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Aplastic anemia

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  • 1. APLASTIC ANEMIA
  • 2. CONTENTS
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
  • 4. Figure 1: Bone Marrow
  • 5. CAUSES
  • 6. Figure 2:Epstein Barr virus Figure 3: Parovirus
  • 7. STATISTICS
  • 8. SYMPTOMS
  • 9. Figure 4:Red spots Figure 5:Bruise
  • 10. LAB DIAGNOSIS 1. Complete blood count (CBC) (a) low RBC, WBC, platelets (b) low Hb and Ht level 2. Reticulocyte count COMPONENT NORMAL VALUE MALE FEMALE RBC 4.7 – 6.1 mil cell/mcL 4.2 – 5.4 mil cell/mcL Hemoglobin 13.8 – 17.2 gm/dL 12.1 – 15.1 gm/dL Hematocrit 40.7 – 50.3 36.1 – 44.3 WBC 4500 – 10 000 cell/mcL Platelet 150 000 - 400 000 /mcL Reticulocyte 0.5 – 1.5%
  • 11. 3. Bone marrow test (a) BM aspiration (fluid) (b) BM biopsy (tissue) 4. Antibody test 5. Other test a) Vitamin B12 & folate test b) Liver test & viral test c) X-ray, CT scan d) ultrasound imaging test Figure 6: BM Biopsy
  • 12. TREATMENT 1. Stem cell transplant 2. Immunosuppressant 3. Blood transfusion 4. Bone marrow stimulant 5. Antibiotics & antiviral Figure 7:Blood transfusion
  • 13. PREVENTION Avoid exposure to: a) Insecticide b) Herbicides c) Organic solvents d) Toxic chemical Figure 8: Exposure to herbicides
  • 14. CONCLUSION Aplastic anemia - blood disorder that can be inherited or acquired Serious problem - no enough oxygen supply in body - infection Treatment - medications, stem cell transplant & blood transfusion Patients are advised to: a)Take good rest when needed b)Avoid contact sports c)Be hygienic
  • 15. CASE STUDY 1. Patient’s Detail  46 years old male  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection  Combination treatment of PEG-IFN-a 2a (180 μg, weekly) and ribavirin (1200 mg/day) was commenced for a period of 48 weeks 2. Symptoms  Bleeding tendency  Unexplained fatigue of recent onset
  • 16. 3. Physical Examination  Generalized purpura and bruising, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes  The patient’s liver, spleen and lymph nodes- not enlarged
  • 17. Figure 9: A bone marrow biopsy showing the absence of hematopoietic tissue and its replacement with fat.
  • 18. 4. TREATMENT  Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after completing two courses of immunosuppressive.  Therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A.
  • 19. REFERENCES  Anonymous, (2012), What is aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/risk -factors  Anonymous, (2012), Diagnosis of aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics.html  Anonymous, (2013), Aplastic anemia-info, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.bodyandhealth.canada.com  Anonymous, (2005), Causes of aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.childrenhospital.org  David C., (2012), Idiopathic-aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.health.nytimes.com/health/guides.html
  • 20.  Anonymous, (2008), Aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.uth.tmc.edu/pathology/medic.html  Anonymous, (2012), Statistics of aplastic anemia, Viewed on 8thth February 2013, http://www.aamds.org  Anonymous, (2012), diagnosis, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aplastic/  Anonymous, (2013), bone marrow biopsy, prevention, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM01819  Anonymous, (2011), CBC, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.aamds.org/about/blood-and-bone-marrow-basics/CBC
  • 21.  Anonymous, (2013), treatment, prevention, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/aplastic-anemia/DS00322  Anonymous, (2011), treatment, viewed on 8th February 2013, http://www.aamds.org/about/aplastic-anemia  Ioannou, S., Hatzis, G., Vlahadami, I., Voulgarelis, M.(2010),Aplastic anemia associated with interferon alpha 2a in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 4(268)

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