MUSIC STORINGList every device you can think ofwhere people store music. • Mobile phone, e.g. IPhone • Games consoles, e.g. Xbox 360 • Laptops/Netbook, e.g. MacBook • MP3 Player, e.g. IPod
Functions of devices iPhone• Make phone calls• Email• Listen to music• Access the internet• Watch movies/TV• Play games• Personalise the phone by downloading different Apps
Functions of devices Xbox 360• Play games (Online)• Customise you profile and display• Access Facebook and Twitter• Watch movies and TV• Listen to music (Lastfm)• Talk to people via the headset• Communicate through MSN
Functions of devices Laptop/Netbook Internet (Unlimited access) Play games Online chat Customisable Plays music Work station Watch movies and TV
All of these examples originally hadone purpose but over time they haveevolved and adopted features of otherdevices. This therefore makes it harderto define what is the main purpose of apiece of media as the differencesbetween them are becoming few.
This is technological convergence• Convergence is when one particular device has many other features than its primary use. A device which originally had one primary purpose has evolved into doing similar tasks to other devices.
Learning Objective:• Understand what ‘Convergence Culture’ is all about.
Convergence Culture• “Where old and new media collide.”• Using new media devices for a range of new and old media viewing.Eg. Reading a book on a computer (ebooks)
Henry Jenkins• “old media[s] never die”.• He also believes that media will continue to grow in multiple ways through computing and communication.• “media persists as layers within an ever more complicated information and entertainment system ... A medium’s content may shift, its audience may change and its social status may rise or fall, but once a medium establishes itself it continues to be part of the media ecosystem”.
What does he mean?What Jenkins is trying to say is that media does not disappear, it changes and shifts into different forms but essentially remains the same. For example, ebooks could be classed as a ‘new’ media, yet they are just a regeneration of an old media which has been around for many years. This may appeal to a different audience, yet it is essentially still the same medium as when it first began.
5 processes that make up ‘Convergence Culture’• Technological Convergence• Economic Convergence• Social or Organic Convergence• Cultural Convergence• Global Convergence
Technological Convergence “When words, images and sounds are transformed into digitalinformation, we expand the potential relationships between them and enable them to flow across platforms.” - Sausages being cooked on a PS3This is the digitalisation of media content – even traditionalcontent such as radio, books and film that are digitalised orconverged. Example of this can be seen in the possibility ofCinemas using Digital imagery rather than film, and also howthe new iPad shows how people can now read books on ascreen the size of a book.
Economic convergence“The horizontal integration of theentertainment industry. A company like AOLTime Warner now controls interests in film,television, books, games, the Web, music,real estate and countless other sectors. Theresult has been the restructuring of culturalproduction around “synergies,” and thus thetransmedia exploitation of brandedproperties— Pokemon, Harry Potter, Tomb Raider, Star Wars.” (Or using media to its full extent whenit’s in fashion)
What is he saying?Essentially Jenkins isacknowledging the way largecompanies are exploiting thedevelopment of both new andold medias to their financialadvantage, making franchisesout of a particular brand andbranching out into othermedias. For example, HarryPotter began as a book but hassince expanded into amultimedia franchise includingfilms, toys, video games, stickerbooks, posters and clothing.
Social or organic convergence “Consumers’ multitasking strategies for navigating the new information environment. Organic convergence is what occurs when a high schooler is watching baseball on a big-screen television, listening to techno on the stereo, wordprocessing a paper and writing e-mail to his friends. It may occur inside or outside the box, but ultimately, it occurs within the user’s cranium.”This is also known as ‘media stacking’. This is getting more commonin modern lifestyles as we are constantly surrounded by easilyaccessible media technologies, some of which are often essential toour daily routine – for example the internet is often used forstudying which can be used whilst watching TV or listening to theradio.
Cultural Convergence“The explosion of new forms of creativity at the intersections of various media technologies, industries and consumers. Media convergence fosters a new participatory folk culture by giving average people the tools to archive, annotate, appropriate and recirculate content. Shrewd companies tap this culture to foster consumer loyalty and generate low-cost content. Media convergence also encourages transmedia storytelling, the development of content across multiple channels. As producers more fully exploit organic convergence, storytellers will use each channel to communicate different kinds and levels of narrative information, using each medium to do what it does best.”
What is he saying?Some types of new media can be altered by average people. For example; homemade trailers and other content on youtube; wikipedia articles that are open to create and edit to the public; edited pictures can easily be hosted and shared on facebook and flickr; bands can upload their own songs and share them on sites such as myspace.Production companies can now use any given media to their own advantage and make the audience feel like they are part of the process. This generates more interest in products such as films, music albums etc. For example a new film can be advertised over most media forms, tv/radio/newspaper/internet/cinema trailers/posters.The level of integration and interactivity media now has in modern lives means that media can in fact change the way we live and view the world.
Global Convergence “The cultural hybridity that results from the internationalcirculation of media content. In music, the world-music movementproduces some of the most interesting contemporary sounds, and in cinema, the global circulation of Asian popular cinema profoundly shapes Hollywood entertainment. These new forms reflect the experience of being a citizen of the ‘global village.’”With the new advancements in media technology it has becomemuch simpler to view media from around the globe. Whereasbefore it would have been necessary to physically travel to a certaincountry to view their culture, with the use of the internet this isnow possible in a few clicks.
The growth of media has begun a transformation of life as we know it. We are now more connected with each other and the world then ever before, which will have a huge impact on our day to day lives. “The digital renaissance will be the best of times and the worst of times, but a new cultural order will emerge from it. Stay tuned.”