Aplastic anemia

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Aplastic anemia

  1. 1. APLASTIC ANEMIA
  2. 2. CONTENTS
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. Figure 1: Bone Marrow
  5. 5. CAUSES
  6. 6. Figure 2:Epstein Barr virus Figure 3: Parovirus
  7. 7. STATISTICS
  8. 8. SYMPTOMS
  9. 9. Figure 4:Red spots Figure 5:Bruise
  10. 10. LAB DIAGNOSIS 1. Complete blood count (CBC) (a) low RBC, WBC, platelets (b) low Hb and Ht level 2. Reticulocyte count COMPONENT NORMAL VALUE MALE FEMALE RBC 4.7 – 6.1 mil cell/mcL 4.2 – 5.4 mil cell/mcL Hemoglobin 13.8 – 17.2 gm/dL 12.1 – 15.1 gm/dL Hematocrit 40.7 – 50.3 36.1 – 44.3 WBC 4500 – 10 000 cell/mcL Platelet 150 000 - 400 000 /mcL Reticulocyte 0.5 – 1.5%
  11. 11. 3. Bone marrow test (a) BM aspiration (fluid) (b) BM biopsy (tissue) 4. Antibody test 5. Other test a) Vitamin B12 & folate test b) Liver test & viral test c) X-ray, CT scan d) ultrasound imaging test Figure 6: BM Biopsy
  12. 12. TREATMENT 1. Stem cell transplant 2. Immunosuppressant 3. Blood transfusion 4. Bone marrow stimulant 5. Antibiotics & antiviral Figure 7:Blood transfusion
  13. 13. PREVENTION Avoid exposure to: a) Insecticide b) Herbicides c) Organic solvents d) Toxic chemical Figure 8: Exposure to herbicides
  14. 14. CONCLUSION Aplastic anemia - blood disorder that can be inherited or acquired Serious problem - no enough oxygen supply in body - infection Treatment - medications, stem cell transplant & blood transfusion Patients are advised to: a)Take good rest when needed b)Avoid contact sports c)Be hygienic
  15. 15. CASE STUDY 1. Patient’s Detail  46 years old male  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection  Combination treatment of PEG-IFN-a 2a (180 μg, weekly) and ribavirin (1200 mg/day) was commenced for a period of 48 weeks 2. Symptoms  Bleeding tendency  Unexplained fatigue of recent onset
  16. 16. 3. Physical Examination  Generalized purpura and bruising, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes  The patient’s liver, spleen and lymph nodes- not enlarged
  17. 17. Figure 9: A bone marrow biopsy showing the absence of hematopoietic tissue and its replacement with fat.
  18. 18. 4. TREATMENT  Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after completing two courses of immunosuppressive.  Therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A.
  19. 19. REFERENCES  Anonymous, (2012), What is aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/risk -factors  Anonymous, (2012), Diagnosis of aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics.html  Anonymous, (2013), Aplastic anemia-info, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.bodyandhealth.canada.com  Anonymous, (2005), Causes of aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.childrenhospital.org  David C., (2012), Idiopathic-aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.health.nytimes.com/health/guides.html
  20. 20.  Anonymous, (2008), Aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.uth.tmc.edu/pathology/medic.html  Anonymous, (2012), Statistics of aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.aamds.org  Anonymous, (2012), diagnosis, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aplastic/  Anonymous, (2013), bone marrow biopsy, prevention, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM01819  Anonymous, (2011), CBC, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.aamds.org/about/blood-and-bone-marrow-basics/CBC
  21. 21.  Anonymous, (2013), treatment, prevention, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/aplastic-anemia/DS00322  Anonymous, (2011), treatment, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.aamds.org/about/aplastic-anemia  Ioannou, S., Hatzis, G., Vlahadami, I., Voulgarelis, M.(2010),Aplastic anemia associated with interferon alpha 2a in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 4(268)

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