/ordata; and2. Qualitative research – to make an understanding of academic regalia attitudes of localChinese; on the other hand, the reasons behind the attitudes, for example, how theglobalization and central governmental academical dress policies and planning governthose attitudes.Introduction to Chinese academic dressThere has been a long history in the development of Chinese academic dress.In Imperial China, there were the imperial civil service examinations which allowed anycitizen, regardless of background to qualify for imperial service. The successful literati andscholars took up the different positions of Chinese imperial servants and gained a highersocial status. They were also entitled to wear the impressive ancient Chinese academic gownand hat (or cap). In ancient China, wearing academical dresses was one of the ways used toshow the distinct hierarchy. The design of modern academic dress in China is still partiallyinfluenced by that of western academic dresses, especially the United States‘ and Europeanones.
  6. 6. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20116Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011The ―modern‖ Chinese academic dress has existed in China for about a hundred years.However, owing to various factors, especially social and political ones, development ofacademic dress had not been emphasized by the central government for some time.Westernized modern degree systems were introduced in 20thcentury1e.g. Chinese economicreform started in December 19782and the improvement of political attitudes of China to thewestern in 19thcentury3, they had been followed by the existence of a variety of westernizedacademic dress designs within Chinese universities in the Chinese history flow4, for instances,the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (南京航空航天大学), academies orinstitutions. The Peking University (北京大学), as the first national integrated university, hadgradually begun the application of the modern academic dress since it was founded in 1898.More recently university turned the Hanfu (汉服) (or Han) Chinese Clothing (worn fromaround 2698 BC to AD 1750)5as inspiration for a series of the university-based Chineseacademicals in 20076The preference for the pelerine over the hood dressed in the right ladyFigure 1 The Chinese university students trying the newly designed Hanfu-style Chinese academicalsAdapted from http://big5.china.com/gate/big5/mdtt.blog.china.com/200707/645473.html1http://www.chinadegrees.cn/xwyyjsjyxx/xwbl/xgzl/xwf/259608.shtml 學位服. 教育部學位與研究生教育發展中心, ‘中国的学位服出现在本世纪二十年代中期,或更早一些。’ [2011-09-13].2Maddison, Angus (2007): "Contours of the World Economy, 1–2030 AD. Essays in Macro-EconomicHistory", Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1.3Ibid.4Ibid.5Zhou Xibao (1984), 【中國古代服飾史】 Zhongguo Gudai Fushi Shi (History of Ancient ChineseCostume), Beijing: Zhongguo Xiju.6See http://big5.china.com/gate/big5/mdtt.blog.china.com/200707/645473.html.
  7. 7. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20117Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 2 A fashion show of the new series of Chinese academicals of the Peking UniversityAdapted from http://big5.china.com/gate/big5/mdtt.blog.china.com/200707/645473.htmlFigure 3 The series of Hanfu-style modern Chinese academicalsAdapted from http://big5.china.com/gate/big5/mdtt.blog.china.com/200707/645473.htmlMeanwhile, the researches to traditional and modern academic dresses in China had beenprocessing. In the 21stcentury China, the two main genres or varieties of modern Chinaacademicals, namely internationalized and traditionalized dresses co-exist.
  8. 8. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20118Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011The Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council (國務院學位委員會) is the highestauthority responsible for duties of degree system in China. It also closely and deliberatelytakes part in observing conditions of Chinese academic dress. In 1992, the Committee decidedto expand researches with regard to academical dress issues. In the longer development of theChinese academic dress, the central government has decided to allow the committee to be anorganization taking part in the creation of modernized Chinese academic dress.It is valuable to investigate the issues of Chinese academic dress, which has a long history,and experienced numerous government policies and academical planning. More importantly,the original, traditional Chinese academic dress has been modified by individual academiesleading to diverse Chinese Academical Regalia of today, which definitely should be aninteresting issue for researchers to examine the reasons of the change.
  9. 9. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 20119Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011A series of pieces on Chinese Academic DressFrom historical perspectives,History of the ancient and modern Chinese academic dressAcademical Dress in Ancient ChinaIn China, the ancient academic dress was essentially the official dress. This reflects the closerelationship between academia and officialdom of ancient China.The ancient outfit of academics and officials in China consisted of a long red round-collarrobe with long sleeves. This robe is called a panling lanshan (盤領襴衫). It was worn with acap called a putou (幞頭) in period from 618 to 907 of ancient China which is black in colour.Figure 4 Pictures of the putout in black(Source: 故宮數位博物館 official website,http://tech2.npm.gov.tw/literature/beauty/beauty.asp?P=188&B=189.)
  10. 10. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201110Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011The entire Qing Dynasty Chinese officer robes (官服) including the top of putou are in red.Figure 5 Qing Dynasty Officers’ Academical DressAdapted from http://www.bravochina.com/clothing/embroidery.html.
  11. 11. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201111Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 6 Qing Dynasty Officer robe with a red cap, and the gown in purple, picture adapted fromhttp://www.chinadaily.com.cn/life/2009-02/16/content_11569604.htm
  12. 12. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201112Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 7 A red cap of the Qing dynasty officer’s robe, adapted fromhttp://www.asianideas.com/chofha.htmlIn style of brocade, the putou has curved wings, which was typical of the Tang Dynasty (June18, 618 – June 1, 907). See below figure 8.
  13. 13. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201113Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 8 Picture depicting the pair of long curved wings of putou, adapted fromhttp://big5.showchina.org:81/gate/big5/chinaabc.showchina.org/zgwhxl/zgctfs/200703/t109552.htmThe academic dress styles of succeeding dynasties were drawn from that of the Tang dynasty.The general brocade of all Chinese ancient dynasties is agreed by the historiographers to bedistinctive from common dress, although the dress of each individual dynasty is still found tohave some unique stylistic differences.In the Ming Dynasty (also referred to the Empire of the Great Ming, which was the rulingdynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led YuanDynasty7), hats distinctively indicated the status of scholars and literati (scholar-bureaucratsor scholar-officials (士大夫)). For instance, a specific genre of the hats si-fang pingding jin7Edwin Oldfather Reischauer, John King Fairbank, Albert M. Craig (1960) A history of East Asiancivilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
  14. 14. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201114Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011(四方平定巾) (fangjin (方巾)), whose appearance is similar to that of the mortarboard ofmodern academic dress in black (readers can be cross-referenced to the entry ‗Mortarboard‘,in page 15, that I will explain the description of Chinese modern mortarboards in more detaillater).Figure 9 A literatus wearing a fangjin(Adapted fromhttp://www.chinaqw.com/node2/node116/node1486/node1495/node1516/node1517/userobject6ai89958.html.)Figure 10 Si-fang pingding jin (or 四角方巾)Adapted from http://www.ltsh.ilc.edu.tw/history/history1/newpage1107.htm#四角方巾
  15. 15. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201115Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011There had not been a distinct hat that was specifically for an academic in China, and thereforewe may say there had not truly been an academic hat or headgear before the 1911 revolutionby Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)8who was a Chinese revolutionary,the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, referred to as the "Father of the Nation" (國父) inthe Republic of China, and the "forerunner of democratic revolution" in the Peoples Republicof China9. However, mentioned in the introduction session, the officials, who have passed theimperial civil service examinations, are definitely similar to the cases that the westernacademics who have graduated in colleges or universities and earn a degree of a certain level.Hence, the above introductory passages of official (or academic) dresses can be references tothe succeeding developments of the modern academical.Figure 11 Emperor Tang Xuanzong and officials in official/academic dressPicture adapted fromhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Audience_by_Emperor_Tang_Xuanzong.jpg8Singtao daily. Saturday edition. Oct 23, 2010. 特別策劃 section A18. Sun Yat-sen Xinhai revolution100th anniversary edition 民國之父.9Derek Benjamin Heater. [1987] (1987). Our world this century. Oxford University Press. ISBN0199133247, 9780199133246.
  16. 16. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201116Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Academical Dress in Modern ChinaModern Chinese academic dress had appeared since the middle-1920s.The design of Chinese academical dress usually included a long gown and a mandarin jacket,which was introduced in about 192510. For instance, the academical dress of the Doctor ofMedicine (MD) was just like a mandarin jacket worn with a gown, which was popular andfashionable especially in the 1920s & 30s. The gown spreads to the anklebone; and the broadsleeves almost cover the hands. The length and broadness are merely show-offs andgraduation evidences of the successful candidates‘ academic status after the hard struggle oftheir studies. It is found that the ―show-off‖ style in the broad sleeves of the doctoral dress issimilar to the appearance of the gown worn with the panling lanshan (see figures 12 & 13.)Figure 12 The Ming Dynasty, from 1368 to 1644, panling lanshan photo. Adapted fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Artifact_hanfu8.jpg10See 北京世纪九成校园礼仪服饰有限公司-学位服的历史-http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=105 [2011-12-27].
  17. 17. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201117Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 13 The Modern Chinese doctoral academical photo. Adapted fromhttp://www.jianniu.cn/showpro.asp?id=24.There had been a difference between Chinese academical dress and American ones is that,there is no sign or symbol of degree levels by the cut of the sleeves of the Chinese academicaldress, although the degree level representation is shown by some other means (for details, seep. 28 and 29.) However, there had already been many common features shared by the abovetwo kinds of dress, since the underlying design of Modern Chinese academical dresses wasimitated from the American dress in the early 20thcentury11. For instance, at both sides of thefront of Chinese (refer to a modern Chinese doctorial gown in figure 13) and American gown(see figure 14 on p.18), there is a broad border made of velvet materials (this is also one ofways in which American Regalia differs from European Academical Dress). Soft velvet withthree-dimensional effect show the extremely serious, noble and graceful features - on the onehand, they represent the manner of being a Doctor of Philosophy; on the other hand, theyexpose the impressive calm and steady style of scholars.11Ibid.
  18. 18. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201118Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 14 An American Doctor of Philosophy’s gown(http--upload.wikimedia.org-wikipedia-commons-1-17-Dphil_gown.jpg)
  19. 19. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201119Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Black velvet had been one of the crucial constituting parts of Chinese robe. In the history ofmodern Chinese academic dress, its use in the gown has made the gown to become the spiritof the whole design of the outfit. However, in some designs, for an example doctoralacademic dress, the Chinese character is not shown by the outer gown, but is shown by thepartially-displayed inner blouse of the dress.In history, school uniform in China was originally a kind of Chinese-style jacket with buttonsdown the front, but also was one of typical clothing being westernized under the influence ofwestern cultures in the early 20thcentury, ―西洋東漸‖. Due to the majority of schoolboyswearing the kind of clothing in school, the westernized dress gradually became a schooluniform. This phenomenon is similar to schoolgirls liked to wear a close-fitting Chinese dresswith side vents in schools and finally the cheongsam becomes their school uniform.Logical, no matter whether European style academical dress or American style academicaldress is worn, freshly-pressed Western style clothes should be worn inside; otherwise itshould be treated as ―unreasonable‖ and/or ―unsuitable‖ to certain Chinese cultural views onthe mixtures or fusion of cultures worldwide12. However, some doctoral graduates in China,including the foreign ones in China, chose to wear Chinese style school-uniform-like blousesrather than western style clothes. The blouse is no longer only the constituting part of schooluniforms; it has also become an indispensible role of the Chinese academic robe since theearly 20thcentury.In the western world, graduates put the corner of the square academic cap at the front. But inChina, the wearing style is different. Chinese candidates refused to follow the wearingmortarboard style of West Europe, but they put a sideline of the cap at the front. This was anindividualized expression, and is a creation of Chinese wearing style. Moreover, there wereno tassels indicating the specific degree level at the top of the Chinese cap, and perhapsChinese designers thought that including tassels into the cap is ―to draw a snake and add feetto it‖13, a Chinese metaphor meaning to be burdensome.12Referred to http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=105, “按常理,无论“欧派”还是“美派”学位服,在其里面男士通常穿笔挺的西装方才“合理”、“恰当”,而这几位中国的博士连同那位外藉博士却偏偏内穿对襟式立领的学生装。”13Ibid, “况且帽顶上没有标识学位级别的流苏,大概他们觉得这样是画蛇添足,是累赘。”
  20. 20. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201120Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011In addition, Chinese bachelors‘ and masters‘ dress were largely reformed in 1930s and 1940s,for instance: 1. The neckband of blouse becomes deeper, 2. The neckband becomes V-shape.When mortarboards are not worn, the design of these two academic regalia will look almostthe same as the long gowns with hoods in late-Qing Dynasty style.14These developments demonstrate that the revolution in Chinese academic dress andinnovation had begun since the early 20thcentury. Although we can never know in historywho first transformed the dress, as there is no single name mentioned in the historical records,they and their successors‘ work(s) provide us with much to explore, investigate and researchwith respect to Chinese Academic Regalia.14Ibid, “学士服和硕士服在三、四十年代则大多是改良式的,[1]领口开得很深,[2]呈 V 字形,若没有头上的方帽,其服装和清末的男子长衫几乎完全相同。”
  21. 21. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201121Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 201115Ibid.16Ibid.17Quoted in Harvard Divinity School webpagehttp://www.hds.harvard.edu/library/exhibits/online/bible/6.html.From socio-political views,The Incentives leading to the Birth of Modern Academic Dress in ChinaThe Chinese academic dress of 19thCentury in history, with a square cap and long gown, weretotally imitated from the western world15. At first, foreign academic dress was imported bywestern missionaries of the Society of Jesus and other Catholic Churches. The academic dresshad been the costumes of the missionaries during initial stages of building missionary schools inChina16.This brought Chinese into contact with these overseas imports, the academic regalia, inan early period.Figure 15 Robert Morrison (1782-1834), the first Protestant missionary to China, was a BritishPresbyterian appointed by the London Missionary Society17. Picture depicting the missionary dress isadapted from http://www.hds.harvard.edu/library/exhibits/online/bible/images/china5.jpg.P.Matthoeus Ricci was the first Jesuit to preach the word of God in China. Ricci provided thescience and education as a tempting bait to attract Chinese to listen to what he said.
  22. 22. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201122Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 201118http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=105, “到 1877 年,全国基督教学校有约 350 所,学生5975 人。到 1889 年,教会学校的学生已达 16836 人,而至 1906 年,更猛增到 57683 人。”In preaching of the western priests in China, there were never measures better than transmittingthe knowledge of natural science to students which can make Chinese listen to the word ofmissionaries. Accordingly, science had become the bait of the western to win Chinese attention,respect, trust, and honour. It had hence become a crucial method to make the missionaries beallowed by Chinese to realize their mission of preaching in China.The period after the Opium War (1840-1842) further blended Chinese and western culturestogether. This blend not only brought the western academic dress by preachers to China, butpictures depicting Chinese wearing the western academic dresses in graduation ceremonies werealso brought by the Chinese graduates holding western degrees. The existence of the fashionabledesign of academic dress at that time immediately aroused an echo in China.At the same time, the missionary schools in China had been spreading and developing.Until 1877, the total number of the Christian Schools in China was about 350; with astudent population of 5975. In 1889, the number of students of the missionary schools wasapproximately 16836, and by 1906 the number increased to 57683.18Former president of the former St. John’s University (1879—1952) F·L·Hanks Pott treated themissionary schools as American Chinese ―West Points‖, which were the essential strategicalinstitutions of doing missionary work. Hanks Pott argued for the missionary schools thateducation should always be the foundation in missions of promoting the word of Christ;
  23. 23. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201123Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 201119Ibid, “当时上海圣约翰大学校长卜舫济(F·L·Hanks Pott)就把教会学校比作美国的“西点军校”(West Points ),是教会传教必须的战略机构,正像这位传教士所论述的那样:“如果教会工作不以我们的教育工作为基础,它就好像把房子盖在沙土上一样,是不牢固的。”在此,教育不仅成为一种诱饵,而且是除了洋枪大炮外的软武器。随着近代科学在中国的出现,源起于欧洲的学位服又找到自己新的生长土壤。”20Ibid.21See http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=106.22See http://www.jianniu.cn/show.asp?tid=1 .otherwise the missions of preaching will become unstable, like building a house on a desert.Education is not only the bait, but it is also a weapon.19In many parts of the world in the early 20thcentury, academic dress were divided into two sects:Italian and the United Kingdom‘s academic dress in Europe on behalf of European academicdress20; and the United States‘ academic dress represented the American academic dress (alsocalled American Regalia). European acadmeical dress mainly keeps the Medieval Age style andits features; no matter in the fashion or colour, the academic dress in Europe retains marks ofreligious age of believes. American regalia followed American innovation created the dress in thenew American style. The design of American robe was based on prototypes of academical dressof the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. During early 20thcentury, the majority ofmissionaries existed in China were from the America. Due to this factor, the majority of dressesfound in China were brought by Americans.When the importance of academic regalia was recognised and people tried better tounderstand and know more of it, students appreciated and took an interest in the design ofacademic dresses. For instance, shops such as the Beijing Century Jiu Cheng Campus CeremonyCostume & Accessory21and the Jianniu Academical Company22now exist, selling a variety ofacademical dress in a mass of styles worldwide indicate that there are expanding markets foracademical dress in China. Besides, students are willing to spend time on deciding their wearingstyle of academic dress. It is because the academic dress should be thoroughly shown theirunique spirit of yearning for knowledge and truth in thoughts of the students.
  24. 24. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201124Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 201123More on http://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/gb.cri.cn/14714/2007/07/10/107@1670679.htm .24http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=105 “新中国自己的学位服在萌动了。”From the perspective of academia, scholars should have their own academic dress and wearingstyle.It reflects their strong wish to create their better self-image and brighter future. As a result, themodeling, patterning, and wearing style of the academic dress were largely modified, forexample, in 2007, Chinese university students participated in the designs of thefashionable academical dress23(see some of the designs in figure 16); the academic regaliawith a slight difference or big changes had been created into several genres in the beginning ofChinese academic regalia development, but no longer a uniform one.Figure 16 The fashionable academical dresses display. Adapted fromhttp://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/gb.cri.cn/14714/2007/07/10/107@1670679.htm .The academic dresses were gradually becoming one of China‘s own unique costume culturesor fashion styles between the late 20thand early 21stCentury24. Market researchers thought how to
  25. 25. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201125Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 201125Photos adapted from http://www.jianniu.cn/show.asp?tid=4.make the dresses became diverse. Hence, academic regalia originating from Europe were greatlydeveloped. Nevertheless, it can be said that the birth of Chinese Academic Regalia began fromthe ideologies of Chinese scholars.The above photos show some of the new collections of the modern Chinese academic regalia.25There was a long period following the establishment of the People‘s Republic of China(PRC) (1949) during which China did not have a unified national academic dress. The reasonbehind the phenomenon is that the degree system had not yet been established, meaning that aseries of university developments including academical dress‘s one cannot be followed. AlthoughChina had started the consideration to the establishment of degree system during 1950s - 1960s,the establishments of national academic regalia were not addressed.In 1980, the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC) (全国人民代表大会常务委员会 (全國人大常委會)) approved the ‘Regulations of the Peoples Republic ofChina on Academic Degrees’ (see Appendix for details). The regulations were implemented inbeginning 1981. China had its own degree system in that year. Although the need of ―Chinese‖academic dress was still not on the agenda of the central governmental policies, the
  26. 26. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201126Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 201126Interpreted from http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=105 “服饰艺术本来就不受国度的限制,况且我们有过自己的学位服。”27http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=105, “新中国自己的学位服在萌动了。”28Adshead, S. A. M. (2004), Tang China: The Rise of the East in World History, New York: PalgraveMacmillan, ISBN 1403934568 (hardback).implementation of the degree system increased people‘s awareness of academia-relateddevelopments, including increased their incentives to the future development of ChineseAcademic Regalia.Since the establishment of innovative Chinese degree system was gradually recognized byemployment markets, and especially since the economic reform expanded, Chinese had realizedand had ideology that their degree system was still not comprehensive enough.In the meantime, the freedom of dress arts in China primarily allowed artistic and stylisticdesigns in Chinese academic dress art to be freely developed without many national restrictions.In other words, the previous academical system was not suppressed26. As a result, the NewChinese Academic Regalia were sprouting27. Besides, in the past, Chinese had a time during theTang Dynasty (A.D. 618 – 907) having the huge development of textile use in a variety ofdaily costumes. This was in fact due to factors of technology, that the popular use ofcotton at that time had ever favoured the development of Chinese costumes, includingthe Tang Chinese academic dress and, later development of Modern Chinese academicdress as well:Cotton also came from India as a finished product from Bengal, although it was duringthe Tang that the Chinese began to grow and process cotton, and by the Yuan Dynasty itbecame the prime textile fabric in China28.All these above factors have led Chinese to have incentives to develop their academic dress.Generally speaking, the modern Chinese academic dress eventually existed in the end of 1980safter imitating, designing and creating processes by schools and faculties of universities.
  27. 27. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201127Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011From descriptive perspectives,Description of Modern Chinese academic dressHatsNowadays, the lace-up mortarboards are widely used in the design of academical dress ofChinese and many other Asian universities. This is one of the characteristics of modernChinese academic dress. Except for the lace-up mortarboard, the designs of other parts ofChinese academic dress had become greatly different from that of the ancient dress since thestandardization of Chinese academic dresses by the central government was held in 1994.29在深入研究和广泛征询意见的基础上,1994 年,国务院学位委员会审定通过了新中国自己的学位服样式,并作出决定:作为统一规范的学位服,向全国学位授予单位推荐使用,其他样式的学位服一律废止。30The more detail of the process of standardization in 1994 will be examined in the next session.More on the topic of mortarboard will be covered in ‗Details of design of Mortarboard’ inp.30-.GownsGowns are colored depending on the levels of the degree. To meet the standard of design ofacademical dress in China, the color should generally be black for bachelor gown, blue formaster’s gown and a combination of scarlet and black for doctoral gown.31HoodsIn shape, hoods are pieces of triangular cloth. In general, bachelors‘ dress, masters‘ dress, anddoctors‘ dress all have a very deep neckline in V-shape. (See figure 17.)29學位服著裝規範. 聊城大學. 2009-06-22 [2011-12-27].30Quoted in http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=106.31学位服_相关资料_学位博览_中国学位与研究生教育信息网
  28. 28. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201128Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 17 A description of the bachelor (left), master (middle) and doctoral (right) gown in Chinaafter 1994, adapted from http://www.tianhan.com.cn/.In 1994, China owned the new design and modernized fashion of her academic dress.After a deep research and wide public consultation about comments on the design ofChinese academic regalia32, the Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council (國務院學位委員會) finally approved the regulations of the Academic dress of China on 10thMay,199433. The committee decided to encourage tertiary institutions in China to make use of itsdesign of academic dress. Indeed, it is an excuse to achieve the mission of unifying the formof academic dresses of China. Under the new regulations other forms of academic regaliawere slowly, and secretly and consciously abolished.The Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council decided not to includebachelors‘ robes among the series of regulated and restricted academic robes and not topromote the application of a unified design of bachelors‘ robes in China in an early period. So32国务院学位委员会学位办[1994]22 号《关于推荐使用学位服的通知》33http://www.huaue.com/xueweifu.htm ,“学位服着装规范 (本规范由国务院学位委员会办公室于一九九四年五月十日制定)”.
  29. 29. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201129Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011the series of unified academic dresses includes only the doctoral dress, masters‘ dress andacademy president dress.The design and production of the academical dress were considered thoroughly how torealize the character of China, but conform to the world custom, and benefit the execution ofunification principle in the dress development simultaneously; meanwhile designers of thedress will also have to think how to make the academic dress be relevant to different degreelevels, division of academic subjects and unique characteristics of individual schools andacademies.The robes consist of three main parts: mortarboard, gown and hood.Details of design of Mortarboard, Gown and HoodMortarboardThe design of mortarboards of Chinese academic robes is the identical design of manyuniversities of countries around the world – having a shape of square, looking like a bookwhich implying the knowledge, as a metaphor.Figure 18 20thcentury lace-up mortarboards typically used in China and other Asian universitieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lace-up_mortarboard.jpg.
  30. 30. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201130Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011In terms of colour, all mortarboards are in black, regardless of degree levels. Moreover, themortarboards of school president and professors are also in black. This colour represents thecharacters of calm and steady.GownThe gown plays a central chief role in the academical dress should symbolize theparticular level of degree and show the distinctive national features; at the same time, it mustalso show the messages, aims and academic objectives of certain academies.Generally speaking, the valuable elements of ancient Chinese academic dress which can beprovided for foreign designers of their western dresses are mainly the Chinese culture picturesused on costume, and the use of blouse in design of academic dress, etc.Economically, the use of traditional Chinese national, distinctive and traditional embroiderymotifs of dragon, phoenix, and peony flowers etc., would increase the production cost of therobe, hence increase the financial burdens of academies and graduates. As a result, it was onlyever used on the academical dresses of the imperial dynasties, as I have mentioned above inthe part of history of official/academic dress; but it is seldom uses in nowadays.Figure 19 Common prints of dragon designed on the imperial Chinese robes.(Still image taken from the BBC produced video,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-11942357?asid=be0b348c)
  31. 31. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201131Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 20 Prints of dragon on the imperial Chinese robes(Still image taken from the BBC produced video,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-11942357?asid=be0b348c)Figure 21 Other Chinese-style patterning prints on the imperial Chinese robes(Still image taken from the BBC produced video,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-11942357?asid=be0b348c)
  32. 32. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201132Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Instead, today Chinese academic dress designers need to think how to include the Chineseelements into the dresses at a lower cost to satisfy the growing demand of the universitygraduates. And so designers decided to use the ―good luck button‖ (如意扣) in their design.Figure 22 Description of the good luck buttons applied in the Chinese robes. Adapted fromhttp://blog.yahoo.com/_XMCSVNQSY5ZHYS5LWSW5W3SYDI/articles/315202# .
  33. 33. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201133Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 23 The good luck buttons applied in the modern Chinese gowns (bachelors’).Adapted from http://www.bjhongdan.com/news.php?id=64.This kind of buttons is not so expensive in the production cost, but it is greatly representativeof characters of the Modern Chinese cultures and customs. For example, Chinese academicgowns chiefly visualize the national and racial features by the use of distinctive patterns onthe good luck buttons at the cuffs of sleeves and the front of the academic gowns. In fact, the―如意扣‖ is also used in different Chinese traditional costumes. It can show the descriptiveChinese national characteristics in an economic way for the academic dress industry.Around sides of the cuff of an academical dress sleeve are printed the picture of the GreatWall of China, first of all the picture can represent Ancient Chinese magnificent histories and
  34. 34. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201134Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011second of all the large size of the picture makes the broad sleeve of the gown to be richer invariations so as to match the large size of the sleeves of gowns.In regulations of colour, doctoral gown is in black and red: black is the main colour toneand red is used in border of gown; master gown is in blue and deep blue: blue is the maincolour tone while deep blue is used in border of gown; and president gown is constructed byred and black. Above selections of colours differentiate the degree levels and academicstatuses in many students and staff.Nowadays, the design of Modern Chinese academic dresses are limited by theregulations set by the central government. Basically, the dresses will be uniform in China. Ifschools want to express their individuality, what can they do in the design of their AcademicRegalia? In order to satisfy this need of schools in China, the government permits them toprint their school logos at the left front side, the heart of academic gowns.HoodAs mentioned before, hoods are pieces of triangular clothes in shape. Hoods, or namedshawls, have been modified from riding-hoods in the course of evolution34. It makes theentire dress to have richer variation by its unique decorative function.34垂布,又称披肩,是由连颈帽演化而来。 Translated fromhttp://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=106.
  35. 35. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201135Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011A kind of flowers of Chinese national cultures, peony flower, is used in the pictures on thehood which is a symbol of being rich and auspicious in Chinese customs and institutions.Figure 24 A sample of the Chinese hood showing the patterning of peony flowers.http://www.bjhongdan.com/news.php?id=77Any colours can be selected and determined by individual academies to be the colour(s) oftheir hoods if the academies have their ideas of the selection of colours. Otherwise, the hoodswill be uniformly in grey according to the Chinese regulations.How are the colours of hood chosen?The colour of the hood border is determined according to the division of academic units.China currently confers specialized degrees in twelve areas which include philosophy,economics, law, education, literature, history, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine,military science and administration. Under the 12 areas, there are hundreds of academicsubject area sub-categories. It would be difficult to use a variety of colours to represent thesesub-categories. Even if schools used twelve colours on the hoods to represent 12 specificacademic areas, there may still be confusion with the color representation. For this reason,only 6 colours are used into the design of various hoods‘ borders to represent six majoracademic units: arts, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine and military science (文、理、工、农、医、军事). The 6 colours of hood borders are pink, grey, yellow, green, white andred respectively35.35学位服_相关资料_学位博览_中国学位与研究生教育信息网.
  36. 36. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201136Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 25 An indicated diagram showing the colours of hoods of different academic units under theChinese academic dress regulations. Picture adapted fromhttp://tupian.hudong.com/a0_86_87_01100000000018114828765672786_jpg.html?prd=zhengwenye_left_neirong_tupian#.ArtsScienceEngineeringAgricultureMedicineMilitaryscience
  37. 37. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201137Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 26 The 6 colours of hoods in different academic units in China, adapted fromhttp://www.bjhongdan.com/news.php?id=77 .The presence of modern academic dresses in China has gradually made the whole societyrespect the spirit of truth, knowledge and talents. The tendency towards educationaldevelopment in turn pushes the central government to improve the current degree system.Management of the conferring of degrees will hence become improved.36So, we must notneglect the importance of academic dresses. Nevertheless, the discussions on designs ofacademical dresses should be included in international academic exchanges.Forecasting the future variation of academic dress development based on the expanding legalsystem and school-based management in China, it is believed that Chinese academic dresseswill become more diverse and can show more individual characters of different academiesand wearers.36Referenced from http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=106
  38. 38. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201138Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011ConclusionIn the trends of globalization and multiculturalism, it is inevitable to make the ancientChinese academic dress adapt to the new world; however it does not mean that there will be aloss of valuable traditional cultures with historical colour of previous imperial dynasties.As abovementioned, university student designers started to create the new series of Chineseacademic robe with a fusion of ancient Chinese traditions and western modernizedacademical styles. A part, or sometimes major portion of the characteristics of ancientChinese academic dress have been visualized in the design of modern Chinese academicdresses. See below illustrative photos of the new designs of the Chinese academicals.The university graduates of Xi’an JiaoTong University are dressing fashionably forceremony.Figure 27 Academical design that shows some of the Chinese cultures e.g. by red theme colour37on the westernized black38modern academic dressAdapted from http://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/gb.cri.cn/14714/2007/07/10/107@1670679.htm37See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funeral#Funerals_in_East_Asia, Funeral#Funerals in East Asia,“The red color of the packet symbolizes good luck. Red is strictly forbidden at funerals as it is atraditionally symbolic color of happiness *in traditional China+.”38Ibid., “In modern China, black is used in daily clothing. Black may also be used during a funeral tosymbolize the spirits return to the heavens.”
  39. 39. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201139Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011Figure 28 Bachelor’s academic dress design that chiefly shows the traditional Chinese characterAdapted from http://big5.cri.cn/gate/big5/gb.cri.cn/14714/2007/07/10/107@1670679.htmModern schools have made their greatest efforts in designing a unique academic dress withtheir own academical style on one hand; on the other hand, they do try to deeply protect theancient Chinese academic dress culture and traditions, and hence the schools choose to blendthe elements of ancient Chinese academic dress into the creation of their academic regalia.In the future, there will be surely more distinctive academic dress, blending the iconic ofindividual schools and academic dress styles of previous Chinese dynasties, existed in China.
  40. 40. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201140Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011BibliographyGoff, Philip (1999). University of London Academic Dress. London: University of LondonPress.Jerry Bentley and Herb Ziegler. Traditions and Encounters - A Global Perspective on thePast.Max Weber, The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism (1916; transl. 1951)Zhou, Xun; Gao, Chunming; The Chinese Costumes Research Group (1984), 5000 Years ofChinese Costume, Hong Kong: The Commercial Press. ISBN 962-07-5021-7Zhou Xibao (1984), 【中國古代服飾史】 Zhongguo Gudai Fushi Shi (History of AncientChinese Costume), Beijing: Zhongguo Xiju.沈從文 Shen Congwen (1999, 2006), 【中國古代服飾研究】 Zhongguo Gudai Fushi Yanjiu(Researches on Ancient Chinese Costumes), Shanghai: Shanghai Century Publishing Group.ISBN 7-80678-329-6許嘉璐 Xu Jialu (1991),【中國古代禮俗辭典】Zhongguo Gudai Lisu Cidian (Dictionary ofRituals and Customs of Ancient China).華梅 Hua, Mei (2004), 【古代服飾】 Gudai Fushi (Ancient Costume), Beijing: WenmuChubanshe. ISBN 7-5010-1472-8黃能馥, 陳娟娟 Huang Nengfu and Chen Juanjuan (1999), 【中華歷代服飾藝術】Zhonghua Lidai Fushi Yishu (The Art of Chinese Clothing Through the Ages), Beijing.Further readingsUseful Links學位服 - http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%AD%A6%E4%BD%8D%E6%9C%8D.Chinese Academic Degrees & Graduate Education Information Website, and webpagehttp://www.chinadegrees.cn/xwyyjsjyxx/xwbl/xgzl/xwf/259608.shtml.Academic Degrees & Graduate Education of Liaocheng University Website, and webpage―学位服着装规范‖, http://yjsc.lcu.edu.cn/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=323.
  41. 41. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201141Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011SourcesOfficial sourcesRegulationsREGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OFCHINA ON ACADEMIC DEGREESOther sourcesBransetter, Lee et al. (2008), "Chinas embrace of globalization", Chinas GreatTransformation, Cambridge: Cambridge university press.北京世纪九成校园礼仪服饰有限公司-学位服的历史-http://www.bjhongdan.com/index.php?id=105
  42. 42. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201142Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011APPENDIXREGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OFCHINA ON ACADEMIC DEGREES(Adopted at the 13th Meeting of the Standing Committee ofthe Fifth National Peoples Congress and promulgated by OrderNo. 5 of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congresson February 12, 1980, and effective as of January 1, 1981)SUBJECT: EDUCATION; UNIVERSITY; EMMIGRATIONISSUING-DEPT: STANDING COMMITTEE OF PEOPLES CONGRESSISSUE-DATE: 02/12/1980IMPLEMENT-DATE: 01/01/1981LENGTH: 1362 wordsTEXT:[Article 1] These Regulations are formulated for the purpose of promoting the growth ofspecialized personnel, helping to raise the academic level of various branches of learning andpromoting the development of education and science in our country, in order to meet theneeds of the socialist modernization.[Article 2] Any citizen who supports the leadership of the Communist Party of China and thesocialist system and has attained certain academic standards may apply for an appropriateacademic degree in accordance with the provisions of these Regulations.[Article 3] Academic degrees shall be of three grades: the bachelors degree, the mastersdegree and the doctors degree.[Article 4] The bachelors degree shall be conferred on graduates from institutions of higherlearning who have good academic records and have attained the following academicstandards:
  43. 43. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201143Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011(1) having a relatively good grasp of basic theories, specialized knowledge and basic skills inthe discipline concerned; and(2) having initially acquired the ability to undertake scientific research or to engage in aspecial technical work.[Article 5] The masters degree shall be conferred on postgraduates in institutions of higherlearning or scientific research institutes or persons with qualifications equivalent topostgraduates on graduation, who have passed examinations in the required courses for themasters degree and successfully defended their dissertations and have attained the followingacademic standards:(1) having a firm grasp of basic theories and systematic, specialized knowledge in thediscipline concerned; and(2) having the ability to undertake scientific research or independently to engage in a specialtechnical work.[Article 6] The doctors degree shall be conferred on postgraduates in institutions of higherlearning or scientific research institutes or persons with qualifications equivalent topostgraduates on graduation, who have passed examinations in the required courses for thedoctors degree and successfully defended their dissertations and have attained the followingacademic standards: (1) having a firm and comprehensive grasp of basic theories andprofound and systematic specialized knowledge in the discipline concerned;(2) having the ability to undertake independent scientific research; and(3) having made creative achievements in science or in a special technology.[Article 7] The State Council shall establish an Academic Degrees Committee to direct thework of conferring academic degrees throughout the country. The Academic DegreesCommittee shall consist of a chairman, vice-chairmen and other members. The chairman,vice-chairmen and other members shall be appointed and removed by the State Council.[Article 8] The bachelors degree shall be conferred by those institutions of higher learningauthorized by the State Council. The masters and doctors degrees shall be conferred by thoseinstitutions of higher learning and scientific research institutes authorized by the StateCouncil.
  44. 44. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201144Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011A list of institutions of higher learning and scientific research institutes that may conferacademic degrees (hereinafter referred to as "degree-conferring units") and the disciplines inwhich academic degrees may be conferred shall be submitted to the State Council by itsAcademic Degrees Committee for approval and promulgation.[Article 9] Each degree-conferring unit shall establish an academic degree evaluationcommittee and form dissertation committees for the disciplines concerned.A dissertation committee must include relevant specialists from other units, and thecommittee members shall be selected and determined by the degree-conferring unit concerned.A list of members of the academic degree evaluation committee shall be submitted by thedegree-conferring unit to the competent department for approval. The competent department,in turn, shall present the approved list of members of the academic degree evaluationcommittee to the Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council for the record.[Article 10] The dissertation committee shall be responsible for examining the dissertationsfor masters or doctors degrees, organizing their oral defence and adopting resolutionswhether or not to confer the masters or doctors degrees. Each resolution shall be adopted bysecret ballot and with a two-thirds majority of the committee members supporting and thensubmitted to the academic degree evaluation committee.The academic degree evaluation committee shall be responsible for examining and approvingthe list of holders of the bachelors degree and for making a decision whether or not toapprove each resolution on the conferment of a masters or doctors degree submitted by thedissertation committee. Each decision shall be adopted by secret ballot and with a simplemajority of the committee members supporting. The list of persons to be conferred a mastersor doctors degree shall be submitted to the Academic Degrees Committee of the StateCouncil for the record.[Article 11] After a resolution to confer an academic degree has been adopted by theacademic degree evaluation committee, the degree-conferring unit shall issue an appropriatediploma to the holder of the academic degree.[Article 12] Postgraduates who have completed their studies in units that are not authorized toconfer academic degrees may, upon the recommendation of their respective units, apply tonearby degree-conferring units for academic degrees. They shall be conferred appropriatedegrees after their applications have been examined and approved by the degree-conferringunits and they have successfully defended their dissertations and attained the academicstandards stipulated in these Regulations.
  45. 45. The Development of Academic Regalia in China 201145Design, Practice, History – Pieces on Chinese Academicals Charles KO, Ka Shing, 2011[Article 13] Upon the recommendation of relevant specialists and with the approval of thedegree-conferring units, those who have written important works or made inventions,discoveries or other contributions to the development of science or special technologies maybe exempt from examinations in the required courses for the doctors degree and may directlytake the oral examinations on their doctoral dissertations. Those who have successfullydefended their dissertations shall be conferred the doctors degree.[Article 14] Distinguished scholars and well-known public figures, both Chinese and foreign,may be conferred an honorary doctors degree, upon the nomination of a degree-conferringunit and with the approval of the Academic Degrees Committee of the State Council.[Article 15] Foreign students studying in China and foreign scholars engaged in researchwork in China may apply to a degree-conferring unit for academic degrees. Those who haveattained the academic standards stipulated in these Regulations shall be conferred appropriatedegrees.[Article 16] If an academic body or a unit not authorized to confer academic degrees does notconcur with a resolution or decision on the conferment of an academic degree, it may addressits objection to the degree-conferring unit or the Academic Degrees Committee of the Statecouncil, which shall study and deal with the objection thus addressed.[Article 17] If irregularities, fraudulent practices or other situations in gross violation of theprovisions of these Regulations are discovered, the degree-conferring unit concerned mayrevoke the degrees already conferred, after reconsideration by its academic degree evaluationcommittee.[Article 18] If it is definitely established that a unit authorized to confer academic degrees hasnot been able to maintain the academic standards of the academic degrees conferred, the StateCouncil may suspend or revoke its status as a degree-conferring unit.[Article 19] Measures for the implementation of these Regulations shall be formulated by theAcademic Degrees Committee of the State Council and submitted to the State Council forapproval.[Article 20] These Regulations shall go into effect on January 1, 1981.(Extracted from http://www.novexcn.com/academic_degrees.html)

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