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  • 1. Learning Objectives:
    • Learn a variety of theories on audience.
    • Understand how to answer question 1b on audience .
    • Decide which of your productions you would write about for a question on audience.
  • 2. The Hypodermic Needle Model
    • 1920s attempt to explain how mass audiences might react to mass media
    • Audiences passively receive the information
    • Audiences do not process or challenge the data
    • so the information is unmediated .
    The Hypodermic Needle Model
  • 3. The Hypodermic Needle Model
    • As an audience, we are manipulated by the creators of media texts, and our behaviour can be easily changed by media-makers
    • Audience are passive and heterogenous
    • This model is quoted during moral panics
  • 4. Stuart hall and reception theory
  • 5. McDonalds want you to think....
  • 6. You may agree Or..... You may disagree
  • 7. Or..... You may think that big macs do taste good, but I’ll only have them every now and again
  • 8. So here we have three separate readings of that one advert
  • 9. The preferred o r dominant reading is the reading media producers hope audiences will take from the text.
  • 10. The audience may reject the preferred reading, receiving their own alternative message. This is an opposition reading .
  • 11. Negotiated reading is when audiences acknowledge the preferred reading, but modify it to suit their own values and opinions – a compromise.
  • 12. Stuart Hall – Encoding/Decoding
    • Dominant – ‘flag waving patriot who responds to George Bush’s latest speech’.
    • Oppositional – ‘the pacifist who understands the speech but rejects it’.
    • Negotiated – ‘the viewer who agrees with the need for a response to Sept. 11 th but doesn’t agree to the military means announced’.
  • 13. Uses & Gratifications
    • 1960s – generation had grown up with TV
    • audiences make choices about what they do
    • when consuming texts
    • audiences made up of individuals who
    • actively consume texts for different
    • reasons and in different ways
  • 14. Uses & Gratifications
    • Blumer and Katz (1974) state a text might be used for the following purposes:
    • Diversion - escape from everyday problems and routine.
    • Personal Relationships - using the media for emotional and other interaction, eg) substituting soap operas for family life
    • Personal Identity - finding yourself reflected in texts, learning behaviour and values from texts
    • Surveillance - Information which could be useful for living eg) weather reports, financial news, holiday bargains
  • 15. Audience
    • How useful is the concept of audience in understanding your work?
    • Who is your target audience? How did you develop your target audience?
    • How does your production appeal to your target audience?
    • What uses and gratifications will the target audience get from the production?
  • 16. Sample Question “ Media texts will never be successful unless they are carefully constructed to target established audience needs or desires.” Evaluate the ways that you constructed your media text to target a specific audience.