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Joint Practice Development (Parts 1 and 2) - Prof. David Hargreaves
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Joint Practice Development (Parts 1 and 2) - Prof. David Hargreaves


The second Joint Practice Development session explores the approach as a tool for radical innovation in teaching and learning. There will be discussion of the potential of the new technologies and the …

The second Joint Practice Development session explores the approach as a tool for radical innovation in teaching and learning. There will be discussion of the potential of the new technologies and the use of student voice.

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  • 1. Joint Practice Development: how to combine CPD with innovation Professor David Hargreaves (Wolfson College, Cambridge) Challenge Partners 9 July 2013 Part One
  • 2. The problem: knowledge transfer ...from one person to another ...from one situation to another ...from one school to another ...from one country to another
  • 3. SHARING GOOD PRACTICE JOINT PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT = haphazard scattering of pre-defined and well-honed practice to possible adopters = teachers working closely together to improve their practice beyond present quality, all within a far better distribution system versus
  • 4. What causes many attempts at knowledge transfer to fail? ✤ Too little account it taken of the culture in which the practice is embedded, often quite deeply ✤ The practice has to be learned afresh ✤ It is often not a transfer but a transplant or graft
  • 5. Teachers’ learning a new practice... is slow requires trial & errer needs needs so no quick fixes! so a partner/coach/mentor so opportunity to fail so a partner/coach/mentor Is this built into your school’s CPD? error feedback support
  • 6. Under what conditions is SGP most likely to work? ✤ When the innovation is easily added to existing practice rather than being a replacement of it ✤ When acceptance of the innovation demands little abandonment of an existing practice ✤ When the introduction of the innovation is supported by mentoring and/or coaching
  • 7. SGP - largely unilateral, rarely interactive JPD - always interactive, often bilateral SGP - rarely innovative for both parties JPD - always innovative for both parties Sharing Good Practice versus Joint Practice Development SGP - supposedly runs down from success JPD - builds up from what is not working
  • 8. Discontent is the first necessity of progress I have not failed: I have just found ten thousand ways that won’t work You must learn to fail intelligently. Failing is one of the greatest arts in the world. One fails forward towards success. In the words of the great innovator, Thomas Edison:
  • 9. The plan for teaching and learning Monitor and improvise where the plan doesn't work Personal tinkering Tinkering with partners Systematic innovation with partners Distributed innovation to partner schools From common practice to full JPD A self-improving school system? ...for the rest of one's career on a systematic basis
  • 10. Remember... Being presented with the ‘best practice’ of another teacher or school can easily intimidate and provoke defensiveness A group of teachers facing up to where they would like to be better practitioners can fire their imagination and empower
  • 11. What can I offer to someone else? What do I want to learn from someone else? Establish pairs/trios for common pursuits/interests or for complementary skills/expertise How do you initiate and then embed JPD? Build on reciprocity, not deficit Conduct audits for JPD matching What can our school offer to a partner school? What do I want to learn from a partner school? What aspect of teaching/learning am I not content with? What aspect of teaching/learning are we not content with?
  • 12. In England, for more than two decades, teachers have been required to participate in five in-service training days per year. The research evidence demonstrates that these are rarely well organised, are seen as of little use by participating teachers, and represent a wasted resource. Brighouse & Moon, 2013
  • 13. 1. Joint professional training day 3. Complementary reciprocal closure 2. Unbundle the day for twilights Implications for Professional Development Days? In what ways do you think you need to change how you use CPD or training days?
  • 14. How do you initiate and then embed JPD? ★ Work with the natural grain - build on individual tinkering and gossip ★ Research Lesson Study - Pete Dudley ★ Slide from SGP to JPD - by coaching! ★ Build a culture of everybody learning
  • 15. Suggested process for JPD Select a priority area for development Select an aspect that is NOT working well Brainstorm possible repair work Consult students and recruit to the work Fail until some breakthrough reached Challenge to push to further innovation Transfer through new JPD pods Create an innovation network
  • 16. Joint Practice Development: how to combine CPD with innovation Professor David Hargreaves (Wolfson College, Cambridge) Challenge Partners 9 July 2013 Part Two
  • 17. The nature of innovation Close to existing practice Far from existing practice Minor change Major change Incremental change Radical change
  • 18. How do you initiate and then embed JPD at student level? Students as co-constructors and co-innovators for better learning and teaching? Have you developed student voice? Students as Web 2.0 innovators? Students as digital mentors and coaches?
  • 19. Wikipedia Fanfiction Web 2.0 User-created content
  • 20. Harry Potter (635,353) Twilight (207,939) Lord of the Rings (48,276) Percy Jackson and the Olympians (36,519) Hunger Games (30,081) Maximum Ride (17,274) Warriors (15,230) Phantom of the Opera (10,645) Chronicles of Narnia (10,275) Gossip Girl (9,821) Song of the Lioness (8,111) Outsiders (7,642) Mortal Instruments (6,979) Vampire Academy (6,790) Inheritance Cycle (5,442) Artemis Fowl (5,084) Animorphs (4,984) Fairy Tales (4,707) Gallagher Girls (3,766) Clique (3,651) Vampires (3,623)
  • 21. What will happen when they all have constant access to the internet? Aged 12-15: 43% have internet access in the bedroom Aged 8-11: 14% have internet access in the bedroom Cloud computingUniversal handhelds with Net access tv versus the internet Aged 4-15 weekly time spent watching TV 15 Hours 37 Minutes - 2007 17 Hours 34 Minutes - 2011 Aged 5-15 - 91% have home access to the internet
  • 22. 22 Increase in computer and video gaming among 8-11s While 12-15s are using the internet for social networking sites, 8-11s are more likely to use it for gaming, with 51 per cent saying they play games online on a weekly basis, up from 44 per cent in 2010. 8-11s are also spending more time playing on games players/ consoles compared with 2010 (9 hours 48 minutes – an increase of nearly 2 hours). Taking computer and video games together, seven in ten (68 per cent) 8-11s say they play games almost every day, up from 59 per cent in 2010.
  • 23. Computer games Conventional classroom Activity is usually chosen by learner Activity is rarely chosen by learner Learner is usually highly active Learner is usually relatively passive Learner is highly motivated to engage Collaboration among learners usual Learner motivation is variable Increasing level of difficulty sought Feedback is regular and impersonal Learner is emotionally involved Failure is a spur to renewed effort Competition with others is enjoyable Collaboration among learners is rare Increasing level of difficulty avoided Feedback is irregular and personal Learner is emotionally uninvolved Failure is dreaded as demotivating Competition enjoyed only by winners Consequential decision making vital Student decision making rarely vital Can you make classroom activity more like a computer game?
  • 24. Students as co-constructors and co-innovators for better learning and teaching? Would the development of pupil voice, and the use of the new technologies, and the recruitment of pupils as co-innovators affect how you establish and sustain JPD groups within your school and then across partner schools?
  • 25. Jean Rudduck et al (eds) School Improvement: what can pupils tell us, Fulton, 1988 Michael Fielding & Sara Bragg, Students as Researchers, Pearson, 2003 John MacBeath et al, Consulting Pupils, Pearson, 2003
  • 26. What is the state of the foundations of JPD in your school/department at present? What steps do you need to take to improve JPD within your school/department? What steps do you need to take to improve JPD across partner schools? Do you know how to re-culture your school so that every teacher sees JPD as a natural way in which to exercise their profession? JPD built into a teacher’s DNA? JPD teams for school leaders?
  • 27. Evidence-based practice Evidence-informed practice Evidence-generating practice Three possibilities
  • 28. In obstetrics… if a new strategy seemed worth trying, doctors did not wait for research trials to tell them if it was all right. They just went ahead and tried it, then looked to see if results improved. Obstetrics went about improving the same way Toyota and General Electric went about improving on the fly, but always paying attention to the results and trying to better them. And that approach worked. Whether all the adjustments and innovation of the obstetrics package are necessary and beneficial may remain unclear… But the package as a whole has made child delivery demonstrably safer and it has done so despite the increasing age, obesity and consequent health problems of pregnant mothers Atul Gawande, Better: a surgeon’s note on performance, 2007
  • 29. JPD checklist 1. How many JPD pairs, trios etc now established, and how? 5. How are JPD teams being monitored and evaluated? 6. How do professional training days support JPD teams? 9. How innovative have the JPD teams become? 2. How were JPD topics/themes decided? 4. How were JPD success criteria devised? 8. Is evaluation and challenge an element of JPD work? 10. Are innovation processes and outcomes distributed among partners? 3. Are you building from what is not working/needs to be better? 7. Are pupils contributing to the work of JPD teams?
  • 30. Dynamic governments remain porous. Renewal rarely comes from within. One of the optical illusions of government is that those inside of it think of themselves as the drivers of change…Yet most far-reaching ideas and changes come from outside… Governments are more often vehicles than initiators. They play a role in embedding these changes but typically they get involved only at a late stage… Geoff Mulgan The smarter governments around the world realise that they need to build innovation into their everyday working: through experimental zones and pilots, competitive funds and rewards for promising ideas. And new ideas need time to evolve - preferably away from the spotlight… Most radical change has to start outside government, usually from the bottom rather than the top.
  • 31. Most innovations are not disruptive. Many of the most important…are sustaining innovations that take a good product or service and make it better. Clayton Christensen Failures should not be confused with mistakes. Stefan Thomke Management practices that work for incremental innovation often deter radical innovation. Wolfgang Grulke
  • 32. The challenge is not to avoid taking risks, but to get much, much smarter about how to de-risk grand aspirations. Gary Hamel All processes designed to generate new ideas begin with information from users. Eric von Hippel Most radical projects were driven by inspired and determined people who often had to swim against a tide of corporate indifference. Richard Leifer