MENTORING AND COACHING
28-29 MAY 2014
TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW
• Defining and differentiating between the fundamental concepts – mentoring and
• Building a business case for mentoring (the benefits and value thereof)
• Best practice guidelines for mentoring
• The key roles of the mentoring process
• The 4-step mentoring process
• The different types of coaching
• Performance-based coaching process (positive and corrective feedback)
• The 6-step skills/task-oriented coaching process
• THE MILLION-DOLLAR QUESTION: How to
initiate, maintain, and nurture effective
mentoring relationships for everyone
• Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of
knowledge, social capital and the psychosocial
support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work,
career, or professional development.
• Mentoring entails informal communication, usually
face-to-face and during a sustained period of time,
between a person who is perceived to have greater
relevant knowledge, wisdom or experience (the
mentor) and a person who is perceived to have less
• Coaching, is a teaching, training or
development process via which an individual
is supported while achieving a specific
personal or professional result or goal.
Mentors focus on the person, their career and support for
individual growth and maturity whereas the coach is job-oriented
and performance oriented.
Coaching and mentoring use the same skills and approach, but
coaching is short term task-based and mentoring is a longer term
MENTORING AND COACHING (CIPD)
Ongoing relationship that can last for a long period of time Relationship generally has a set duration
Can be more informal and meetings can take place as and
when the mentee needs some advice, guidance or support
Generally more structured in nature and meetings are scheduled
on a regular basis
More long-term and takes a broader view of the person Short-term (sometimes time-bounded) and focused on specific
Mentor is usually more experienced and qualified than the
‘mentee’. Often a senior person in the organization who can
pass on knowledge, experience and open doors to otherwise
Coaching is generally not performed on the basis that the coach
needs to have direct experience of their client’s formal
occupational role, unless the coaching is specific and skills-
MENTORING AND COACHING (CIPD)
Focus is on career and personal development Focus is generally on development/issues at work
Agenda is set by the mentee, with the mentor providing
support and guidance to prepare them for future roles
The agenda is focused on achieving specific, immediate goals
Mentoring resolves more around developing the mentee
Coaching revolves more around specific development
BEST PRACTICE MENTORING
• The value of the mentor-mentee relationship
• Responsible and committed mentee behaviour
• Constructive and nurturing mentor behaviour
• Mentors exhibiting and practicing the right
CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE
• Show genuine interest in their protégés as a person
• Share their experiences and insights
• Ask open questions to encourage reflection
• Listen be an objective sounding board
• Offer positive (constructive) feedback
• Offer only solicited advice
• Celebrate and acknowledge achievements
4-PHASE MENTORING PROCESS
• Phase 1: Preparing and Initiation of mentorship
• Phase 2: Negotiating and Contracting the
• Phase 3: Facilitating learning, advocacy and
• Phase 4: Closure and Evaluation of the
PHASE 1: PREPARING AND INITIATION
• Invest time and careful planning to ensure that the mentor and mentee
have an open and trusting space in which to explore the best ways to
• In conducting a self-assessment, mentors can explore the following areas:
Exploring their personal motivation to be a mentor
Becoming clear about the expectations and role of a mentor
Determining readiness to become a mentor
Workplace environment – physical, psychological and emotional
Provision of Information
“The initiation phase seems to have two components –
rapport-building and direction setting”
(David Clutterbuck, 2004)
PHASE 2: NEGOTIATING AND CONTRACTING
THE MENTORSHIP RELATIONSHIP
• Negotiation is the phase of the relationship when
mentoring partners reach agreement on:
Define the content and process of the relationship
• The development of the Learning Plan
• Conducting the first meeting
Phase 3: Facilitating learning, advocacy and
• Mentors are facilitators of learning and must be resources
Establish a supportive climate conducive to learning
Involve learners in planning how and what they will learn
Encourage learners to identify and use a variety of resources to
accomplish their objectives
Help learners implement and evaluate their goals and
aspirations for the mentorship
• Advocacy, promotion of mentee’s best interests
• Creating professional networking opportunities
PHASE 4: CLOSURE AND EVALUATION
OF THE MENTORING RELATIONSHIP
• The final stage/phase indicates that an evaluation of the relationship (reflection) and process should be
• Mentor and mentee should:
Critically analyse their relationship and how it has developed
Identifying the goals that have been achieved and those that haven’t
They should reflect on the process, identifying areas where they could have done better
• A good exit strategy and process can answer the following three questions:
Have we followed a helpful approach for reflecting on learning outcomes and discussed a process for
integrating what was learned?
Have we decided on a meaningful way to celebrate the successes within the mentorship?
Have we had a conversation to redefine our relationship and to acknowledge this transition? Has
our conversation included a focus on talking about whether it will move from a professional
mentoring relationship to colleagues, friendship, to staying in contact, etc. and where to go from
• Both formative and summative evaluation data are useful for process improvement and reporting results.
TYPES OF COACHING
THE PURPOSE AND VALUE OF
• Coaching often provides positive feedback about employee contributions.
• Regular coaching brings performance issues to an employee's attention
when they are minor, and assists the employee to correct them.
• The goal of coaching is to work with the employee to solve performance
problems and improve the work of the employee, the team, and the
• Coaching offers the vehicle to accelerate employee development towards
the achievement of individual and organizational effectiveness.
• The core of coaching is building rapport, asking powerful questions and
GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE
• Strengthen communication between you and the
• Help the employee attain performance objectives
• Increase employee motivation and commitment
• Maintain and increase the employee's self-esteem
• Provide support
ELEMENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE
• Coach when you want to focus attention on any specific aspect of the employee's
• Observe the employee's work and solicit feedback from others.
• When performance is successful, take the time to understand why.
• Advise the employee ahead of time on issues to be discussed.
• Discuss alternative solutions.
• Agree on action to be taken.
• Schedule follow-up meeting(s) to measure results.
• Recognize successes and improvements.
• Document key elements of coaching session.
BEST PRACTICE COACHING
• Focus on behaviour, not personality.
• Ask the employee for help in problem
identification and resolution. Use active listening
to show you understand.
• Set specific goals and maintain communication.
• Use reinforcement techniques to shape
STEPS OF A PERFORMANCE-BASED
COACHING SESSION (POSITIVE FEEDBACK)
• Describe the positive performance result or work habit using specific details.
• Solicit your employee's opinion of the same product or behaviour.
• Ask the employee to identify elements that contributed to success
• Discuss ways in which you and the employee can support continued positive
• Reinforce for the employee the value of the work and how it fits in with the
mission, vision, values and goals of the work unit or department.
• Show your appreciation of the positive results and your confidence that the
employee will continue to perform satisfactorily.
• Document your discussion for the employee's file, as you would all coaching and
counseling sessions, noting day, date, time and key elements.
STEPS OF A PERFORMANCE-BASED
COACHING SESSION (CAPABILITY)
• Describe the issue or problem, referring to specific behaviours
• Involve the employee in the problem-solving process
• Discuss causes of the problem
• Identify and write down possible solutions
• Decide on specific actions to be taken by each of you
• Agree on a follow-up date
• Document key elements of the session
STEPS OF A PERFORMANCE-BASED
COACHING SESSION (CONDUCT)
• Describe in detail the poor work habit observed
• Say why it concerns you. Tie it to the performance standards and
• Ask why it occurred and listen non-judgmentally to the
explanation. Describe the need for change and ask for ideas.
• Discuss each idea and offer your help
• Agree on specific actions to be taken and set a specific follow-up
• Document results from the session
STEPS OF THE SKILLS/TASK-ORIENTED
• Step 1: Needs/performance gap analysis
• Step 2: Task analysis and explanation of task requirements
• Step 3: Demonstrating/Presenting the task
• Step 4: Trying out performance
• Step 5: Assessment of learner’s competence
• Step 6: Self Evaluation