Definition of Affix An affix is a bound morpheme that is joined before, after, or within a root or stem. Bound morpheme is a morpheme (or word element) that cannot stand alone as a word. Contrast with free morpheme. Free morpheme is a morpheme (or word element) that can stand alone as a word. Contrast with bound morpheme. There are two kinds of free morphemes: content words and function words. Root is a word or word element (that is, a morpheme) from which other words grow, usually through the addition of prefixes and suffixes.
Affix Relationship to root or Example stemprefix Occurs in the front of a unhappy root or stemsuffix Occurs at the end of a happiness root or steminfix Occurs inside of a root or Gerigi stem (Indonesian)
KINDS OF AFFIXES Inflectional affixes Derivational affixes
Inflectional Affix Inflectional affix is an affix that expresses a grammatical contrast that is obligatory for its stems word class in some given grammatical context and does not change the word class of its stem. There are only eight "inflectional affixes" in English
-s noun plural (books, tables) -s noun possessive (Mira’s bag) -s verb present tense third person singular (She dances) -ing verb present participle/gerund (She is working) -ed verb simple past tense (I walked) -en verb past perfect participle (been) -er adjective comparative (bigger) -est adjective superlative (the biggest)
A derivational affix is an affix by means of which one word is formed (derived) from another. The derived word is often of a different word class from the original. A derivational affix is not part of an obligatory set of affixes. It changes the meaning of the base in some important way or changes it into a different word class.
example Unhealthy GardenerThe addition of the prefix un- to healthy alters the meaning of healthy. The resulting word means "not healthy."The addition of the suffix -er to garden changes the meaning of garden, which is a place where plants, flowers, etc., grow, to a word that refers to a person who tends a garden.
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