Learning Objectives:• Understand how to answer question 1b on media language.• Decide which of your productions you would write about for a question on media language.
What is meant by media language? What the Chief Examiner says:The way that meaning is made using the conventionsof the particular medium and type of media product.A broader category allowing candidates to writeabout elements of semiotics, genre, narrative,design, structure, codes and conventions, time andspace, aesthetics, spoken, written and visuallanguage to name just a few examples. One specificexample would be the use of continuity editing in afilm sequence.
Denotation and Connotation• In semiotics, denotation and connotation are terms describing the relationship between the signifier and its signified.
• Evaluating media language means analysing of all the micro elements.• How do the micro elements you have used inform us about genre, narrative, representations/ ideology, targeting of audiences?• Explain how you have encoded elements and codes and conventions within texts.
Micro elementsThe different micro elements that make up your text are:• Mise en scene• Camerawork• Editing
Micro Elements: Mise-en-SceneMise en scene is pre-production• Setting, location and props• Colour and lighting• Costume, hair and make-up• Position within the frame• Facial expressions and body language
Micro Elements: CameraworkCamerawork is production• Shot Types• Composition• Movement
Micro Elements: Editing• Editing is post-production• Long Takes: takes of an unusually long length.• Short Takes: takes that only last for a few seconds.• There are two basic types of editing:7. Continuity and…8. Non-Continuity.
Continuity editing• Establishing/Re-establishing Shot• Transitions.• The 180° Line Rule.• Crosscutting.• Cutaway.• Shot-Reverse Shot Structures.• Eyeline Match.
The Structure Of The Classic Narrative SystemAccording to Pam Cook (1985), the standard Hollywood narrative structure should have:• Linearity of cause and effect within an overall trajectory of enigma resolution.• A high degree of narrative closure.• A fictional world that contains verisimilitude especially governed by spatial and temporal coherence.
What theory can you use?• Stuart Hall – start by stating the preferred meaning you wanted our audience to DECODE.• Barthes (1977) argued that in film connotation can be (analytically) distinguished from denotation.• Propp – character types• Pam Cook – narrative structure• Todorov – 5 part narrative
Media Language: Deciding what to write about• Choose which piece of work (you might find you will have more to say about your video, as your magazine had no editing, etc).• Mise en scene – make notes for all 5 aspects.• Camerawork – make notes under all 3 headings.• Editing – Decide whether your video is continuity or non-continuity. Note down which techniques you used. – Decide which narrative theorist you will mention.
Sample Question“Media is communication.” Discuss the ways that youhave used media language to create meanings in one of your media products.