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Group 5 PBL - scenario 1

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  • Each one to come up with 1 -2 qns related to area of research.

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  • 1. Problem Based Learning Scenario 1 TG8 Group 5 members: Chan Hui Wen Nichol Png Jian Shun Shaun Ong Pei Ling Sim Ya En Avery Rhoda
  • 2. Overview
    • Introduction of Scenario
    • List of Questions Generated
    • Key Points & Problems Identified
    • Theories Used
    • Recommended Solutions
    • Reflections
  • 3. 1. Introduction
    • Main Characters
      • Andy, Ms Wong, Ahmad, Bee Chu
    • Family Background
      • From middle-SES; mother is a home-maker and father is a blue-collar worker.
      • Andy has a younger sister of 7 who attends the same school as he does.
  • 4. 2. List of Questions Generated
    • What are the positive and negative outcomes from Erikson’s “Industry vs. Inferiority” stage due to accomplishment and achievement?
    • How to increase Andy’s desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior?
    • How to increase Andy’s intrinsic motivation?
    • How can Ms Wong and Andy’s peers contribute towards a better learning environment for Andy?
    • What can Ms Wong do to increase the self-esteem of the students?
  • 5. 3. Key Points & Problems Identified
  • 6. Our Focus Statement
    • As beginning teachers, it is crucial to understand the effective methods of motivation and to create a conducive learning environment for the student.
  • 7. 4. Theories Used
    • Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory
    • Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory
    • Self-Esteem
    • Motivation
    • Behavioral Approach
    • Social Cognitive Theory
    • Social Constructivism
  • 8. 4.1. Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory
    • Andy has direct interaction with parents, peers and teachers in the microsystem.
    • Andy constructs the microsystem
    • by influencing others around him
    • through interaction as much as
    • others influence him.
  • 9. 4.2. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
    • Social (Environmental) factors,
    • Cognitive (Personal) factors
    • and Behavior interact
    • and influence learning.
    • Ms Wong and his peers become social factors that affect Andy’s cognitive thinking and behavior.
    • Andy demonstrated low self-efficacy (cognitive) when he commented that he should have gone to play soccer instead of studying (behavior)
  • 10. 4.3. Erikson’s psychosocial developmental theory
    • “ Industry vs Inferiority” stage
      • Builds upon competencies and skills
      • Sense of accomplishments and achievements
      • Failure to strike a balance: narrow virtuosity and inertia
    • Primary school student
      • Issues: academic results
      • Relationships: peers, family and teachers
  • 11. 4.3. Erikson’s psychosocial developmental theory
    • Andy may be at risk of feeling inferior:
      • Has tried to study
      • Has not been doing well in academic
      • Often receives scolding from Ms Wong
      • Being looked down by Bee Chu
    • Potential negative outcome: Inertia
      • Apathetic towards academic matters
      • Nonchalant towards teachers and peers
  • 12. 4.4. Self-Esteem
    • Self-Esteem is the individual evaluation of the gap between self-image and ideal self.  Self-esteem is not fixed and we are all constantly engaged in the processes that test, modify and restructure it.
    • Ms Wong often shouts and makes negative comments when her students fail to meet her expectation in their academic
    • How her current behaviour will affect the self-esteem of the pupils towards Science and towards her? (Negative)
    • How self-esteem will affect an individual’s ability to perform to their fullest? (Positive correlated)
    • What should be done to increase the pupils self- esteem?
  • 13. 4.5. Motivation
    • Motivation is the force that energizes and directs a behavior towards a goal (Baron, 1992;Schunk, 1990;Schunk, Pintrich & Meech, 2008) 
    • Motivation is a crucial element to the learning process (Perry, Turner & Meyer, 2006). The research clearly shows a positive correlation between motivation and achievement (Ringness, 1965; Ugurogulu & Walberg, 1979; Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1993). Therefore, knowledge of the factors that facilitate motivation to learn and achieve is crucial for a teacher to be truly effective or for a student to achieve.
  • 14. 4.5. Motivation
    • Andy is not motivated to study for the test as her presume that he will still fail regardless of the fact that he did study for the test.
    • How the students can be motivated extrinsically by the teacher to increase their desirable behavior.
    • The need for both a belief that the action will to goal attainment (expectancy), and that the goal has value (value).
  • 15. 4.6. Vygotsky’s Theory
    • The importance of social influence on a child’s cognitive development is reflected in the concept of the ZPD
    • Adequate scaffolding should be provided by adjusting the amount
    • of guidance to fit the
    • child’s current
    • performance.
  • 16. 5. Recommended Solutions
    • Scaffolding
    • Collaborative learning
    • Increasing Extrinsic and Intrinsic motivation
    • Stress management
  • 17. 5.1. Scaffolding
    • Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Teacher or even a more advanced peer could provide scaffolding support and assistance to weaker pupils like Andy.
    • By breaking the problem into smaller, realizable chunks, it will help Andy to feel a greater sense of accomplishment.
    • To slowly increase the difficulty of the task – setting increasing level of targets for the child to achieve (successive level of approximation)
    • Erikson’s psycho-social development theory
    • Help to build on Andy’s competencies and skills to achieve sense of accomplishments
  • 18. 5.2. Collaborative Learning
    • Vygotsky’s Theory
    • Provide opportunities for pupils to tap on the expertise of one another.
    • Activity plan should cater to the different learning styles/ multiple intelligences so that all pupils can be engaged in meaningful learning.
    • Consideration when forming collaborative groups (Mix of Abilities).
  • 19. 5.3. Motivation
    • Activation Theory
    • Mental arousal is necessary for effective functioning. We need a certain level of activation in order to be sufficiently motivated to achieve goals.
    • When a teacher is seeking to get Andy to learn in class, she should ensure that work is stimulating and retain attention.
  • 20. 5.3. Motivation
    • 2) Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    • We evaluate how well a task will meet our needs to feel competent and being in control when we look at it. If we think that we are able to complete the task, we will be intrinsically motivated to complete it.
    • When the teacher wants Andy to be motivated, she should ensure that it falls within his current level of competency.
  • 21. 5.3. Motivation
    • 3) Expectancy Theory
    •  As we are constantly predicting likely futures, we create expectation about future events. We will be motivated to act if we know how to get there and we believe we can “make the difference”
    •  By motivating Andy to do something by showing him something desirable, indicating how straightforward it is to get it and to further support his self belief that he can achieve it.
  • 22. 5.3. Motivation
    • 4) Drive Theory
    • We possess needs which lead to internal stimuli prodding us into action, driving us to reduce those stimuli by satisfying relevant needs.
    • Teacher has to understand what drives Andy and stimulate these in order to get him into action. She would have to ensure that she motivate the drive in him such that he would act in a way that she would like him to.
  • 23. 5.3. Motivation
    • 5) Extrinsic motivation
    • Motivation by external factors drives people to do things for rewards/through pressure.
    • Praises when improvements are being observed
    • Acknowledge of effort and achievement made.
  • 24. 5.3. Motivation
    • 6) Intrinsic motivation
    •  Providing an interesting, relevant curriculum , with projects incorporated that students genuinely want to do.
    •  Creating a positive classroom climate. Research shows that what educational scholars term “a positive affective environment” promotes student learning and motivation in a statistically significant way.
    •  Create an atmosphere of high expectations , both behaviorally and academically. If you expect greatness, often you will receive it. Students’ motivation will decline if the teacher’s expectations are too low.
  • 25. 5.4. Stress Management
    • Provide opportunities and channels for children to express their feelings
      • journals, blogs or through drawings
    • Practice positive self-talk
      • "I can do it"
    • School counseling sessions for pupils
  • 26.
    • 1 ) The way I learn
    • In the past, learning was more of a teacher directed process. The teacher will go through the problem with the class and thereafter some guidelines will be given to solve the problem. However, this was very different from the concept of PBL.
    • 2) The way I solve problem
    •  Through PBL, it allows me to look at the problem from all angles with my very own perspectives and thereafter to generate various possible solutions.
    • 3) What makes group learning effective
    • The different expertise that we have help us to view the problem from various angles.
    • 4) How it has nurtured my competencies as a beginning teacher
    • I have learned to consider students’ background knowledge, environment, and learning goals.
    • 5) What is my present belief on how students learn best
    •  As a teacher, we will have to adopt various strategies to cater to the needs of different
    • students. There is no one best solution, this is because of the different problem encountered as well as the different environments that they are in.
    6.1 Pei Ling’s reflection
  • 27. 6.2 Yaen’s Reflections
    • TThe problem-based learning requires looking into a real life scenario. This has provided us with the need to look for different theories and to put them into application.
    • he process of solving the problem in the scenario has made these theories more than just an impression. There is now more familiarity and appreciation for these theories.
    • The fact that there are always more than one way to look at and to solve a problem was also reinforced during the process of this learning experience.
    • Group work facilitated much of this Problem Based Learning by enabling us to see a problem through the eyes of different people and learning from each other. This helps us to broaden our perspectives and diversify our approaches towards solving the problem.
    • A collaborative effort from all the group members also allowed us to explore deeper into each of the theories that were applicable to the given PBL scenario.
  • 28. 6.3. Hui Wen’s Reflections
    • The way I learn:
      • given greater autonomy in our own learning; taking on a very active role in learning
    • The way I solve problem:
      • Breaking to problem into different stages and smaller tasks, evaluating each process and always reflecting on the bigger picture later
      • Analyzing from different angles
    • Effective group learning
      • The sum of all parts is greater than the whole itself
      • Active contributions – work attitudes, knowledge, initiatives
    •   Personal belief about how students learn best:
      • Every child is different; get to know students better
      • Setting a constructivist learning environment
      • Motivating students to learn positively
    • Use of e-portfolio
      • Facilitates collaborative learning but not compatible with MS word; alignments and tables
  • 29. 6.4. Shaun’s Reflections
      • 1. PBL changed me
      • Learning: understand the problem first before researching on theories
      • Solving Problem : gather and apply what I have learnt to solve the problem
      • Group Learning : engage in collaborative learning & piece up different knowledge
    • 2. Nurtured my competencies
      • Pedagogical Skills : Meaningful and engaging lessons; Use of IT; Differential learning needs
      • Interpersonal Skills : Effective communication; Positive relationships
      • Reflective Skills : Effectiveness of lessons for learning
      • Personal Skills: Personal emotions ; Use of language
      • Organizational and Mgmt Skills : Keep track of students’ learning process; Classroom mgmt
    • 3. More scaffolding and guidance towards working on the PBL group project
    • 4. E-Portfolio
      • Strengths: Easy communication of ideas; Work at own free time; Updating info in real time
      • Limitations: Not compatible with Microsoft Word; Alignment; Decreases interaction
    • 5. Authentic classroom footage
      • Strengths: Relate to the problem easily through dramatisation and visual learning
      • Limitations: Lack of information
    • 6. Present Belief: Students learn best when learning is meaningful and engaging.
    • Students learn best when their teacher understands and meets their different learning needs