ICSE 6205:Legal and Ethical Issues on CyberWorld Student: KASITA, Chande Instructor: Mr. Mussa Ally
Cyber Ethics• Cyberethics is the field of applied ethics that examines moral, legal, and social issues in the development and use of cybertechnology.• Cybertechnology refers to a broad range of technologies from stand-alone computers to the cluster of networked computing, information and communication technologies.
Computer Ethics• Computer Ethics is a branch of practical philosophy which deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct.• Margaret Anne Pierce, a professor in the Department of Mathematics and Computers at Georgia Southern University has categorized the ethical decisions related to computer technology and usage into 3 primary influences: 1. The individuals own personal code. 2. Any informal code of ethical behavior that exists in thework place. 3. Exposure to formal codes of ethics.
Ethical standards• Various national and international professional societies and organizations have produced code of ethics documents to give basic behavioral guidelines to computing professionals and users. They include:• Association for Computing Machinery: ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct• British Computer Society: BCS Code of Conduct & Code of Good Practice• IEEE: IEEE Code of Ethics• Computer Ethics Institute: Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics
Open source ethicsWhat is Open Source Software?• any program whose source code is made available for use or modification as users or other developers wants.• Most Open Source software is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), additionally requires that if a modified version of the software is distributed, the source code for such modified version must be made freely available.• In essence, creators of Open Source software hold the copyright for their work, but grant a license (the GPL) to anyone who wants to use it.
Definition of Net NeutralityNet Neutrality is a network design paradigmthat argues for broadband network providersto be completely detached from whatinformation is sent over their networks.
This chart shows the world’s Internet restrictions. Internet black holes mean thatdata information is really sucked up in a void meaning that it is there but it will justkeep coming and coming. A lot of smaller under developed countries surveillancetheir Internet like Iran that blocks twitter feeds because of the recent Iran elections.Some countries as you can see have minor or no restrictions on the Internet.
The Seven Reasons for N.N.1. Economic Recovery and Prosperity2. Free Speech3. Civic Participation4. Marketplace of Ideas5. Social Justice6. Rise of Telecom companies7. Political Opportunity
Digital rights• The term digital rights describes the protections that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks.• The term is particularly related to the protection and realization of existing rights, such as the right to privacy or freedom of expression, in the context of new digital technologies, especially the Internet
e-Democracy• E-democracy (electronic + democracy) refers to the use of information technologies and communication technologies and strategies in political and governance processes.• E-democracy is concerned with the use of ICT to engage citizens, support the democratic decision- making processes and strengthen representative democracy.• Democratic actors and sectors in this context include governments, elected officials, the media, political organizations, and citizens/voters.• E-democracy aims for broader and more active citizen participation enabled by the Internet, mobile communications, and other technologies in todays representative democracy, as well as through more participatory or direct forms of citizen involvement in addressing public challenges.
A Four Way Classification Automate Inform Change scale Transform e-Voting Webcasting On-line Discussion referenda fora On-line Web Local On-line voting publication Initiatives consultationOn-line opinion On-line e-Lobbying Direct citizen polling databases legislation e- Party On-line decisionCampaigning literature Making Voter registration e-Representation
Privacy Law• Information privacy laws cover the protection of information on private individuals from intentional or unintentional disclosure or misuse.• The European Directive on Protection of Personal Data, released on July 25, 1995 was an attempt to unify the laws on data protection within the European Community.• As a result, customers of international organizations such as Amazon and eBay in the EU have the ability to review and delete information, while Americans do not. In the United States the equivalent guiding philosophy is the Code of Fair Information Practice (FIP).
Privacy LawIntroduction• Computers are not needed for the invasion of privacy.• Computers simply make new threats possible and old threats more potent.• Privacy can mean: • Freedom from intrusion. • Control of information about oneself. • Freedom from surveillance.
Tanzania Privacy Law• The URT Constitution of 1977 defines privacy as:-“‘…Every person is entitled to respect andprotection of his person, the privacy of his ownperson, his family and of his matrimoniallife, and respect and protection of his residenceand private communications…’”
Tanzania Privacy LawArticle 16(2) goes further stipulating that:“…For the purpose of preserving the person’sright in accordance with this Article, the stateauthority shall lay down legal proceduresregarding the circumstances, manner and extentto which the right to privacy, security of hisperson, his property and residence may beencroached upon without prejudice to theprovisions of this Article…”
What was done..• Law Reform Commission 2005 :Discussion paper on legal framework for electronic commerce• Contracts: e-Contract not recognized• Cyber crimes not covered in the laws• Computer Frauds• Data Protection• Cyber attacks• Spam• ……….
Laws restricting privacy• Criminal Procedure Act 1985,• Law of Evidence Act 1967,• Anti Money Laundering Act 2006:Section VI Reporting persons to verify customers identity and reporting persons to establish and maintain customer record• Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002: Powers to intercept communications and the admissibility of intercepted communication• DNA Act 2009: The question of privacy has not between treated well. The country will establish DNA database but there is no framework for privacy protection.
Impact of Computer Technology on Privacy• Invisible Information Gathering – Examples: • Satellite surveillance. • Caller ID. • Loyalty cards. • Web-tracking data; cookies. • Peer-to-peer monitoring. • Others…• Secondary Use – Using information for a purpose other than the one for which it was obtained. A few examples: • Sale (or trade) of consumer information to other businesses. • Credit check by a prospective employer. • Government agency use of consumer database.
Impact of Computer Technology on Privacy cont…..• Computer Matching – Combining and comparing information from more than one database. Some examples:• Profiling – Using data in computer files to predict likely behaviors of people.• Monitoring and Tracking – Examples: • GPS (global positioning system). • Cell-phones. • Blackboxes in automobiles. • Other wireless appliances.
Consumer Information• Marketing: Using Consumer Information • Trading/buying customer lists. • Telemarketing. • Data Mining. • Mass-marketing. • Web ads. • Spam (unsolicited e-mail).
National Identity Card System Number and Social Security Number• SSN can reveal • Employer records. • Government databases. • School records. • Credit reports. • Consumer applications. • Many other databases.• National ID Card System – If implemented, the card could contain your: • Name. • Address. • Telephone number(s). • Photo. • SSN. – system could allow access to your: • Medical information. • Tax records. • Citizenship. • Credit history. • Much more…
Protecting Privacy: Education, Technology, and Markets• Education – Must include awareness of: • How the technology works. • How the technology is being used. • The risks brought on by the technology. • How to limit unwanted use of personal information. • Applicable laws and regulations• Technology – Enhance privacy using: • Cookie disablers. • Opt-in/opt-out options. • Anonymous Web services. • P3P (Platform for Privacy Preferences). • ‘Good’ passwords. • Audit trails. • etc
Protecting Privacy: Education, Technology, and Markets cont…• Market Response – Markets can protect your privacy by: • Using trusted third parties. • Adhering to established privacy policies. • Purchasing consumer information directly from the consumer. • Developing and selling privacy-enhancing technologies and services
What do we expect ?– Expectation of Privacy: • Government’s rights are limited. • Government must have probable cause to search private premises or seize documents.– Privacy Challenges: • New sensing and surveillance technologies enable the government access to private premises without physical entry. • New technologies provide the government with access to huge amounts of personal data in business databases. • Courts allow some searches and seizures of computers without search warrants.
What then…• the Internet should be a neutral place for all of its users. Not all cars are created are the same, but all should be allowed on the highway. The same is true with Internet traffic. File sharing and increased usage, as well as profits are all issues to the Internet corporations. What this is about, though, is the consumer. It’s the consumer that the corporations should cater too, and it’s the consumer that counts.
Economic and Technological effect of cybercrime• http://www.senderbase.org (near real time reports• Class and I will discuss
Reference• Discussion paper on the introduction of a legal framework for electronic commerce in Tanzania page 10• Clift, S. (2004). E-Democracy Resource Links from Steven Clift - E-Government, E-Politics, E-Voting Links and more.• Norris, P. (2001). Digital divide: Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide. Cambridge: University Press• The International Journal of Cyber Ethics in Education (IJCEE) www.igi-global.com/ijcee• Constitution of United Republic of Tanzania.• www.fiu.go.tz/POTA.pdf• http://www.senderbase.org/