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Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
Motivation. chpt 14
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Motivation. chpt 14

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WACE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT LECTURES 2010

WACE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT LECTURES 2010

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  • 1. SEWP ZC 241:SEWP ZC 241: PRINCIPLES OFPRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT Human FactorsHuman Factors and Motivationand Motivation
  • 2. THE AIM OF THIS SESSION:THE AIM OF THIS SESSION: The basic human factors that affect managing. The meaning of motivation. Various theories of motivation and their strengths and weaknesses. Special motivational techniques, with emphasis on the role of money, participation, the quality of working life and job enrichment. The systems and situational approach to motivation.
  • 3. What is Managing?What is Managing? Managing requires the creation and maintenance of an environment in which individuals work together in groups toward the accomplishment of common objectives
  • 4. Importance of PersonalImportance of Personal DignityDignity The concept of individual dignity means that people must be treated with respect, no matter what their position in the organization
  • 5. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  • 6. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  • 7. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  • 8. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES? GROUP ‘A’ GROUP ‘B’
  • 9. WHAT MAKES THE DIFFERENCE?
  • 10. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
  • 11. What is Motivation?What is Motivation? • Derived from Latin word, ‘movere’, meaning “to move”. • Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes, and similar forces
  • 12. MOTIVATION IS…….. Why WE DO SOMETHING AND DON’T DO OTHERS
  • 13. SOME THINGS IN LIFE ARE PURE BLACK AND WHITE
  • 14. MOST THINGS IN LIFE ARE IN VARIOUS SHADES OF GREY!!
  • 15. THERE IS NO UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTABLE SINGLE THEORY OF LEADESHIP!!!
  • 16. MAJOR TYPES OF MOTIVATIONMAJOR TYPES OF MOTIVATION THEORIESTHEORIES • CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION • PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • 17. CONTENT THEORIES OFCONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION • Views motivation a result if INTERNAL DRIVES that force an individual to take ACTION. • Focuses on INNER FACTORS that boost and direct behavior.
  • 18. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 19. The Hierarchy of Needs TheoryThe Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Maslow concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator
  • 20. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • 21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • 22. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: FOODPHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: FOOD
  • 23. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: SHELTERPHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: SHELTER
  • 24. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: CLOTHINGPHYSIOLOGICAL NEED: CLOTHING
  • 25. SECURITY NEEDSECURITY NEED
  • 26. BELONGING NEEDBELONGING NEED
  • 27. ESTEEM NEEDESTEEM NEED
  • 28. SELF ACTUALIZATIONSELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDNEED
  • 29. MASLOWS HEIRACHY THEORY OF NEEDS Individuals needs live within a hierarchy of physiological needs. Physiological needs are necessity factors for SURVIVAL. Lower level needs like security and physiological needs required to be met before upper level needs.
  • 30. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 31. Alderfer's ERG TheoryAlderfer's ERG Theory • ERG theory has three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs
  • 32. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY Classification into 3 groups. Existence Relatedness Growth Does not suggest that lower level needs are to be met COMPLETELY in order for upper levels to become MOTIVATIONAL.
  • 33. MASLOW TO ALDERFER
  • 34. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 35. Theory X and Theory YTheory X and Theory Y • Theory X and Theory Y : Assumptions about the nature of people Example of Theory X Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can • Example of Theory Y The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest
  • 36. Theory X and Theory YTheory X and Theory Y
  • 37. Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene‑Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene‑ TheoryTheory • According to Herzberg, dissatisfiers are not motivators. They are also called maintenance, hygiene, or job context factors • Satisfiers are motivators – related to job content
  • 38. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  • 39. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  • 40. HERZBERGS HYGEINE THEORY
  • 41. The satisfiers and dissatisfiers identified by Herzberg are similar to the factors suggested by Maslow.
  • 42. MAJOR CONTENT THEORIESMAJOR CONTENT THEORIES • MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs. • ALDERFER’s ERG Theory • HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • 43. McClelland's Needs Theory ofMcClelland's Needs Theory of MotivationMotivation •McClelland’s types of motivating needs are:
  • 44. NEED FOR POWERNEED FOR POWER
  • 45. NEED FORNEED FOR ACHIEVEMENTACHIEVEMENT
  • 46. NEED FOR POWERNEED FOR POWER
  • 47. PROCESS THEORIES OFPROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONMOTIVATION • Aimed at determining how behavior starts, is directed and maintained.. • Focuses on human decision process as an explanation for behavior.
  • 48. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 49. The Expectancy Theory ofThe Expectancy Theory of MotivationMotivation Vroom holds that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it
  • 50. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY Individuals choose work behaviour that they believe would lead to an OUTCOME which they VALUE. Force = Valence xForce = Valence x ExpectancyExpectancy
  • 51. Force = Valence x ExpectancyForce = Valence x Expectancy • Force is the strength of a person's motivation. • Valence is the strength of an individual's preference for an outcome. • Expectancy is the probability that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome
  • 52. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY VALENCE= The extent of attractiveness or unattractiveness of EXPECTED outcomes EXPECTANCY= The degree of effort .
  • 53. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 54. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • 55. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • 56. VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
  • 57. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 58. Equity TheoryEquity Theory • Equity theory refers to an individual's subjective judgments about the fairness of the reward she or he got, relative to the inputs in comparison with the rewards of others • Outcomes by a person Outcomes by another person ------------------------------ = ----------------------------- • Inputs by a person Inputs by another person
  • 59. EQUITY THEORYEQUITY THEORY
  • 60. EQUITY THEORYEQUITY THEORY
  • 61. MAJOR PROCESS THEORIESMAJOR PROCESS THEORIES • EXPECTANCY Theory • EQUITY Theory • GOAL SETTING Theory • REINFORCEMENT Theory
  • 62. The Porter and Lawler MotivationThe Porter and Lawler Motivation ModelModel
  • 63. Skinner’s Reinforcement TheorySkinner’s Reinforcement Theory • Positive reinforcement or behavior modification, holds that individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and praise for their performance and that punishment for poor performance produces negative results
  • 64. Job EnrichmentJob Enrichment • Job enlargement means enlarging the scope of the job by adding similar tasks without enhancing responsibility • Job enrichment attempts to build into jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement

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