An opening under the eave of a roof, used to allow air to flow into the attic or the space below the roof sheathing.
A long, open assembly that allows air to circulate in and out of a gable roof at the ridge.
A screened , louvered opening in a gable, used for exhausting excess heat and humidity from an attic.
A turbine vent is a passive ventilation device that exhausts humid, hot air from an attic. Some forms of turbines are equipped with an electric motor (pictured above).
Piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of an hydraulic arm. Typically mounted on the rear of a front-end loader.
A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the foundation that will be built within the site.
A structural device that supports a vertical load by translating it into axial, inclined forces at its supports
Segmental Arch Gothic Arch
Arch with a Keystone Centering
Brick Bonds (Running Bond & Stack Bond)
Running Bond – Bricks that have been laid in alternating positions consisting entirely of stretchers.
Stack Bond – Bricks that have been laid stacked directly on top of the previous course.
Running Bond Stack Bond
Soldiers Headers Headers
Brick Sizes Modular: 3 5/8” x 7 5/8” x 2 3/8” Standard: 3 3/8” x 8” x 2 ¼”
A piece of excavating equipment used to push large quantities of soil, sand, or debris. Bulldozers are always equipped with large blade on the front.
EIFS Cladding EIFS
Stone Cladding & Wood Cladding
A material used as the exterior wall covering of a building. This pattern in this stone cladding is coursed ashlar.
Wood Shingle Cladding
Wood Shakes – Shingles that have been split from a block of wood.
Wood Shingles – Shingles that have been cut and having a uniform thickness.
Pictured above are Wood Shingles.
Code Requirements: Egress from Window
The IBC for emergency exit and rescue from a window requires that the net window area when open be equal to 5.7’. The window pictured above has net open area of 5.625’, and therefore does not meet the IBC.
Code Requirements (Residential Stairs) The stairs shown to the right were measured with a tread depth of 11” while the risers were at a height of 7 ½”. The IBC states that for residential stairs the treads shall measure a minimum of 10” and the risers shall measure a maximum of 7 ¾”. These stairs DO meet the IBC.
An intentional linear discontinuity found in large concrete slabs and often sidewalks, for the purpose of controlled cracking in the material to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere.
Isolation joints are used to help relieve stress, in this case of the precast column adjacent the slab-on-grade. Here the column is being isolated from the slab.
A block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone. The most common block is nominally 8”x8”x16”.
Decorative CMU Ribbed Concrete Blocks Split – Face Block
Exterior Flush Door
Exterior Panel Door Top Rail Panel Stile Lock Rail Bottom Rail
Transom & Sidelight
Transom - A small window directly above a door.
Sidelight – A tall, narrow window alongside a door.
Electrical Components: Power Pole, Transformer, Service Head, & Meter
Electrical Components: Service Panel & Duplex Receptacle
#1 Anchor Bolt
#2 Sill Plate
#3 Floor Joist
This home was constructed with a slab-on-grade foundation, therefore no floor joists were required. However, these pre-fabricated “bar joists” serve as the floor joists for the second story floor.
The load-bearing surface beneath a finish floor.
#5 Sole Plate
In slab-on-grade construction the framing begins directly on top of the sill plate, in the above photo the sill plate doubles as the sole plate as well.
One of many small, closely spaced, parallel wall framing members.
#7 Top Plate
The horizontal member at the top of a stud wall.
#8 Ceiling Joists
#10 Roof Decking
A piece of equipment used primarily to move or load material, to another area or to another piece of equipment such as a dump truck.
An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces, also called drywall. The above photo shows “Type X” fire-rated gypsum board.
A beam that carries the load across the opening of a window or doorway.
Mortar Mortar Joint #1 – Joint #1 appears to be a troweled joint, the measured width was 3/8” the type of mortar is most likely N. The above bldg can be considered a commercial use structure. Mortar Joint #2 – Joint #2 appears to be a tooled joint, the measured width of the joint was 3/8”. The mortar type is most likely N. The above bldg can be considered a commercial use structure.
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
OSB is an engineering, non-veneer panel wood product produced by layering stands of wood in specific orientations.
Plumbing: Lavatory & Water Closet
Lavatory requires a 1 ½” drain line.
Water Closet requires a 3” drain line.
Lavatory Water Closet
Plumbing: Shower/Tub, VTR, & Bathroom Sink
VTR- Vent Through Roof, allows the escape of gas from plumbing systems.
Bathroom Sink is a “Drop-In” sink.
An engineered wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure.
Veneer – A thin layer, sheet or facing.
A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy.
The above rebar was measured at 3/8” diameter or # 3 rebar. The purpose of the deformations of the rebar are to give added ability of the concrete to bond with the rebar.
Steep Roof Drainage Gutter Splash block Downspout Downspout – A vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower lever. Gutter – A channel that collects rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of a roof. Splash block – A small precast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout.
Steep Roof Materials Underlayment – A layer of waterproof material such as a building felt between roof sheathing and roofing. Shingle – A thin unit of water-resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many other units to render a sloping roof watertight. Wood Shingles
Steep Roof Shapes From left top clockwise: Gable Roof Gambrel Roof Hip Roof
Steep Roof Terms Ridge – intersection of two roof planes Valley – trough formed by intersection of two roof slopes. Eave – Horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof.
Steep Roof Terms Rake – sloping edge of a steep roof. Soffit – Undersurface of a stair or roof overhang. Fascia – The exposed vertical face of an eave.
An impervious membrane applied to the outside of a foundation. The above waterproofing is fully adhered.
A small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly.
Welded Wire Fabric
Windows Casement Window Awning Window Jalousie Window